SOCY 100 Exam n 1 Study Guide
SOCY 100 Exam n 1 Study Guide SOCY 101 - 0201
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Stavisky on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 101 - 0201 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Nancy Forsythe in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 166 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Maryland.
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Intro to Sociology Exam N1 Study Guide What is Sociology ? → Why we live according to our environment. This is a concept that’s interestingly difficult for American and college students to understand because of a stubborn Western belief of free will → Sociology focuses on the limits to individuality and free choice, as well associal problems and social inequality Sociology = Observation of social interaction to determine patterns Ex: bservation of classroom behavior → Who sits in the front/back? Factors: eyesight, attention span, anxiety levels, major requirements → Who is more likely to raise their hands Factors: people who are more extraverted, who do the HW → What students do in class is not an expression of their individuality, but an expression of patterned behavior Video: A Radical Experiment in Empathy Sam Richards → Sociology begins with empathy , an understanding of what others are thinking → In order to make the audience empathize with the point of view of current day Iraqis, Richards opens with a hypothetical situation and compares it to current events : → Hypothetical: China gets rich off of American coal, uses it to build great cities, shares wealth with only the elite in America, and then brings in military force to protect wealth while average Americans suffer and attempt to fight back → Current events : Richards then gets us to empathize with an average Iraqi by mentioning common values and wishes, like peace and education for their family. → Says that US interest in Iraq is only because of Iraqi oil and US dependence on foreign oil for its own economic system. While US experiences prosperity (in their eyes, Americans are all Rich w big houses), back home only poverty and despair. Local news and conversation is about America’s global military empire, their occupations and expansions to feed their own economic needs. They see Americans as invaders who believe in a Christian god they don’t want American Christians to die, but they want to kill all Muslims. In Iraq, they know that Americans want to convert Muslims Bush called the war in Iraq a “crusade”. People that American soldiers see as terrorists are in Iraq seen as national heroes. → Conclusion : seeing the other side is the beginning of empathy. Though we don’t have to agree with the other side, in putting ourselves in their shoes we can more easily approach and resolve conflict. Reading: The Sociological Imagination C. Wright Mills C Wright Mills history + biography “C. Wright Mills was born on August 28, 1916, in Waco, Texas. He graduated with his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1941and joined Columbia University’s faculty. He was critical of intellectual sociology and believed sociologists should use their information to advocate for social change. He wrote prolifically on the subject, but died at the age of 45 from heart disease.” Reading: The Sociological Imagination → People feel trapped by their private lives, knowing best only the immediate orbit of their surroundings (i.e jobs, family, etc). The more aware people are of threats transcending their immediate locales, the more trapped they feel → !! However, seemingly impersonal changes in history actually tie and underline the common sense of feeling trapped w/i one’s personal life. Ex: W/ war comes a change in family dynamics (parents take new jobs, children go to war, etc) → “Neither the life of an individual nor the history of a society can be understood without understanding both”. However, most ordinary people make no connection between the two, even though world history affects every individual’s personal life. → To fix sense of entrapment, we need not just info (because too much info is overwhelming), but also the capacity to use info and develop reason to realize the connection b/t what’s going on w/ the world and w/ themselves. This is the sociological imagination. 1 The sociological imagination lets possessor understand the larger historical scene in terms of meaning for inner life of individuals. → Transforms uneasiness with private life into involvement with public issues. Ex: an individual can gauge their own fate only by knowing that of other individuals in their position, even if the limits of human nature are very broad. Everyone lives in some society or another, and contributes to its shaping.The sociological imagination allows one to make links between history and biography and relations within society. → There are 3 sorts of questions asked by those who are aware of the sociological imagination in their work: What is the structure of this society as a whole? What are its components and their relation? How does it differ from other variations of social order? Where does this society stand in human history? What are the mechanics by which it changes? What is its place within humanity as a whole? How does it differ from other periods? What variation of men and women prevail in this society? How are they repressed? What is the meaning of human nature in this period? → The sociological imagination is a more fruitful forelf consciousness r esting on the “absorbed realization of social relatit helps realize the cultural meaning of the social sciences. 2 The best distinction with which sociology works is between the troubles of personal milieu and the public issues of social structure. → Troubles occur within the personal life of the individual and within the range of an individual’s limited relations to others. → Issues occur when problems cross the local environment into personal life. Ex: Unemployment: 1/100,000 unemployed = personal situation (due to individual) 15 mil/50 mil unemployed = institutional issue → Number of structural changes ncreases as institutions become more interconnected. 3 Important to ask what contradictions of structure are involved to find major issues for the public and the troubles of individuals. → When people can cherish their values without feeling threatened by them, they experience wellbeing. When people cherish values while those values are under threat, they experience crisi.Total threat of paniarises when all values are threatened. → Today, a feeling of vague uneasiness arises bc there are no defined values being threatened. Indecision plagues our society. Ex: Clear malaise bc of capitalism in 30s → solutions Unclear malaise in 50s/60s → vague discomfort + lack of decision → Today, we are told that the problems of our decade are not economic, but caused by individual liThe attempt to brush over large issues and problems of modern society separates individual life from the institutions that regulate many aspects of our life. The Origins of Sociology Social Change and Sociology 18th/19th c A new industrial economy → rural exodus weakened old communication traditions The growth of cities → bc of the enclosure movement, tenants fled to cities in Engl. where they faced new & impersonal social world. Political change w/Enlightenment (esp Locke,obbes, Smith), shift to belief in personal liberty and individual rights w/French Revolution,Alexis De Tocquevillaw social change as “nothing short of a regeneration of the human race” A New Awareness of Society → Huge factories, exploding cities, and a new sense of individualism lead to new awareness of society in England, Germany, France Science and Sociology 19thc :COMTE coins term of “sociology” in 1838 → Saw society as part of a 3stage development: Theological stage (Beg. of humanity 1350 CE) Religious view of society that justified unfair social order of those born into power/poverty “by will of God”. There are no social dynamics to create an opportunity for change under this stage. Metaphysical stage (Renn 1700sish) ‘Natural’ system where society is a construct of mankind. HOBBES: “society reflects the failings of a selfish human nature and not the order of God”. People find alternative sets of explanations for their environment. Scientific stag (1700s present) Application of a scientific approach to the study of society Science & Sociology (cont.) → Comte’s approach known as positivism: scientific approach on knowledge based on “positive” facts as opposed to mere speculation. → Comte believed that society functioned as according to its own laws. → Early sociologists lMarx hoped sociology would lead to greater social justice → Adam Smith studied the social origin of the human ordeealth of Nationswhere he highlights the arbitrary distinctions b/t fields of study Sociological Theory → Theory = a statement of how & why specific facts are related → Sociological theory exists to explain social behavior in the real world Ex: Emile Durkheim in the late 1800s studied correlation bt suicide, social standing, religion, time of the year, etc → 2 questionsasked in building theor What issues should we study? How should we connect the facts? → Sociologists then use theoretical approach or a basic image of society that guides thinking and research, of which there are 3 major approaches (seen below). 1) The StructuralFunctional Approach Structuralfunctional approach: framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability → omte,Durkheim,Spencer pivotal to this approach → Points tosocial structur, orany relatively stable pattern of social behavior → Looks for structuresocial function, the consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole. → Manifest functionsare the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern → Latent functions re the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern ! Not all effects of social structure aresocial dysfunction= any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society. Ex: Globalization to some extent bc of implementation of Western norms and values onto other societies (that said, whether social patterns are beneficial or harmful is disagreed upon). 2) The Social Conflict Approach → Social conflict approac framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change. → Includes gender conflic & race conflic approaches → Focuses on how society benefits some people while hurting others + examines age, race, gender, status, etc. → Analyzes the keeping of privilege of those who benefit most Ex: School system, studied bBowlesintis arx tracks in school (like Gifted & Talented programs) → wealthy families in high track, poorer families in the lower track. Rich families are then more successful in school, which they use to justify their power and place in soc. however, school should be used to change society and not to further injustices. 3) The SymbolicInteraction Approach → Macrolevel orientatio: broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole → Microlevel orientatiocloseup focus on social interaction in specific settings → Symbolicinteraction approach: framework for building theories that sees society as the product of everyday interactions of individuals. Application of Sociological Theory through Sports Structuralfunctional view on sports :sports lead to jobs, are a pastime and a source of entertainment → sports are valuable to our society. Socialconflict view on sports: Sports promote violence and corruption in our society (FIFA scandal, violence of football) Genderconflict: women are paid less in sports and are given less attention in sports than men Raceconflict: the number of players and positions of players depends highly on race. Many “thinking” positions, like pitcher in baseball, are given to white players, while nonwhite players are more often in the outfield. Also, disparity b/t money made by players and money made by coaches (who are most often old, white, and rich). Classconflict: certain sports (golf, sailing, tennis) require more material and are therefore reserved for the wealthy. Three ways to do sociology Positivist Sociology Positivist sociology = the study of society based on systematic observations of social behavior → assumes that objective reality really exists ‘out there’ Concepts, variables and measurements Relationships among variables Cause & effect : a relationship in which one change in variable causes change in a another → variable that causes change = i ndependent variable → variable that changes = d ependent variable Correlation: relationship in which 2+ variables change together Spurious correlation: an apparent but false relationship b/t two variables, caused by another variable. Three conditions for Causality 1) Demonstrate correlation 2) Show existence of independent variable occurring before dependent variable 3) No evidence that a third variable could be causing a spurious relationship Ex:Measuring classroom behavior (conceptdependent on temperature → Students’attention (variab, revealed by theyes (indicator) → Students’grades (variable revealed by theiGPA in class (indicator) Ex: Is the SAT a reliable and valid measurement of students’ success in college? → Sat = Moderately Valid measurement of success, but measures test taking skills in college more than capacity to succeed collegelevel courses. It doesn’t measure factors of success like responsibility or writing ability, which are harder to measure. Types of relationships → High and low correlations depend on hocattereddata is. → Concept: a mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in a simplified form. Ex:“the family”, “the economy” → Variable a concept whose value changes from case to case. Ex: “ price, upper class” → The use of variables depends on easurement, a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific caset can be hard to measure variables when there are multiple options to be considered. Defining Concepts measurement = always a bitarbitrary bc value of variable depends on how it’s defined. → good research requires that sociologisperationalize a variablebyspecifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning value to a variable. Ex: Instead of measuring ‘success’ measure ‘income level’ Reliability & Validity For a measurement to be useful, it must be botreliable &valid: Reliabilit = consistency in measurement Validity = actually measuring what you intended to measure Reminder: Theologies behind sociology Interpretive sociology Interpretive sociology = study of sociology that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world. Weber pioneer of this method, argued that focus of sociologinterpretation, or understanding the meaning that people create in their everyday lives. The importance of meaning Interpretive sociology differs from positivist sociology in four ways: Positivist Sociology Interpretive Sociology Focuses on actions based on Focuses on people’s what we directly observe understanding of their actions Claims thatobjective realities Counters that reality is exist “out there” constructed by people in their everyday lives Favors quantitative data Favors qualitative data Best suited toresearch in labs Claims we learn more from with experiments, careful people, focusing on a subjective measurements meaning & learning how they make sense of their everyday lives Weber’s concept of Verstehen → Phonetic: “fairSHTAYin”, German word for understanding → Observing not only what people do, but also hy they do it. Focuses on thehoughts and feelings of subjects, which scientists have previously diminished b/c of difficulty to measure. Critical Sociology Marx founds critical orientation, rejected ideas that sociology exists as a “natural system” w/ a fixed order. According to Marx, to say that society is fixed is to say it can’t be changed. → Critical sociology= study of society that focuses on n eed for social change. The importance of change → Critical sociologists ask questions like “how does society work”? & “why can’t our society have less inequality”? → Answer: society should not exist as it does. → Claims that the point of sociology is “not just to research the social world but to change it in the direction of democracy and social justice”, rovide voice for less powerful & advance political goal of social equality Research Orientations and Theory Positivist Orientation has important factors in common with StructuralFunctional theory Interpretive Orientation “ “ SymbolicInteraction theory Critical Orientation “ “ SocioConflict theory Research Methods Research method = systematic plan for doing research 1) Testing a Hypothesis: the Experiment experiment = a research method for investigating cause & effect under highly controlled conditions → typicallyexplanatory, explaining thehy → experiment testshypothesis statement of a possible relationship b/t 2 variables → 4 steps use1) State which variable iindependent variablcause of change) dependent variablethings that change) 2)Measureinitial valof dependent variable 3)Exposedependent variable to independent variable 4)Measure dependant variabo see if anything’s changed The Hawthorne effect → ased on experiment in Hawthorne factorawthorne effec= a change in a subject’s behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied. Illustration of an experiment: the “Stanford county prison” → hilip Zimbarduspectsprison itself causes violent behaved to ‘Stanford County Prison exp.” → Treatedprison settinasndependent variablprisonersas independent variabl. → Halted experiment because danger to well being of subjects. 2) Asking Questions: Survey Research Survey = research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or in an interview → yielescriptive findin painting picture of people’s views on issues. Population and sample → Surveys target sompopulation, the people who are the focus of the research Ex: Lois Benjami studied the African American elite → Researchers collect data frsample, a part of the population that represents the whole.Random sampling allows an increased chance of representing the population as a whole. Using questionnaires → Questionnaire = series of questions a researcher presents to subjects. → Closedended format (multiple choice) → Openended format Conducting Interviews → Intervie = series of questions a researcher asks respondents in person → !!important that quest worded correctly & retain neutra balance uniformity & rapport. 3) In the Field: Participant Observation (aka Fieldwork) Participant observation = research method in which researchers systematically observe people while joining them in their native activities. → Edwoozie ’sstudy of homelessness in Jackson, Miss. where he lives in the town for an ext. period of time to bond w/ the population. 4) Studying Available Data to Draw New Conclusions → Ex: studying the census to draw conclusions about the US’ population. Chapter 3: Culture → What is culture? A: The origins of human behavior as opposed to the biological origins of human behavior. → Human nature implies that there’s some common factor that’s inherent and common to all people. However, sociology is pretty militant in arguing against the concept of human nature, bcwhat matters most about how we think/believe/make decisions, etc., is social construct. → Sociologists can’t agree about whether human nature is good/bad bchere is no human nature, arguing thatcontext matters more than genes . Our behavior is strongly linked to the society in which we live. → When referencing most social problems, people have in the back of their mind the idea that there’s some sort of genetic factor that explains why things are the way they are: we are “hardwired” to do certain things. Therefore, people imagine that issues are unavoidable, This is a problem we must avoid. Ex: People argue thagender is a biological issue, that gender traits are “hardwired” into M,W. (Ex: Height Measuring avg. woman’s height vs avg. male height doesn’t tell us much abt. any individual. Ex: Math scores At a certain point, men tend to do better in math than women. But similarly, the avg. female score vs avg. male score doesn’t tell us much abt. individual scores We always have to keep in mind that the generalizations being made abt. a group have nothing to do w/ the individual basis of traits. We tend to think in ways that are reinforced by our societies. We really want to hold on to gender difference, even when we wish to challenge the system. → ociology denies the biological explanation of behavior. Epigenetics: modification of genetic changes from one generation to the next, meaning thatenvironment can influence genes in a way much more rapid than ever before thought. → Today, there is less of a clear divide between the natural and the social sciences. The divide is much more artificial than thought to be hundreds of yrs ago. Human nature justifies Social Darwinism; Sociology is an argument against Social Darwinism. Chapter 4: Society — What do the main thinkers thing abt. how society works? Society = people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture. Gerhard Lenski: Society and Technology (1924 ) Lenski uses the term sociocultural evolutionto mean changes that occur as a society gains new technology. → Simple technology leads to societies having very little control over nature, so they can only support small numbers of people. Complex technologies allow societies to support exponentially more people with more affluence. More technology = faster change Marx: Society and Conflict + Inequality (18181883) —> Marx’ main idea is that social confli the struggle between segments of society over valued resources —> Marx wants tdescribe society as a result of the changes caused by tHe talks about how Capitalists turn the working class into machinesalienatthe working class from their work. —> Alienation takes place on multiple levels: Alienati from the act of working Alienatifrom the products of work(connections to land, connections to land owners, no tools and no animals to raise, etc.) Alienatifrom other workers Alienatifrom human potential. —> More and more people have othing except their labor pow which is the only thing they can sell. Never before in history was there a market for labor. Workers are not paid for what they’re doing, but for doing what they’re told to do as they’re selling their capacity to work to someone who’s telling them how to work. —> The products that they’re producing can be sold in a commodities market for more than they’re producinIn this market for labor, the workers are producing above what their labor is being paithis is calurplus valuen certain times and certain places, there is more and more competition between workers, leading wages to go down. Workers not only have to deal w capitalists but also between themselves. There should be a basis for cooperation among workers, but instead share of working seen as competition. Competition takes the form of “race”/ethnicity, gender, due to informal mechanism, urban/rural differences. Maintenance of advantage in labor market done by excluding others: alse consciousness Marx’s term for explanations of social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than as the flaws of societMarx sees that what workers really want to do is become capitalists, when what workers really should be doing is working together against the che alists. T essential divide is not between workers, but between the capitalists and the proletariat. Marx’s battle is to bring class consciousness to labo ers. —> In feudalism, there was a mosymbiotic relationshibetween the lord and the peasants, because the lord depended entirely on the peasan s. —> Marx’s main preoccupation was to see why society worked in such an unequal way at this period in tim(Movie refs: Oliver, Les Mis). — A capitalist takes his money ainvests it back into the business to become more productive and more productive than the last guPeople like capitalism because they see it as a means toinnovate. —> According to Marx, the only way to resolve the trap of capitalism is through revolutio Weber: Society + Ideals (18641917) — The Rationalization of Society —> Weber’s ideology,idealism emphasized how how human ideas, esp. beliefs and values, shape society. Most important difference among societies is not how ppl produce things but the way they think about the world. —> Weber used the ideal typ, or the abstract statement of the essential characteristics of any social phenomenon —> Weber focuses on ways that people think about their world —> Weber critiques Marx for dismissing the importance of religion/ideals and focusing more on the importance of material aspects of society, even though Marx briefly mentions the role of religion in the construction of material distribution. Two Worldviews: Tradition and Rationality Tradition:values and beliefs passed from generation to generation (we don’t want things to chage; we want everything to stay the same. Focus on continuity and generational transmission of the culture). Rationality: A way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matteroffact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task. (Transformation focused on rationality, which is all about change). —> Weber sees IR = dvlpt of capitalism as part of thationalization of society the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought. The rise of large bureaucratic organizations is how the rationalization of society commenced. Weber felt that one of the impacts of modernity is that individuals felt more responsible for how the world works and how to keep it safe. It’s up to the individual to follow the rules. There wasn’t the understanding that society created the context for people to act certain ways. VIDEO: GEORGE TOOKER AND RATIONALITY → George Tooker’s paintings are characterized by people being lonely —> straight lines used in painting shown to isolation of characters → people search for a little bit of privacy in public space for fear of rejection. Evelonely in the midst of cold modernity. Sense of being entrapped in the coldness and cutoffness of modernity. Zombielike appearance. Efficiency is the main goal. → Tooker underlines the intimacy of human contact as the only way to find new warmth of primary group ties of traditional society Essence of rationality = cut off from other people other than through distance. There are a lot of rules and regulations that control the dynamics of social life. It makes people seem less like human beings, and rather like numbers. Weber is disturbed by the coldheartedness of modern society. Before the rise of feminism, the family was seen as the bulwark against modern society , where people can be people and where we can hold off the modern world. The family is completely integrated into modern society. The nuclear family, ‘the haven in a heartless world’, was such a modern institution it had never existed before. —> Weber studies the way on which he Lutheran protestant reformation is nuanced by Calvin. Calvin thought that we were predestined in life; Calvinists took the view that God would only reward the favored on earth. Those who were successful were just proof that they were favored by God and predestined for heaven. As a result, Calvinists take on a very strong wrk ethic so they can prove their success and favor boy Go in the human world. They plowed their riches back into the earth so they could get more riches for their work and be seen as more successful — they take on the capitalist mentality of reinvestment into the economy. (Another part of what compelled Protestants to separate from Catholicism was their being fed up with the Catholic Church). Weber wants to discuss the role of religion in the life of capitalism. Sociologists want to describe society, find out how it came to be and how it changes. Rational Social Organization 7 characteristics of social organization: 1. Distinctive social institutions 2. Largescale organizations 3. Specialized tasks 4. Personal discipline 5. Awareness of time 6. Technical competence 7. Impersonality → Weber considers bureaucracy as the base of modern society. Durkheim: Society + Function (18571920) Durkheim claimed that society has an existence apart from its individual members. “To love society is to love something beyond us and within us.” → He’s looking at patterns of social interaction which lead to individual behaviors which in turn lead to reproduction of the patterns Durkheim calls these patterns of social interactionsocial fact. He also says that these patterns of social facts are necessary and useful for society. —> Durkheim is the ideltructuralfunctionalis Structure and function Durkheim believed that bc society is bigger than any one of us, it dictates how we are expected to act in any given social situation. Social elements (such as crime) have functions thahelp society operate Society alsoshapes our personalities and provides the moral discipline that guides our behavior and controls our desires. Evolving Societies Durkheim traced the evolution of social change by describing the different ways societies throughout history have guided the lives of their members. In traditional societmechanical solidarity, or social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values, that are strong among members of preindustrial societies,guide the lives of indvs. (Focused on repetition and not being interested in social change. Repetition of society in a mechanical way.) Industrialization and division of labor or specialized economic activity,weaken trad. bonds, so social life in modern soc. is governedorganic solidarity, or bonds based on specialization and interdependence. C reation of distinct social institutions that become more specialized as time goes on. It runs the risk of creating people who feel cut off fromDurkheim warned of increased anomies in modern soc. bc society provides little moral guidance for individuals. —> !!However, it simultaneously gives room for more freedom, because in traditional society conformity was the biggest value. Modern society focuses on change, it allows for freedom and creativity “The technological power and the greater freedom of modern society comes and the risk of less morals and greater anomies.” —> Study of deviance and crime mainly done through Durkheim: crime is functional for society because it simply reinforces the rules and reinforces social bonds among those who follow the rules. there will always be crime because we will always pick something that is breaking the rules and use it to reinforce the bonds between all of us about what is right and what is wrong Chapter 5: Socialization 5.1 Social Experience: The Key to our Humanity Ex of Anna, child abused by parents and isolated from all other humans until age 5 —> W/o social experience, a child is unable to communicate properly, as much an object as a human Socialization =the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture. Humans need social experience to learn their culture and survive. Social exp. is also the foundation of humapersonality, a person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling. —> Another way in showing how social construct is not decided by the behavior of individuals Socialization islifelong process ,oesn’t affect just children —> The flip side of socialization is the phrase “the social construction of reality”. Durkheim talked about social structure, the patterns of social interaction that guide our individual behaviors that are constantly reproduced by the individual. We are constantly responding to the environment, and therefore reproducing the patterns of social interaction. Nothing about the social environment that is not socially connected. The social context is alive and it’s being constantly reproduced as we engage in social behaviors. Ex: gender guides our individual behaviors, and every time we do that we’re reproducing gender relations. We shouldn’t have the idea that society is an ‘Other’; society is us, individually. The social construction of realitdoes not mean that we don’t have choice. virtually all socialization is unconscious. But we’re always learning it. That’s one of the key parts of the video still killing us softly; ads act unconsciously on us. Human Development: Nature and Nurture The biological Sciences: The role of Nature Darwin’s 1859 study of evolution led people to think that human behave. was instinctive, simply out of “nature” (ie through genetics) This led people to believe social differences were caused by biology The Social Sciences: The role of Nurture Watson (18781958) devlps theory of behaviorism : behavior is not instinctive but is learned. Human beh. not in nature but in nurture. Agents of Socialization: Family Media School Peers Video: Tough Guise —> America split in two America which is against brutality, and the America which looks at violence as a form of entertainment —> When talking about violence, almost always talking about violent masculinity Video game industry and film industry paid by gun corporations to feature popular gun brands Violent behavior not learned, buttaught —> policing male behavior Young men learn to adopt the tough guise, the front boys put on to keep from showing their vulnerability. Boys are expected to learn their liens and act like tough guys —> qualities like compassion, empathy, intelligence, driven out of men. Taught that real men turn to violence as the goto for establishing masculine credibility. Domestic violence = sense of control. Kids are picking up our behavior unconsciously. Violence especially relevant in cartoons, notably in Disney movies which are seemingly ‘innocent’. Cognitive dissonance shown in this video: boys want to do one thing, but we’re being taught not to do that. All socialisation of boys into this type of violent behavior is not dissonant, because everything in the culture is not dissonant. The role oreligion is the Male Guise? —> Religion can be both a catalyst and a major deterrent. Difficult to ‘battle’ two sides of control coin: family says violence, religion says otherwise. Overabalance of messages that boys get. —> Femininity is loosening up because the roles of social roles are as gendered as our ‘people’ are. They therefore loosen up the role of women and it becomes a little less rigid. Perhaps the moral reasoning of boys & girls is different because they reason morally in different ways. How can society be changed completely when women are the only ones changing their social roles? We don’t just want women to become more like men, but we also need to support men who want to be more like women. Fathers often think they’re just doing the right thing when trying to toughen up their sons, but it’s confusing because the impact is so extreme. Anette Loreau , ethnographer who did research on families to look at how families’ income status affects a kid’s outcome . She found extremely distinct patterns of raising children, participation in lots of structured activities. Working class parents want their kids to be obedient because their children will likely work in conditions where they get paid to listen to the boss. Meanwhile, upper class parents want their kids to be creative and imaginative because those are the skills that will get them the best jobs in management, etc. in Anette Loreau’s study as well, we see that ay social behavior pushes kids of U/L class to reproduce the social structure of which they belong. Status and Role Social interaction: the process by which people act and react in certain situations status: a social position that a person holds in everyday life, refers to prestige, but in the sense of sociology, means any position Status set —> Each of us holds many statuses at once status set: all the statuses a person holds at the same time at a given time Ex: a girl in her teens is a teenager, daughter, student, and a worker. !! Social statuses are not 100% divided b/t ascribed and achieved. —> Status implies we live in a relational ranking. The only reason why we focus between ascribed and achieved is so that we can distinguish those statuses that areut of our hands. Not categorically separate, simply suggest that there are differences between assigned and earned statuses. Master status: regardless of the collection of statuses that you have,aster status will govern how you operate in the world more so than others. Role : the behaviors expected of one in a particular status. Norms and values appropriate to social status. Acting within the roles of a position lead us to reproduce these norms and values at a social level. Ex: students interaction w professor researcher teacher athlete initiative employee friends religious son/daughter Status is about negotiating particular roles that lead to identity issues & personality conflicts but also social change. Stereotypes Positive stereotypes are still stereotypes bc dehumanization of the people they describe by focusing on a single detail. Though the statement itself may sound positive, the assumptions that go along with the statement carry negative connotations. Guys “policing each other’s behavior and reminding one another, through their interactions, on how to be masculine.” She studies their interactions and how they socialize each other into norms of masculinity. When we interact one on one we’re simultaneously recreating our identity and an individual microlevel but also reproducing socially learned patterns, values, and norms. “Fag” less about referencing sexuality and more about policing masculinity. Things that could gain them that label: being overemotional, caring about clothes, being incompetent. They were policing the boundaries of masculinity. —> Society in us, society beyond us.
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