Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide ESC_PS 2010
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Francesca Notetaker on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ESC_PS 2010 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dr. Whitney in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see INQUIRY INTO LEARNING 1 in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Blueprint Exam 1 – 50 multiple choice item (Clusters 1, 2, 3, 7, 8) Cluster 1 – Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology (modules 12) = 6 MODULE 1: LEARNING AND TEACHING TODAY (2) Students today: o Dramatic Diversity Language – 18% speak language other then English at home Ethnicity – 22% of children are Latino SES – 1 in 5 children live in poverty o Technology High levels of technological literacy Teachers today: o 91% are white o Teacher’s sense of efficacy A teacher’s belief that they can reach difficult students to help them learn Predicts student achievement Grow from real success with students Experience and training are essential No Child Left Behind Act (2002) o All students grades 38 must take standardized tests once per year o Schools must make AYP (Adequate Yearly Progress) Do teachers make a difference? o Teacher – student Relationships Positive relationships are associated with school success o The Cost of Poor Teaching Ineffective teaching has long lasting affects on academic gains Is teaching a science or an art? o Teachers must be: Able to use a range of strategies Flexible and inventive Knowledgeable about their students Differentiated Instruction o Going beyond accommodating learner differences to seeing diversity as an array of strengths on which to build What is good teaching? o New teacher: How am I doing? o Experienced teacher: How are the students doing? Educational Psychology o In the beginning Educators and psychologists observing children in classrooms o Today Research on teaching and learning Child/adolescent development Using research to understand and improve learning o Descriptive Studies Survey results, interview responses, video/audio of classroom interactions o Correlation Studies Ask: what is the relation between two variables? Using research o Experimental studies Random assignment Cause and effect relationships Quasiexperimental studies o SingleSubject experimental design Examines the impact of an intervention o Micro genetic studies Study cognitive processes in the midst of change Scientifically Based Research o NCLB: educational programs and practices receiving federal funds must be based on “scientific research” Systematic observation or experiments Rigorous data analysis procedures Clearly described and repeatable Must be peer reviewed Theories for Teaching o Principle: an established link between two or more factors o Theory: an interrelated set of concepts that is used to explain a body of data and to make predictions about the results of future experiments o Hypothesis: a prediction of what will happen in a research study based on previous research The Research Cycle o Clear hypothesis or questions o Systematic gathering and analyzing data o Improving theories based on results o Asking new questions Supporting Student Learning o 2 groups of variables directly linked to student achievement: Student Personal Factors SocioContextual Factors MODULE 2: RESEARCH AND THEORY IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (5) Type of studies/research Sampling Relationships Cluster 2 –Cognitive Development (modules 36) = 13 MODULE 3: SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF COGNITIVE AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT (3) Development 3 Questions Across Theories o What is the source of development? Nature vs. Nurture Impossible to separate, both are critical o What is the shape of development? Continuity vs. Discontinuity Is process gradual, or in stages? o Timing: Is it too late? Are there critical periods where certain abilities need to develop? ‘Sensitive periods’ may be a better descriptor of when children are especially responsive to certain experiences Pattern of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes that beings at conception and continues through the life span General Principles o People develop at different rates, takes place gradually and relatively orderly, affected by heredity and environment Types of Development: o Physical development Changes in the body Maturation o Personal development Changes in an individual’s personality o Social development Changes in the way an individual relates to others o Cognitive development Changes in thinking Maturation Boys: o Tend to be more popular o More likely to engage in delinquent behavior Girls: o Early maturation not beneficial o Tend to have more emotional difficulties Parts of brain Neurons o Communication mechanisms in the brain Cerebral Cortex o Responsible for complex problem solving and language o Last part of brain to develop Lateralization o The specialization of the two sides, or hemispheres, of the brain MODULE 4: PIAGETIAN, INFORMATION PROCESSING, AND NEUROSCIENCE PERSPECTIVES (8) Piaget main concept & application Cognitive skills change because people are constantly trying to make sense of the world Changes are influenced by: o Maturation Biological changes o Activity Act on environment o Social experiences Learning from others o Equilibration Basic tendencies in Thinking: o Organization: ongoing process of combining, arranging, recombining, and rearranging of behaviors and thoughts into coherent systems or categories o Schemes: organized systems of actions or thought that allow us to mentally represent or “think about” the objects and events in our world o Adaptation: adjusting to the environment o Assimilation: incorporating information into existing schemes o Accommodation: changing existing schemes o Equilibration: organizing, assimilating, and accommodating can be viewed as a kind of complex balancing act Piaget stages & application 4 Stages of Cognitive Development o Sensorimotor (02 years) Imitation, memory, and thought develop Recognize object permanence Beginning of goaldirected actions o Preoperational (27 years) Language acquisition and use Symbolic thinking Logical reasoning Egocentric o Concrete Operations (711 years) Solve logical problems through manipulation Laws of conservation Understand reversibility o Formal Operations (11adult) Abstract thinking Scientific reasoning (logicomathmatical) Social, multilayered, complex thinking MODULE 5: VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE (4) Vygotsky main points & application Sociocultural Theory o Human activities take place in social setting and cannot be understood apart from these settings o Social interactions create our cognitive structures and thinking processes 3 Main Influences on Cognitive Perspective o Social sources of individual thought Knowledge is coconstructed through shared activities The coconstructed ideas are then internalized o Cultural tools Material (physical) o Zone of Proximal Development Area where the child cannot solve a problem alone, but can be successful under adult guidance or in collaboration with a more advanced peer Scaffolding Understanding the students’ needs, giving information, prompts, reminders, and encouragement at the right time and in the right amounts, and then gradually allowing the student to do more and more on their own ZPD & application Cluster 3 – The Self, Social, and Moral Development (modules 710) =8 MODULE 7: PHYSICAL GROWTH AS A CONTEXT FOR PERSONAL/SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (1) Preschool children: o Rapid development of gross motor (large muscle) and fine motor skills Elementary School Years o Development is steady o Girls are often ahead of boys in height and weight Adolescence o Puberty Physical Development: o Recess Play supports brain, language, and social development MODULE 8: THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF DEVELOPMENT (2) Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model of Development Development is heavily influenced by interacting systems o Microsystem: immediate relationships and activities Parents, teachers, peers o Mesosystem: relationships among microsystems Parents interacting with teachers o Exosystem: social settings Communities o Macrosystem: culture Parenting styles Authoritarian o Controlling, often do not allow children agency, not abusive but not openly affectionate Authoritative o Clear limitations/expectations and clearly enforced rules, but also affectionate Permissive o No clear limitations/expectations and not clearly enforced rules, but highly affectionate Rejecting/Neglecting o No clear limitations/expectations, no affection and little attention MODULE 9: IDENTITY AND SELFCONCEPT (3) Overview/ main points of Erikson’s theory Connect personal development to social development 8 life stages, each with a developmental crisis o Trust vs. Mistrust o Autonomy vs. Shame o Initiative vs. Guilt o Industry vs. Inferiority o Identity vs. Role Confusion o Intimacy vs. Isolation o Generality vs. Stagnation o Integrity vs. Despair Selfconcept Individuals’ knowledge and beliefs about themselves Their ideas, feelings, attitudes, and expectations A cognitive structure Becomes increasingly complex as we mature Evolves through selfreflection, social interaction, and experiences Selfesteem Evaluation of selfworth An affective structure MODULE 10: UNDERSTANDING OTHERS AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT (2) Kohlberg’s stages 3 Levels: o Preconventional Judgments are based on selfinterest o Conventional Judgments are based on traditional family values and social expectations o Postconventional Judgements are based on more abstract and personal ethical principles Moral reasoning Influences on Moral Behavior: o Adult control through: Direct instruction Supervision Rewards and punishments Correction Modeling o Media o Peers Cluster 7 – Behavioral Views of Learning (modules 2021) =12 MODULE 20: BEHAVIORAL EXPLANATIONS OF LEARNING (6) Application of classical conditioning Classical Conditioning o Focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses such as fear, increased muscle tension, salvation, or sweating o Neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response o Eventually, neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus leading to a conditioned response Reinforcement punishment Reinforcement always increases a desired behavior Positive adds reinforcement, negative removes a reinforcement Positive Reinforcement o Increases a behavior by adding a desired consequence Negative Reinforcement o Increases a behavior by removing an undesired consequence Punishment always decreases an undesired behavior o Presentation Punishment – suppresses a behavior by removing a desired consequence o Removal Punishment – suppresses a behavior by removing a desired consequence MODULE 21: POSSIBILITIES AND CAUTIONS IN APPLYING BEHAVIORAL THEORIES (5) Premack Principle High – frequency behavior (a preferred activity) can be an effective reinforce for a lowfrequency behavior (a lesspreferred activity) Shaping, reprimand Involves reinforcing progress instead of waiting for perfection, useful for building complex skills, working toward difficult goals, and increasing persistence, endurance, accuracy, or speed Bandura Social Learning Theory Cluster 8 – Cognitive Views of Learning (modules 2223) = 11 MODULE 22: THE BASICS OF THE COGNITIVE SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE (6) Cognitive approach to learning Knowledge is learned, changes in knowledge makes changes in behavior possible Individual brings internal knowledge to learning situation Reinforcement as a source of feedback Cognitive processes Memory strategies Information Processing Theory Sensory Memory o The initial processing from the 5 senses, very large capacity, duration between 13 seconds Working Memory o Workbench of the memory system, capacity of 59 items o Cognitive Load The amount of mental resources required to complete a task o Intrinsic Cognitive Load The load required to complete the task itself o Extrinsic Cognitive Load The amount of mental resources needed to complete tasks irrelevant to original task o Germane Cognitive Load Deep knowledge, including connecting information to old information and activation o Maintenance rehearsal Repeating the information in your phonological loop or refreshing information in your visuospatial sketchpad o Elaborative Rehearsal Connecting the information you are trying to remember with something you already know (with knowledge from long term memory) o Chunking Grouping individual bits of information MODULE 23: LONGTERM MEMORY (5) Type of knowledge Type of memory Declarative knowledge o Knowledge that can be declared, usually in words or other symbols Procedural knowledge o “knowing how” to do something Selfregulatory knowledge o “knowing when and why” to apply your declarative and procedural knowledge Explicit memories o Knowledge from memory that is recalled and consciously considered Implicit memories o Knowledge that we are not aware of recalling Semantic memory o Memory for meaning Memory strategies Organization o Ordered and logical networks of relations Elaboration o Adding and extending meaning by connecting new information to old Context o The physical or emotional backdrop associated with an event Levels of Processing Theory o The amount of time information will remain in memory is directly related to the level or analysis and connection to other information
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