Study Guide for Midterm I
Study Guide for Midterm I 1381
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Aceves on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1381 at University of Houston taught by Sandra Zalman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Art and Society: Renaissance to Modern in Art History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Art History 1381 Midterm I Study Guide Terms: ● Fresco: style of painting done very rapidly in watercolor on wet plaster (usually done onto a wall or ceiling). ○ This style was more common in the South during the Renaissance (primarily in Italy). Since the plaster dried quickly, these paintings had to be painted in patches. ● Humanism: idea of the human experience, emphasis on education and expanding knowledge ○ a shift way from religion and the “spiritual” world ○ an extremely important concept during the Renaissance, as it was a rebirth of art and culture, and a new focus on the individual experience ● Chiaroscuro: gentleshading ○ creates a 3dimension result ○ present in earlyrenaissance paintings such as Leonardo’s Madonna and Child, and Mona Lisa ● Linear perspective: form of perspective where all parallel lines converge to the same point (referred to as the vanishing point) ○ this gives an illusion of naturalism, depth, and distance ○ first seen during the Italian Renaissance ○ seen in paintings such as “The Tribute Money” and “Expulsion of Adam and Eve” both by Massacio, as well as “The Last Super” by Leonardo Da Vinci ● Reformation: Refers to the Protestant Reformation occurring in 1517 in W Europe ○ was a divide in Christianity between Protestants and Roman Catholics ○ Protestants began to view religious images as idolatrous and rejected all religious paintings and sculptures from their churches ● CounterReformation: in response to the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church tries to counterreform ○ because of this, the Catholic Church began to commission paintings that showed off the catholic church ■ paintings such as the “Last Judgment” by Michelangelo ■ paintings during this era began to highlight the stark differences between the Catholics and the Protestants → such as the Virgin Mary, and the saints with the sole purpose of revitalizing Catholics and diminishing those who converted to Protestantism ■ a lot of grand, luxurious and inspirational paintings and sculptures came around during this time in the efforts of the Catholic Church to remind people of the important role of the Catholic Church ● Tenebrism: light paired right next to dark ○ also referred to as “spotlight effect”, adds drama to paintings ○ dramatic contrasts between light and dark, usually by a dramatic form of illumination ○ seen as chiaroscuro to the extreme ○ this technique was first introduced by Italian painter Caravaggio, and influenced later painters to come ● History painting: shows ignifica human action ○ were usually paintings that told some kind of biblical or religious story ○ most paintings during the Italian Renaissance were interested in this ○ but could also be mythological, allegorical, or historical scenes ○ as opposed to genre paintings which depict everyday life ● NeoClassicism: movement that drew inspiration from the classical art of Ancient Roman or Greek times ○ grew as a response against Rococo (seen as indulgent and shallow) ○ art often had order, proportion, and political messages ○ often serious and heroic paintings and sculpture ○ grew largely during the French Revolution ○ some artists during this movement include Raphael and Poussin ● Allegory: a symbol that contains a meaning not explicitly stated in the piece ○ an example is Gentileschi’s self portrait where she painted herself as the allegory of painting ■ she does this by including allegories of unruly locks of hair that symbolize creative frenzy, painting in a golden chain with a mask symbolizing the imitation that painters take on ○ another example is the painting “Woman Holding a Balance” by Vermeer ■ where the allegory of justice is depicted as a woman holding an empty balance, with her eyes closed (because justice is blind), and with the “Last Judgment” painting behind her Works: ● “Lamentation” Giotto ● Giotto thought to be the “first Renaissance painter” ● pursued naturalistic appro to represent based on observation ● stressed the preeminence of sight for gaining knowledge of world ○ 1305 ○ Fresco ○ Padua, Italy (Southern Renaissance) ○ bold use of foreshortening ○ some figures have their back facing us ■ represent an innovation in the development away from the formal style ○ broad spectrum of grief ■ congregation mourns over the dead body of their savior ■ Mary’s fierce despair ■ passionate outburst of Mary Magdalene ○ use of light + shading ■ shaded figures to indicate both the direction of light that illuminates them and the shadows ■ they all have a light from the top that leads to shadows near the bottom ● this was the starting place hiaroscuro development ○ stagelike settings ■ shallow stage where all characters are crammed in ■ bounded by thick diagonal rock incline that defines a horizontal ledge in the foreground ■ this ledge provides visual support for the figures ■ steep slope indicates dramatic focal point at lower left ■ this strong diagonal and single tree concentrates the eye on the group around the head of Christ ■ Giotto shows a good depiction of spatial depth ○ each group has its own definition, contributing to rhythmic order of composition ○ this style broke away from the previous isolated episodes, such compositional complexity and emotional resonance had not been attempted before ● “Arnolfini Double Portrait Jan Van Eyck ○ 1434 ○ Northern Painting ○ oil on wood, rich, color ○ “Arnolfini and his bride” depicted taking marriage vows ○ purely secular painting but w/religious overtones ○ almost every object portrayed conveys the sanctity of the event (specifically the holiness of the matrimony) ○ dog at bottom of painting symbolizes fidelity, curtains of marriage bed are opened, single candle represents the all seeing eye of God ○ extremely detailed, textures and light ○ inscription above mirror says “Jan Van Eyck was here” → signing himself as a witness ○ convex mirror shows two other men (possible witnesses) ■ self portrait of Van Eyck in mirror ○ small medallions set into the mirror frame show tiny scenes from the passion of Christ and represent God’s promise of salvation for the figures reflected in the mirror ○ Saint Margaret (of childbirth) figurine on the bed post ○ fruit on windowsill also represents fertility ○ shoes on the floor represent them standing on holy ground ● “Merode Altarpiece” Robert Campin ○ 14241428 ○ Oil ○ Northern Europe Painting ○ private commission for household prayer ○ took place in “flemish life” → you can tell by the castle in the window ■ presented religious scenes in familiar settings ○ a lot of religious symbols ○ Virgin’s purity shown by lilies on table, water basin, towels, fire screen, etc ○ mousetrap in corner could possibly symbolize how “Christ is bait set in the trap of the world to catch the devil” ○ the closed garden is also symbolic of Mary’s purity ○ Donor Portrait: individuals who commissioned the work are included in the painting ■ the last name of one of the guys means “Angel Brought”, and the wife’s name meant “cabinetmaker” referring to the workshop scene ● “Holy Trinity” Masaccio ○ 14241427 ○ fresco ○ Florence (Italy Southern Painting) ○ depiction of God, Jesus, and Holy Spirit (as the dove) ○ patrons (donors) are depicted on the bottom outside ○ depiction of grave w/skeleton on the bottom ■ that reads “I was once what you are and what I am you will become” ■ basically “we are all going to die, so look up to God” ○ using perspective, vanishing poin skeleton below (depicting reality)and God above (spiritual → salvation) ○ conveys the despair of death (below) and leads up to the hope of resurrection ● “Deposition” Rogier van der Weyden ○ 1435 ○ Belgium ○ oil ○ the removal of Jesus from cross ○ John’s eyes are puffy/red to show his grief ○ Jesus’s hands are bleeding ○ Jesus + Mary have similar arms/body (when Mary faints) ■ “archer’s bow”? ■ this creates unity in the composition ● this is also done by having two groups of three who are standing in both corners ○ incorporated crossbow into decorative corners acknowledging the comissioner ○ very shallow stage ■ expressed minimum action w/in limited space ○ Van der Weyden wants us to get the emotion, while Giotto wanted us to get the narrative ■ passionate sorrow ○ depiction of pain and suffe → fears on Mary Magdalene's eyes → shows real emotion ■ something not often seen in religious paintings ■ Weyden wanted the viewer to feel the same emotions ● “The Last Supper” Leonardo Da Vinci ○ 1495 ○ oil + tempera on plaster ○ Milan ○ shows the moment where Jesus says “one of you is about to betray me” ○ Christ appears isolated from the disciples ■ and there is a window and light that surrounds his head (as a more naturalistic halo) ○ Christ’s head is the focal point of all converging perspective lines in the composition ○ disciples are presented in four groups of three ■ creates a composition of unity among the agitated chaos ○ Judas isn’t on the other side of the table like before ■ he is incorporated into the scene (it is harder to tell who he is) ■ his face is in shadow ■ clutches a money bag in one hand ○ more emotional scene (harder to find judas) ■ the energy seems to be more dramatic as you move in closer to Jesus ● as if it is contained within the painting ○ background fades ● “David” Michelangelo ○ 1501 ○ Florence ○ Statue of David efore he killed Goliath ○ more manly, looks older (not a boy) ○ looks contemplative, worried ■ David is looking away as if foreseeing what is to come ■ causes the statue to not be contained only within that space but extends it further out ○ body is tense → shows his strength ■ swelling veins, hand clutching a rock ○ praises the human body ■ classical influence of naked GrecoRoman statues ○ Donatello’s David was the first naked depiction of a sculpture, but this was after he killed Goliath, and showed him as a little boy ● “Sistine Chapel” Michelangelo ○ 15081512 ○ fresco painting ○ starts from “separation of light and dark” to the “drunkenness of noah” (on the ceiling) ○ the altar on the back wall is of the “Last Judgment” which meets the separation of light and dark” on ceiling ○ Michelangelo painted the architectural arches on the ceiling ○ the ingenuity: the extra nude people around each segment of painting ■ this is where Michelangelo was able to show off his skills in sculpting as he contorted the bodies by painting them in strange positions, pushing on the limits of what the body can do ● “Last Judgment” Michelangelo ○ 15361541 ○ there had been a split in the Catholic Church (the beginning of the Protestantism) ■ Catholic church tries to counterreform ■ Discovery of hellenistic sculpture (Laocoon greek original) which shows a father + his two sons being eaten (fighting) by a snake → shows anguish and strain in sculpture (something that hadn’t really been seen before in a sculpture) ■ this newfound sculpture influenced Michelangelo's Last Judgment painting ○ this painting shows a lot of c between both bad and good sides ○ Christ depicted as stern judge of the world ■ heaven around him, figures ascending up ○ on left, dead awake and become flesh ○ on right, demons and burning fire torment the damned ○ he does a selfportrait of himself in the skin Bartholomew (who was skinned alive) is holding ● avid” Bernini ○ 1623 ○ not nude (has clothes on) ○ extremely dynamic sculpture ○ in the middle of action ■ as he is about to launch the stone ■ chose to not depict David after killing goliath like donatello did, or before like michelangelo, but during ○ looks determined ■ concentrated/focused ■ extreme tension in David’s face ○ shows maturity/older (shown by his armpit hair) ● “The Ecstasy of St. Teresa” Bernini ○ 1645 ○ mixture of different materials → to convey spiritual + physical ○ use of natural light (with a hidden window) ■ represents a holy divine light ○ Bernini manages to capture the moment where St Teresa is filled with this holy passion in the shape he places her body in (her head is thrown back, her mouth slightly open, and her eyes half closed) ○ Even though Teresa is completely covered, Bernini brilliantly uses the drapery to further emphasize this extreme passion she is experiencing ■ the folds in the drapery also create deep shadows as the light from above moves throughout the day ■ the draper of Teresa is contrasted with the drapery of the angel that hugs and clings to her body ● “Calling of St. Matthew” Caravaggio ○ 1601 ○ history religious painting ■ combines both genre and history ○ but setting is in a bar ○ highly dramatic ○ tenebrism a dds drama ■ spotlight effect (light right next to dark) ■ piercing ray of light illuminates the darkness ○ Jesus is hidden in shadows (faint halo over his head) ■ his hand recalls a combination of God’s hand and Adam’s hand in the Creation of Adam ● this was appropriate because the church considered christ to be the second Adam ● since Adam is responsible for the fall of man, Christ is responsible for the redemption of man (thus also bc he was fully God and fully man) ○ unable to spot who Matthew is ○ Caravaggio is thinking about natural light (naturalistic elements) ● “Conversion of St. Paul” Caravaggio ○ 1601 ○ Cesari Chapel ○ depicted the moment of conversion ○ use of chiaroscuro to the max → tenebrism to bring viewer closer to the scene ○ low horizon increases the sense of inclusion into the scene ○ naturalism ○ Paul is oreshortened ○ powerful bodies and strong contours ○ strengths are dynamic compositions ○ spotlight effec eightens the drama ○ tenebrism (DIVINE LIGHT!!) → first time being used ■ God is no longer portrayed as a figure but implied as a light ○ DRAMA (huge horse, possibility of Paul being stepped on) ○ God is only implied in this by Paul’s gesture (his hands stretched upwards) & with the use of light → New Naturalism ○ Paul depicted as young boy (more potential?) ● “Raising of the Cross” Rubens ○ 1610 ○ influence of Michelangelo → human bodies ○ uses subject as opportunity to show foreshortened anatomy and contortions of violent action ○ strong modeling in dark and light heightens drama ○ Christ is placed on cross as a diagonal that cuts dynamically across the painting while inclining back into it ○ power of painting originates from human exertion of energy ○ tension is also emotional → reflected in faces of Christ and his followers ○ very dynamic, strong, directional force that leads eye to Jesus ○ cuts out background from sketch to real painting → adds tenebrism to the back ■ more drama, tension ○ raises the angle of Jesus to forefront ● “SelfPortrait as the Allegory of Painting” Artemisia Gentileschi ○ 1630 ○ no background, t enebrism, fancy clothes ○ allegory of the act of painting ■ golden chain w/mask = imitation ■ unruly locks of hair = ivine frenzy ■ drapery = garments w/changing color to show skill ○ she is painting the same painting (shows she isn’t demeaning herself by painting) ● “Las Meninas” Velazquez ○ “The Maids of Honor” ○ little girl is the daughter of King Philip IV ○ the king is reflected in the mirror ■ Velasquez is thus showing his status by painting himself in the presence of the king ● even if it is just by painting the King and Queen in a mirror ● thus this could also symbolize not the literal presence of the King or Queen there, but could also be a representation that merely refers to them being the primary audience of this painting nevertheless it is a bold step in creating a selfportrait in the presence of the King ● the use of the mirror is reminiscent of Van Eyck’s mirror in Arnolfini Portrait ○ Velasquez also shows his status by showing himself painting, yet by wearing fancy clothes one would normally not paint in ■ he is also looking directly at the viewer, showing he is not ashamed to be working with his hands ■ Velasquez also shows his status by having the keys to the palace attached to his belt and by painting the symbol of Order of Santiago (an exclusive club he had wanted to be a member of) on his chest ○ the use of depth and perception in the painting ■ the use of the mirror lets the viewer know that there is more happening in front of the scene ■ yet the depiction of the open door and stairs leading up near the back of the painting also let the viewer know that there is more happening behind the scene → the space is not contained within the painting ○ perplexity of what is happening in this painting ■ Velasquez might be painting a portrait of the Infanta ■ but more likely he is painting a portrait of the royal couple, and the Infanta has come to watch ● “View of Delft” Vermeer ○ painting is divided into the quay, the water, the town, and the sky ○ dramatic morning sky ○ view is from an elevated position, looking down at the water ○ pointillistic technique used for the water to show reflections ○ the use of light as sunshine adds depth and 3dimensionality to the painting as it highlights the roofs and creates stark shadows and reflections below them and onto the water ○ extremely naturalistic to the point where it looks like a photograph ○ extreme detailing seen on the small bodies on the left of the painting, down the ripples in the water, and the architecture of the buildings ○ the position of clouds that appear to be cut off at the top of the painting creates depth and allows the reader to see that there is more scenery beyond the painting ○ use of perspective draws the viewer's eye to the center of the painting ● “Woman Holding a Balance” Vermeer ○ a hidden light source ■ window is blocked off from the scene yet the light allows the viewer to imagine the larger presence of a window ○ allegory of justice ■ her eyes are closed, showing how justice is blind ■ she is holding a balance in her hand with nothing on it ● shows how justice in equilibrium for the moment, and she, the allegory, sets that equilibrium ■ there is a painting of the Last Judgment behind her, an illustration of how Jesus is the final judge ○ quintessentially Dutch ■ has a moving perspective ■ typically genre paintings (for the sole reason that most paintings were sold to the middle class and were not commissioned works) ○ the pearls and gold that lie on the table create a contrast between the earthly things and the spiritual things (shown by the religious painting of the last judgment) ■ this shows how justice constantly has to be a battle between the two ● “The Night Watch” Rembrandt ○ use of dramatic light ■ men appear to be coming from a dark space into illumination ○ darkness of the painting is due a lot to the varnish used that darkened over time ○ captures excitement and frenetic activity of the men preparing for the parade ■ shows men ready for action at any moment ○ key figures in the painting are the two officers in the center, and the small girl to the right who is fully illuminated ■ small girl has a chicken attached to her belt by its claws, referring to the clauweniers ○ Dutch painting ■ perception of motion shown in this painting is a common theme in dutch paintings ● “Louis XIV” Hyacinthe Rigaud ○ king looks out at viewer with directness ■ even looks down at the viewer a bit ○ he stands with his left hand on his hip ○ his robe has the fleurdelis signs→ clearly showing he is the king of France ○ his legs are exposed ■ he was a dancer and proud of his welltoned legs ○ also shows off his shoes ■ which he designed ● “The Swing” Fragonard ○ quintessential of the Rococo era ■ scene of indulgence and frivolity, carefree passion and love ○ the setting of a garden, beautiful flowers, and a soft beam of sunshine further emphasize the love and passionate abandon that is depicted in this painting ○ husband is the one pulling the swing up with the rope, which his wife is on ○ yet, while he does, in the bushes is her “lover”, looking up her dress as she swings up on the swing ○ she also throws off her shoe in the direction of the small cupid which is shushing (has his finger pressed to his lips) ○ setting resembles a stage scene ○ sensuality of the painting emphasized by the soft lighting and shadows ○ no moral code is scene in this painting ■ this act of “cheating” if anything, is depicted as fun and joyful ● “Oath of Horatii” David ○ depicts a story from prerepublican rome, the heroic phase of roman history ○ this painting shows the Horatii as they swear on their swords, held high by their father, to win or die for Rome, oblivious to the anguish and sorrow of their female relatives ○ narrative of patriotism and sacrifice ○ image is presented with clarity and force ○ scene depicted in shallow space much like a stagesetting ○ he displays figures close to the foreground, in a manner reminiscent of ancient relief sculpture ○ rigid and angular forms of men on the left contrast with the soft curvilinear shapes of the distraught women on the right ■ contrasting the reason, courage, and patriotism of men with the emotional love, sorrow, and despair of women ○ this painting became a revolutionary statement the semi official voice of the french revolution ● “Death of Marat” David ○ depicted the martyred revolutionary after Charlotte Corday stabbed him to death in his bath ○ David presented the scene with directness and clarity ○ cold neutral space above Marat’s figure slumped in the tub produces a chilling oppressiveness ○ narrative details in the painting ■ the knife, wound, blood, and letter ■ in order to sharpen the sense of pain and outrage ■ and to show the reality of death to the viewer ○ yet David presents Marat as a tragic martyr who died in the service of the revolution ■ he based the figure of Marat on Christ in Michelangelo’s Pieta ■ this reference to Christ’s martyrdom increased the power of this painting
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