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Exam 1

by: Kasandi Mulaa

Exam 1 PSYC 2012 Social Psychology

Kasandi Mulaa

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Hey guys! I take Social Psychology at the University of Pittsburgh and I have taken Notes for the First Exam!
Social Psychology
Study Guide
social psychology, PSY 0105
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kasandi Mulaa on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2012 Social Psychology at a university taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views.

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Date Created: 09/30/15
Social Psychology by Kasandi Mulaa   Chapter 1: Introducing Social Psychology v Major Concepts • Social Psychology: The Scientific Study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another • Culture: the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitting from one generation to the next • Social Representations: A society’s widely held ideas and values, including assumptions and cultural ideologies. Our social representations help us make sense of our world • Hindsight Bias: The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one’s ability to have foreseen how something turned out • Theory: An integrates set of principles that explain and predict observes events • Hypothesis: A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events • Field Research: Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory • Correlational Research: The study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables • Experimental Research: Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (IV) while controlling others (DV) • Random Sample: One in which every person in the population being studies has an equal chance of inclusion • Framing: The way a question or an issue is presented or posed. It can influence our decisions and expressed opinions • Independent Variable: The experiment factor a researcher manipulates • Dependent Variable: The variable being measured due to the fact that it may depend on manipulations of the independent variables • Random Assignment: Each person has an equal chance of being in the experimental or controlled condition • Mundane Realism: The degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations • Experimental Realism: The degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants • Deception: An effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study’s methods and purposes • Demand Characteristics: Cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected • Informed Consent: An ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate • Debriefing: The post experimental explanation of the study ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- v What is Social Psychology • Social Psychology is a science that studies the influences of our situations, with special attention to how we view and affect one another ‘ • It focuses more on individuals and does more experimentation • It focuses less on differences and more on how those individuals view and affect one another in general • Ex.) o Happy couples will attribute their spouses angry comment to something external while Unhappy couples will attribute the comment to a mean disposition à While expecting hostility from their spouse they may behave more resentfully and therefore elicit the hostility they expect o This has to do with how people view and affect one another o Social psychologists study attitudes and beliefs, conformity and independence, love and hate v What are Social Psychology’s big ideas? • Sociology builds on concepts such as social structure and organization • We Construct our own Reality o Humans have an irresistible urge to explain behavior and then attribute it to some cause in order to make it seem more orderly, predictable, and controllable o There is an objective reality out there, but we always view it through the lens of our beliefs and values o We tend to explain other people’s behaviors with enough speed and accuracy to suit our daily needs o When someone’s behavior is consistent and distinctive we attribute it to his or her personality • Our Social intuitions are often powerful but sometimes perilous o Our instant intuitions shape out fears, impressions, and relationships o Thinking, memory, and attitudes all operate on two levels: -­‐Conscious & Deliberate -­‐Unconscious & Automatic o We think on two levels: -­‐Intuitive -­‐Deliberate o Intuition is huge and perilous o We misread our own minds and we often mispredict out own future o Our intuitions and unconscious information processing are routinely powerful and sometimes perilous • Social Influences Shape our Behavior o We are social beings and we speak and think in words we learned from others o We aim to connect and belong because relationships are a big part of being human o As social creatures, we respond to out immediate contexts o The power of a situation may lead us to act contrary to out expressed attitudes -­‐Nazi influence made decent people turn into cruel leaders of the Holocaust o Our situations matter and our cultures help to define those situations -­‐Whether you prefer a slim or a voluptuous body depends on when and where in the world you live • Personal Attitudes and Dispositions Also Shape Behavior o Our inner attitudes affect our behavior -­‐Our attitudes towards the poor influence out willingness to help them o Personality dispositions also affect behavior • Social Behavior is Biologically Rooted o Many of our social behaviors reflect deep biological wisdom o Biology and experience create us o Our inherited human nature predisposes us to behave in ways that helped out ancestors survive and reproduce o We carry the genes of those whose traits enables them and their children to survive and reproduce o Our behavior aims to send our DNA into the future o Nature also endows us with an enormous capacity to learn and to adapt to varied environments o We are sensitive and respond to our social contexts o If every psychological event is simultaneously a biological event, then we can also examine the neurobiology that underlies social behavior o Mind and body are one grand system o Social support strengthens the disease-fighting immune system o We reflect the interplay of our biological, psychological, and social influences • Social Psychology’s Principles Are Applicable in Everyday Life o Social psychology has the potential to illuminate your life, to make visible the subtle influences that guide your thinking and acting o It also offers many ideas about how to know ourselves better and how to win friends and influence people o Social Psychology is all about your life, beliefs, attitudes, and relationships • Obvious Ways Values Enter Psychology o Values enter the picture when social psychologists choose research topics. These choices usually reflect social history o Susan Fiske suggest that we can expect future research to reflect todays and tomorrows issues, including immigration, income inequality, and aging o Values differ not only across time but also across cultures o Values also influence the types of people who are attracted to various disciplines o Social Psychologists investigate how values form, why they change, and how they influence attitudes and actions. However, none of this tells us which values are “right” • Not-So-Obvious Ways Values Enter Psychology o We view the world through the lens of our perceptions o Your mind blocks from awareness something that is there, if only you were predisposed to perceive it o This tendency to prejudge reality based on our expectations is a basic fact about the human mind o Our social representations are often our most important yet most unexamined convictions o Values influence our idea of how best to live. They lie hidden within our cultural definitions of mental health, our psychological advice for living, our concepts, and our psychological labels o Scientific interpretation is a human activity o Prior beliefs and values will influence what social psychologists think and write o By constantly checking our beliefs against the facts, we restrain our biases o Systematic observation and experimentation help us clean the lens through which we see reality v I Knew It All Along: Is Social Psychology Simply Common Sense? • Two Criticisms of Social Psychology: o It is trivial because it documents the obvious o It is dangerous because its findings could be used to manipulate people • One problem with common sense is that we invoke it after we know the facts • Events are far more obvious and predictable in hindsight than beforehand • In everyday life we do not expect something to happen until it does • We may also misremember out earlier view • Errors in judging the future’s foreseeability and in remembering our past combine to create hindsight bias à I knew it all along phenomenon -­‐ It is conducive to arrogance and overestimation of our own intellectual powers -­‐ We forget that what is obvious to us now was not nearly so obvious at the time • “Life is lived forwards but understood backwards” • “Common sense” is often present after you know the results -­‐ Ex.) Opposites attract vs. Birds of a feather flock together -­‐ Ex.) Out of sight out of mind vs. Absence makes the heart grow fonder -­‐ Common sense is right after the fact • We deceive ourselves into thinking that we know and knew more than we do and did v Forming and Testing Hypothesis • A Theory is a scientific short hand o It is an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events o Ex.) When your keys fall to the ground that is a fact. Gravity is the theoretical explanation that accounts for that observed fact o A Theory is an idea (or set of ideas) that summarize and explain facts and imply testable predictions called hypotheses • Facts are agreed upon statement about what we observe • Hypotheses have several jobs o They allow us to test a theory by suggesting how we might try to falsify it o Predictions give directions to research o The predictive feature of good theories can also make them practical • Recipe for a good theory: o Effective summarizes many observations o Makes clear predictions that we can use to confirm or modify the theory, generate new exploration, and suggest practical applications v Correlational Research: Detecting Natural Associations • Research varies by location o Laboratory research: a controlled situation o Field Research: Everyday situations • Research varies by method o Correlational: asking whether two or more factors are naturally associated -­‐ Indicate a relationship, but not one of cause & effect -­‐ It allows us to predict -­‐ It cannot tell us whether changing one variable will cause changes in another -­‐ They quantify with a coefficient known as “r” -­‐ The degree of relationship between two factors ranges from -1 to +1 -­‐ Knowing that two variables change together enables us to predict one when we know the other o Experimental: Manipulating some factor to see its effect on another -­‐ Cause & Effect -­‐ Control and Random Assignment -­‐ One or two factors (IV) are varied -­‐ Ex.) Controlling the amount of violence children see. By exposing children to violent and nonviolent programs, researchers observed how the amount of violence shapes behavior à The viewers committed seven times as many aggressive acts as the non viewers -­‐ The observed aggressive acts were the independent variables -­‐ We manipulate one or more independent variables while trying to hold everything else constant -­‐ Random Assignment gives researchers confidence because it randomly assigns people to the control condition or the experimental condition. People have an equal chance of being in either -­‐ It eliminates all extraneous factors -­‐ The experiment should have experimental realism and not mundane realism -­‐ To minimize demand characteristics like cues that seem to demands certain behavior, researchers standardize their instructions o Survey -­‐ If survey researchers want to describe a while population then they will obtain a representative group by taking a random sample -­‐ Polls do not predict voting, but they do describe public opinion at the moment they are taken -­‐ To evaluate surveys, we must bear in mind: Unrepresented samples, question order, response options, and question wording -­‐ Order, response, and wording effects enable political manipulators to use surveys to show public support for their views -­‐ The way our choices are framed is important as well • People from various cultures may hold different opinions yet form them in similar ways   v Review           SociScienti▯ic  Study  of:             Social  Thinking:  How  we   Social  In▯luence:  Culture/   Social  Relations:     pewe  Belive/  Judgements    PPersuasion:  Groups  of   Attraction  and  initmacy/    we  make/Our  Attitudes     People   Helping               Social  Psychology's  Principles   are  applicable  to  everyday  life             Our  social  intutions  are  powerful   Social  Behavior  is  also  biological     and  sometimes  dangerous?   behavior/Dispositions  shape     towards  people  are  sometimes     Attitudesshaped  by  behavior    are   bheavior     negative  and  sometimes  positive                 SociScienti▯ic  Study  of:             Social  Thinking:  How  we   Social  In▯luence:  Culture/   Social  Relations:     perceive  ourselves/  What   Pressures  to  Conform/   Prejudice/  Agression/     we  make/Our  Attitudes     Persuasion: People   of   Attraction  anHelping                         l Control  -­‐-­‐>  Non  Violent     TV  -­‐-­‐>  Agression       p   o   e Television  -­‐-­‐>  Agression     P               • What  are  Social  Psychology’s  Big  Ideas?   o Social  Psychology  is  the  scientific  study  of  how  people  think  about,  influence,  and  relate   to  one  another.  Its  central  themes  include:     -­‐ How  we  construe  our  social  worlds   -­‐ How  our  social  intuitions  guide  and  sometimes  deceive  us   -­‐ How  our  social  behavior  is  shaped  by  other  people,  by  our  attitudes  and   personalities,  and  by  our  biology     -­‐ How  social  psychology’s  principles  apply  to  out  everyday  lives  and  to  various   other  fields  of  study     • How  do  human  values  influence  Social  Psychology?     o Social  Psychologists  values  penetrate  their  work  in  obvious  ways,  such  as  their  choice   of  research  topics  and  the  types  of  people  who  are  attracted  to  various  fields  of  study     o We  need  systemic  observation  and  experimentation  if  we  are  to  check  out  cherished   ideas  against  reality     • I  Knew  it  All  Along   o Social  psychology  is  criticized  for  being  trivial  because  it  documents  the  obvious     o Experiments  reveal  that  outcomes  are  more  obvious  after  the  facts  are  known     o Hindsight  bias  makes  people  overconfident  about  the  validity  of  their  judgments  and   predictions       • Research  Methods   o Psychologists  organize  their  ideas  and  findings  into  theories   o Most  research  is  correlation  or  experimental       o Random  Assignment  allows  researchers  to  attribute  any  resulting  differences  between   the  two  conditions  to  the  Independent  Variable     • Correlational     o Advantages   -­‐ Uses  real  world  settings     o Disadvantages     -­‐ Causation  is  often  ambiguous     • Experimental     o Advantages     -­‐ Can  explore  cause  and  effect  by  controlling  variables  and  by  random  assignment     o Disadvantages     -­‐ Some  important  variables  cannot  be  studied  with  experiments    


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