BISC Midterm Study Guide
BISC Midterm Study Guide 1005-11
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Charlene Scavone on Saturday October 11, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 1005-11 at George Washington University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Biology of Nutrition & Health in Biosystem Engineering at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/11/14
Biology of Nutrition and Health Midterm Study Guide The Biological Hierarchy small things atoms to molecules are combined into larger things each level represents new complexity atoms cells tissues organs organ systems organisms Characteristics of Life evolution usesproduces energy responds to extemal stimuli maintains its intemal environment homeostasis reproduces has DNA grows and develops cellbased Scienti c Method the general approach to how scienti c experimentation is formed hypothesis prediction theory all but fact eg Theory of Gravity Common Characteristics of Cells size limitation surface area vs volume necessary to maintain homeostasis makes it so these cells are very small all cells have a phospholipidcholesterol barrier called the cell membrane all cells prokaryotic or eukaryotic contain DNA and ribosomes all cells contain cytosol what the DNAorganelles oat in Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells prokaryotic cells are much less complicated do not have a nucleus eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and are certain structures are given certain tasks organelles Eukaryotic Division of Labor protein production RNA in the nucleus determines what proteins will be produced This RNA leaves the nucleus and meets up with a ribosome in the cytosol this goes to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum where the protein is actually made budding transport vesticles take these proteins to the golgi where they are sorted and then sent where they are needed cytosol plasma membrane organelles or even outside of the cell lipid production lipids are manufactured in the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum they are taken by the transport vesticles to the golgi where they are sorted and sent out ATP production cellular respiration ATP is energy the mitochondria produce ATP from glucose recycling and waste management lysosomes digest old material and repurpose it also determines which waste to expel infrastructure cytoskeleton microtubules tubes intermediate filaments ropes microfilaments threads microfilaments enable cell crawling phagocytosis cilia and agella enable cell locomotion Chemical Properties of Life molecules are the basis for all macromolecules hydrocarbons hydrogen carbon bundles of macromolecules together are polymers the bundles are made up of monomers dehydration synthesis is how these are built remove water to link them together hydrolysis is how these are taken apart adding water to remove bonds carbohydrates quick energy sugar starch fiber hard to digest adds bulk and cleans out our digestive system proteins the sequence of the amino acids determines shape and therefore function eight essential amino acids histidine isoleucine leucine lysine methionine phenylaline threonine tryptophan valine nucleic acids nucleotides involved in heredity DNA and protein production RNA lipids fatty acids triglycerides or phospholipids sterols cholesterol vitamins water soluble or fat soluble minerals essential elements in small amounts Strategies for Growth photoautotroph makes energy from sunlight chemoautotroph makes energy from chemicals photoheterotroph makes energy from sunlight and other sources plants chemoheterotroph makes energy from chemical digestion animals us Digestion enzymatic reactions enzymes speed up chemical reactions and help break down substances during digestion substrate reactants active site area of the enzyme that the substrate fits into pH high pH can denature proteins stomach acid HCl mechanically mastication chewing digestive system mouth esophagus movement Via peristalsis stomachproduces pepsin enzyme small intestine largest percent of nutrients stored here liver produces bile to digest fat stored in gall bladder pancreas produces enzymes cilia brush border large intestine water absorption Vitamin production by bacteria excretion Restricting Passage Cell Membrane plasma membrane bilayer of phospholipids selective permeability small molecules can diffuse across the membrane diffusion the crossing of water molecules across a membrane osmosis crossing of solute to an area of lower solute concentration facilitated diffusion use of ATP in diffusion channel proteins carrier proteins active transport carrier proteins uses energy exocytosis use of transport Vesticles within the cell to excrete large substances endocytosis use of transport Vesticles to bring large substances in pinocytosis cell drinking cell takes on more water phagocytosis engulfing smaller substances commonly used in defense receptormediated endocytosis receptors bring in substances such as cholesterol or hormones depending on the shape of the substance and receptor the endocrine system relies on receptormediated endocytosis What Do We Do With These Nutrients energysugar cells are made and replenished cell interactions extracellular matrix cell junctions tissues epithelial barrier skin muscle consciously controlled smooth nervous connective these nutrients are used to moderate homeostasis there are set points for different systems determined by genetics monitors sense changes in these set points and effectors fix them if necessary signaling hydrophilic molecules talk to the cell hydrophobic molecules affect the cell intemally therrnoregulation the control of our body temperature osmoregulation the regulation of our intemal uids Medical Issues lysosomal storage disease acid re ux food sensitivity certain foods trigger unpleasant reactions food intolerance certain foods trigger unpleasant reactions but not immunebased food allergy the presence of an allergen triggers the production of the antibody immunoglobinE triggering the production of histamine autoimmune diseases celiac disease the presence of gluten protein complex found in wheat triggers an immune response that destroys the cilia of the small intestine diabetes the immune system destroys pancreatic cells leaving the pancreas unable to manufacture insulin heart disease genetic conditions or a poor diet cause a buildup of cholesterol within the arteries that stick to the arterial walls and form plaque Food Labels fats carbs total carbohydrates adding the dietary fiber and sugar will give you a total less than the written total the difference is the amount of starch in the item protein protein and carbs have 4 calories per gram lipids have 9 energy drinks and supplements can have too many vitamins and minerals
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