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Chapter 5 Consciousness

by: Melantha Liu

Chapter 5 Consciousness PSYCH 202

Melantha Liu

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This is the concise version of Chapter 5, combing the information form book, notes and powerpoint inclass. The knowledge in the note is quite straightforward and simple. What you need to pay attent...
Introduction to Psychology
Patricia Coffey
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melantha Liu on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 202 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Patricia Coffey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Date Created: 09/30/15
            Chapter  5  Consciousness   Yiting  Liu     Outline:   I.   Conscious  and  unconscious:  the  mind’s  eye,  open  and  closed     a.   The  mysteries  of  consciousness     i.   The  problem  of  other  minds     ii.   The  mind/body  problem     b.   The  nature  of  consciousness     i.   Four  basic  properties     ii.   Levels  of  consciousness     iii.   Conscious  contents     c.   The  unconscious  mind   i.   Freudian  unconscious     ii.   A  modern  view  of  the  cognitive  unconscious     II.   Sleep  and  dreaming:  good  night,  mind     a.   Sleep     i.   Sleep  cycle   ii.   Sleep  needs  and  deprivation     iii.   Sleep  disorders     b.   Dreams     i.   Dream  consciousness   ii.   Dream  theories     iii.   The  dreaming  brain     III.   Drugs  and  consciousness:  artificial  inspiration     a.   Drug  use  and  abuse   b.   Types  of  psychoactive  drugs     i.   Depressants     ii.   Stimulants     iii.   Narcotics     iv.   Hallucinogens   v.   Marijuana   IV.   Hypnosis:  open  to  suggestion   a.   Induction  and  susceptibility     b.   Hypnotic  effects     V.   Meditation  and  religious  experiences:  higher  consciousness     a.   Meditation     b.   Ecstatic  religious  experiences                 I.   Conscious  and  unconscious:  the  mind’s  eye,  open  and  closed     a.   Definition:   i.   Consciousness:  a  person’s  subjective  experience  of  the  world  and  the  mind     ii.   Phenomenology:  how  things  seem  to  the  conscious  person     iii.   Problem  of  other  minds:  the  fundamental  difficulty  we  have  in  perceiving   the  consciousness  of  others     iv.   Mind/  body  problem:  the  issue  of  how  the  mind  is  related  to  the  brain  and   body   v.   Cocktail  party  phenomenon:  a  phenomenon  in  which  people  tune  in  one   message  even  while  they  filter  out  others  nearby   vi.   Minimal   consciousness:   a   low-­‐level   kind   of   sensory   awareness   and   responsiveness  that  occurs  when  the  mind  inputs  sensations  and  may  out   put  behavior     vii.   Full   consciousness:   consciousness   in   which   you   know   and   are   able   to   report  your  mental  state     viii.   Self-­‐consciousness:  a  distinct  level  of  consciousness  in  which  the  persons,   attention  is  drawn  to  the  self  as  an  object     ix.   Mental  control:  the  attempt  to  change  conscious  states  of  mind     x.   Though  suppression:  the  conscious  avoidance  of  a  thought     xi.   Rebound  effect  of  though  suppression:  the  tendency  of  a  thought  to   return  to  consciousness  with  greater  frequency  following  suppression     xii.   Ironic  processes  of  mental  control:  mental  processes  that  can  produce   ironic  errors  because  monitoring  for  errors  can  itself  produce  them   xiii.   Dynamic  unconscious:  an  active  system  encompassing  a  lifetime  of  hidden   memories,  the  person  s  deepest  instincts  and  desires  and  the  person’s   inner  struggle  to  control  these  forces   xiv.   Repression:  a  mental  process  that  removes  unacceptable  thoughts  and   memories  from  consciousness   b.   The  mysteries  of  consciousness     i.   The  problem  of  other  minds     1.   No   clear   way   to   distinguish   people   who   are   unconscious   with   conscious   people   if   they   choose   to   do   and   say   what   normal   conscious  people  would  function   2.   Dimensions  of  mind  perception   a.   Experience:   ability   to   feel   pain,   pleasure,   hunger,   consciousness,  anger  or  fear     b.   Agency:   ability   for   self-­‐control,   planning,   memory,   or   though   c.   Conclusion:  minds  both  have  experiences  and  act  as  agents   that  perform  actions     ii.   The  mind/body  problem     1.   Brain’s  activities  precede  the  activities  of  the  conscious  mind     2.   The  Timing  of  Conscious  Will  (Benjamin  Libet’s  experiment)     a.   Participants   were   to   move   fingers   at   will   while   simultaneously  watching  a  dot  move  around  the  face  of  a   clock  to  mark  the  movement  (action  was  consciously  willed)   b.   EEG  recorded  brain  activations     c.   EMG  recorded  muscle  movement     d.   Conclusion:  brain  responds  half  a  second  before  a  voluntary   action   c.   The  nature  of  consciousness     i.   Four  basic  properties     1.   Intentionality:  quality  of  being  directed  toward  an  object   2.   Unity:  concentration  on  one  task  at  a  time  rather  than  multiple   ones-­‐-­‐>  lower  the  efficiency  and  results.     3.   Selectivity:  include  some  objects  but  not  others     a.   Cocktail  party  phenomenon:  people  tune  in    one  message   even  while  they  filter  out  others  nearby     4.   Transience:  stream  of  consciousness  partyly  reflects  the  limited   capacity   of   the   conscious   mind/   when   more   information   is   selected,  some  information  will  disappear.     ii.   Levels  of  consciousness     1.   Minimal  consciousness:     a.   consciousness  that  occurs  when  the  mind  inputs  sensations   and  may  output  behavior   b.   sensory  awareness  and  responsiveness   c.   not  ware  of  the  experience     d.   e.g.:  someone  pokes  you  during  sleep  and  you  turn  over   2.   Full  consciousness     a.   The  level  of  awareness  in  which  you  know  and  are  able  to   report  your  mental  state     b.   E.g.:  you  know  the  pain  from  a  hurt  leg  and  you  will  rub  your   leg  to  alleviate  the  pain   3.   Self-­‐consciousness     a.   Level  of  consciousness  in  which  the  person’s  attention  is   drawn  to  the  self  as  an  object     b.   E.g.:  when  one  feels  embarrassed,  focus  of  attention  in  a   group  and  looks  in  a  mirror.   iii.   Conscious  contents     1.   Experience  sampling  technique:  people  are  asked  to  report  their   conscious  experiences  at  particular  times     2.   Mental  control:  attempt  to  change  conscious  states  of  mind   3.   Thought  suppression:  conscious  avoidance  of  a  thought   4.   Rebound  effect  of  though  suppression:  the  tendency  of  a  thought   to   return   to   consciousness   with   greater   frequency   following   suppression====The  act  of  trying  to  suppress  a  though  may  itself   cause  that  though  to  return  to  consciousness  in  a  robust  way.     5.   Ironic  processes  of  mental  control:  ironic  errors  occur  because  the   mental  process  that  monitors  errors  can  itself  produce  them   6.   E.g.:  not  to  think  about  a  “white  bear”,  but  brain  is  searching  for   “white  bear”  ironically.   7.   Ironic   monitor:   process   of   the   mind   that   works   outside   of   consciousness,  making  people  sensitive  to  things  they  don’t  want   to  think,  feel  or  do  soè  making  people  more  sensitive  to  unwanted   thoughts.   d.   The  unconscious  mind   i.   Freudian  unconscious     1.   Dynamic  unconscious:  an  active  system  encompassing  a  lifetime  of   hidden  memories,  the  person  deepest  instincts  and  desires  and  the   person’s  inner  struggle  to  control  these  forces   a.   E.g.:   hidden   sexual   thoughts   about   one’s   parents   &   destructive  urges  aimed  at  a  helpless  infant   2.   Repression:  a  mental  process  that  removes  unacceptable  thoughts   and   memories   from   consciousness   and   keeps   them   in   the   unconscious     3.   Freudian  slips:  evidence  of  the  unconscious  mind  in  speech  errors   and  lapses  of  consciousness   a.   E.g.:  Barack  Obama,  member  of  United  Church  of  Christ,   slipped  “my  Muslim  faith”  in  a  television  interview  with   George  Stephanopoulos.   ii.   A  modern  view  of  the  cognitive  unconscious     1.   Cognitive  unconscious:  mental  processes  that  are  not  experienced   by  a  person  but  that  give  rise  to  the  person’s  thoughts,  choices   emotions  and  behavior.     2.   Subliminal  perception:  though  or  behavior  is  influenced  by  stimuli   that  a  person  cannot  consciously  report  perceiving.   3.   E.g.:  “Eat  Popcorn”  and  “Drink  Coke”  on  screens  during  movies  to   encourage  consumers  to  purchase.   a.   Beverage   choices   can   be   influenced   by   brief   visual   exposures   to   thirst   related   words   but   not   too   much   influence.     b.   Choosing  a  roommate  experiment  (Dijkssterhuis,  2004)   i.   One   makes   conscious   decision;   one   makes   immediate   decision;   one   makes   unconscious   decision  about  roommates   ii.   Conclusion:  unconscious  minds  seemed  better  able   than   conscious   minds   to   sort   out   the   complex   information  and  arrive  at  the  best  choice   iii.   So  “go  with  your  gut”     II.   Sleep  and  dreaming:  good  night,  mind     a.   Definition   i.   Cognitive  unconscious:  the  mental  processes  that  give  rise  to  the  persons   thoughts,   choices,   emotions,   and   behavior   even   through   they   are   not   experiences  by  the  person     ii.   Subliminal  perception:  a  though  or  behavior  that  is  influenced  by  stimuli   that  a  person  cannot  consciously  report  perceiving     iii.   Altered  states  of  consciousness:  forms  of  experience  that  depart  from  the   normal  subjective  experience  of  the  world  and  the  mind     iv.   Circadian   rhythm:   a   naturally   occurring   24-­‐hour   cycle   of   sleeping   and   waking     v.   REM  sleep:  a  stage  of  sleep  characterized  by  rapid  eye  movements  and  a   high  level  of  brain  activity     vi.   Insomnia:  difficulty  in  falling  asleep  or  staying  asleep     vii.   Sleep  apnea:  a  disorder  in  which  the  person  stops  breathing  for  brief   periods  while  asleep     viii.   Somnambulism  (sleepwalking):  occurs  when  the  person  arises  and  walks   around  while  asleep   ix.   Narcolepsy:  a  disorder  in  which  sudden  sleep  attacks  occur  in  the  middle   of  waking  activities     x.   Sleep  paralysis:  the  experience  of  waking  up  unable  to  move     xi.   Night  terrors  (or  sleep  terrors):  abrupt  awakenings  with  panic  and  intense   emotional  arousal     xii.   Activation-­‐synthesis  model:  the  theory  that  dreams  are  produced  when   the   brain   attempts   to   make   sense   of   activations   that   occur   randomly   during  sleep     b.    Sleep     i.   Sleep  cycle     1.   Circadian  rhythm:  a  naturally  occurring  24-­‐hour  cycle  of  sleeping   and  waking     2.   EGG  patterns  during  the  stages  of  sleep   a.   Awake:  beta  waves,  high  frequency     b.   Drowsy,  relaxed,  alpha  waves,  low  frequency     c.   Stage  1  sleep,  theta  waves,  lower  frequency     d.   Stage   2   sleep,   sleep   spindles,   K   complexes,   difficult   to   awaken   e.   Stage  3/  stage  4  <slow-­‐wave  sleep/  NREM  sleep>,  delta   waves,  lowest  frequency     f.   REM  sleep,  fast,  random,  Sawtooth  waves  (similar  to  delta   waves),  high  frequency,  mind  is  active   g.   PIC   3.   Comparisons:   a.   Mind  is  active  in  REM  sleep     b.   Sleepers  wakened  in  REM  periods  have  more  and  wilder   dreams  than  sleeps  wakened  during  NREM  periods   c.   REM  sleep:  pulse  quickens,  blood  pressure  rises,  telltale   signs   of   sexual   arousal.   Sleepers   are   still   but   eyes   are   moving  fast.     4.   PIC  REM  periods  become  longer  in  later  cycles,  and  deeper  slow-­‐ wave  sleep  of  stages  3  and  4  disappears  halfway  through  the  night.     ii.   Sleep  needs  and  deprivation     1.   Few  hours  of  sleep  deprivation  per  night  leads  to  accumulative   detrimental   effect:   reducing   mental   acuity   and   reaction   time,   increasing   irritability   and   depression,   increasing   the   rick   of   accidents  and  injury.   2.   REM  deprivation  causes  a  rebound  of  more  REM  sleep  the  next   night     3.   Deprived  of  slow-­‐wave  sleep/NREM  sleep,  physical  effect:  feeling   tired,  fatigued  and  hypersensitive  to  muscle  and  bone  pain.   4.   Sleep   following   learning   appears   to   be   essential   for   memory   consolidation.  Staying  up  all  night  does  not  ensure  full  adsorption   of  information.   5.   Experiment:  Randy  Gardner,  age  17,  stayed  up  for  264  hours  and   12  minutes  in  1965  and  recovered  by  sleeping  only  14  hours  and  40   minutes.   iii.   Sleep  disorders     1.   Insomnia:  difficulty  in  falling  asleep  or  staying  asleep     a.   Causes:   i.   Anxiety  associated  with  stressful  life  events     ii.   Emotional  difficulties   b.   Solutions:  sedatives   c.   Disadvantages     i.   Addictive     ii.   Long  term  use  is  not  effective     iii.   Sudden   stop   will   make   insomnia   situation   even   worse   2.   Sleep  apnea:  disorder  in  which  the  person  stops  breath  in  for  brief   periods  while  asleep   a.   Snores  as  apnea  involved  an  involuntary  obstruction  of  the   breathing  passage   b.   Causes  many  awakenings  and  sleep  loss  or  insomnia     c.   Especially  in  middle-­‐aged  overweight  men   3.   Somnambulism   (sleepwalking):   person   arises   and   walks   around   while  asleep   a.   Common  in  children     b.   Early  in  the  night,  usually  during  slow-­‐wave  sleep/NREM   sleep   c.   Don’t  remember  the  episode  in  the  morning     d.   Poor  coordinating  and  balancing,  can  get  tripped  over   e.   Safe  to  wake  sleepwalkers  or  lead  them  back  to  bed     4.   Narcolepsy:  disorder  in  which  sudden  sleep  attacks  occur  in  the   middle  of  waking  activities     a.   Intrusion  of  a  dreaming  stage  of  sleep  into  waking     b.   Accompanied  by  unrelenting  excessive  sleepiness     c.   Uncontrollable   sleep   attacks   lasting   30   seconds   to   30   minutes     5.   Sleep  paralysis:  the  experience  of  waking  up  unable  to  move   a.   Some  associated  with  narcolepsy     b.   Experience  of  pressure  on  the  chest     6.   Night  terror:  abrupt  awakenings  with  panic  and  intense  emotional   arousal   a.   Common  in  boys  aged  3  to  7   b.   Often  in  NREM  sleep  early  I  the  sleep  cycle     c.   Don’t  have  dream  content  usually     c.   Dreams     i.   Dream  consciousness   1.   Features     a.   Feel  emotion     b.   Illogical  though  in  dreams     c.   Fully  formed  and  meaningful  sensation,  visual  sensation  is   predominant   d.   Uncritical  acceptance:  normal  images  and  events     e.   Difficulty  in  remembering  the  dreams     2.   Children  have  more  nightmares  than  adults     3.   People  experiencing  traumatic  events  have  nightmares  reliving  the   events     ii.   Dream  theories     1.   Freud’s  approach:  dream  represent  something  like  wishes;  but  this   theory  has  too  many  interpretations  for  the  dream  and  is  hard  to   find  the  correct  explanation   a.   Dream  is  meaningful  from  the  very  beginning  of  your  sleep   cycle   2.   Activation-­‐synthesis  model:  the  theory  that  dreams  are  produced   when  the  brain  attempts  to  make  sense  of  activations  that  occur   randomly  during  sleep     a.   Random  dreams  will  make  sense  as  you  dream  along     b.   People  have  different  dreams  with  different  characters  who   may  change  to  another  in  an  instant       iii.   The  dreaming  brain     1.   Amygdala  is  active  during  REM  sleep     2.   The   sensation   of   auditory/tactile/smell/taste   is   not   real   just   imagined   3.   But  the  visual  imaging  active  in  occipital  lobe  is  active     4.   Facts   a.   Eyes  are  moving  fast   b.   Motor  cortex  is  activated     c.   But  spinal  neurons  running  through  the  brain  stem  inhibit   the  expression  of  this  motor  activation=  the  reason  why   people  dream   d.   People  who  are  moving  during  sleep  is  not  dreaming     III.   Drugs  and  consciousness:  artificial  inspiration     a.   Definition:   i.   Psychoactive  drugs:  chemicals  that  influence  consciousness  or  behavior  by   altering  the  brain’s  chemical  message  system     ii.   Drug  tolerance:  the  tendency  for  larger  doses  of  a  drug  to  be  required  over   time  to  achieve  the  same  effect     iii.   Depressants:  substances  that  reduce  the  activity  of  the  central  nervous   system     iv.   Expectancy   theory:   the   idea   that   alcohol   effects   can   be   produced   by   people’s  expectations  of  how  alcohol  will  influence  them  in  particular   situations   v.   Alcohol  myopia:  a  condition  that  results  when  alcohol  hampers  attention,   leading  people  to  respond  n  simple  ways  to  complex  situations   vi.   Stimulants:   substances   that   excite   the   central   nervous   system,   heightening  arousal  and  activity  levels   vii.   Narcotics   or   opiates:   highly   addictive   drugs   derived   from   opium   that   relieve  pain   viii.   Hallucinogens:  drugs  that  alter  sensation  and  perception  and  often  cause   visual  and  auditory  hallucinations   ix.   Marijuana:  the  leaves  and  buds  of  the  hemp  plant   x.   Psychological  dependence:  a  strong  desire  to  return  to  the  drug  when  the   physical  withdrawal  symptoms  are  gone     xi.     b.   Drug  use  and  abuse   i.   Experiment:  (Bozarth  and  Wise,1985)   1.   Allow  rats  to  use  levers  to  get  cocaine  by  themselves   2.   Keep  self-­‐administering  at  a  high  rate  and  binge  to  the  point  of   giving  themselves  convulsions     3.   Result:  90%  of  the  rats  died     ii.   People  are  not  addicted  the  first  time  they  try  drugs,  but  as  the  drug   tolerance  develops  if  they  keep  trying,  they  will  become  seriously  addictive   iii.   E.g.:  “caffeine  headache”:  people  claim  that  they  haven’t  had  their  daily   jolt  of  javaè  produce  Psychological  Dependence:  a  strong  desire  to  return   to  the  drug  when  the  physical  withdrawal  symptoms  are  gone     c.   Types  of  psychoactive  drugs     i.   Depressants     1.   Reduce  the  activity  of  the  CNS  (central  nervous  system)   a.   Sedative/calming  effect     b.   Effect:  sleep  in  high  dose;  arrest  breathing  in  higher  dose   c.   Physical  and  psychological  dependence     2.   Example:  Alcohol   a.   Initial   effect:   euphoria   and   reduced   anxiety,   positive   feelings     b.   Drunkenness  effect:  slowed  reactions,  slurred  speech,  poor   judgment,  reduced  effectiveness  of  actions  and  thoughts.     c.   Why  people  behave  differently  when  they  are  drunk  (two   explanations)   i.   Expectancy  theory     1.   influenced  by  personal  expectations  on  how   alcohol  will  influence  people     2.   occasions  will  influence  the  outcome  of  the   behaviors  of  people     a.   scenes   like   weddingè   drinking   renders  positive,  festival  feelings   b.   scenes  like  “fighting  in  a  bar”à  more   aggression   in   mental   and   physical   areas   ii.   Alcohol  myopia     1.   Hampers  attention,  respond  in  a  simply  way,   impaired  fine  judgment,  make  a  wild  pass   2.   E.g.:  your  friend  is  dating  your  favorite  guy.   When  you  get  drunk,  you  will  cry  timidly  or   express   your   feelings   in   some   ways.   This   depends  on  what  you  wanted  to  happen  in   your  myopia  state.   iii.   Conclusion:   both   theories   suggest   that   alcohol   makes  people  go  extreme.     ii.   Stimulants     1.   Excites  the  CNS  (central  nervous  system)   2.   Examples:   caffeine,   amphetamines,   nicotine,   cocaine,   modafinil,   and  ecstasy  (MDMA)   3.   Increase   the   dopamine   and   norepinephrine   levels   in   brainà   increase  alertness  and  energyà  euphoric  sense  of  confidence  and   motivation  to  get  things  done   a.   Amphetamines:  induce  insomnia,  aggression  and  paranoia   in  long  run     b.   Ecstasy:     i.   Effect:   1.   make  users  feel  empathic  and  close  to  those   around  them   2.   Unpleasant   effect:   regulation   of   body   temperature   makes   them   susceptible   to   heatstroke  and  exhaustion   ii.   No  or  little  physical  and  psychology  dependence,   but  may  have  some  dependences   iii.   Impurities   in   ecstasy   from   street   sellers   will   intoxicate  on  serotonin  activated  neurons   c.   Cocaine:   i.   Effect:   1.   Exhilaration,   euphoria   and   extremely   addictive     2.   Antisocial   effects:   aggressiveness   and   paranoia  in  long  term     3.   Potential  dependence     d.   Nicotine:     i.   No  great  smell   ii.   No   much   “high”à   mostly   dizziness   and   queasy   feelings     iii.   Positive   effects:   relaxation   and   improved   concentration   iii.   Narcotics     1.   Effect:   a.   Positive:  relieving  pain,  relaxation   b.   Negative:  stupor  and  lethargy   2.   Physical  and  psychological  dependence     3.   Brain   products   such   as   Endorphins   (role   in   pain   and   stress   in   pituitary   gland)   or   Endogenous   opioids   are   closely   related   to   opiates     4.   When  use  the  drugs,  artificial  endorphins  are  created  in  a  large   amountà  reduced  receptor  effectiveness  and  depress  production   of  endorphins  in  the  brain   iv.   Hallucinogens   1.   Alter  sensation  and  perception     2.   Examples:  LSD/acid,  mescaline,  psilocybin,  PCP,  ketamine   3.   Effect:   a.   Intense  sensation   b.   Moving  and  changing  objects     c.   Patterns  or  colors  may  appear   d.   Exaggerated  emotions  in  extremes  like  “roller-­‐coaster  ride”   e.   Not  addictive   f.   No  significant  tolerance  or  dependence     g.   Rare  overdose  death     h.   Cultural  trend  in  parties  not  dangerous  attraction   v.   Marijuana   1.   Mildly  hallucinogenic     2.   Effect:   a.   Positive:     i.   Euphoric   ii.   Heightened  sense  of  sight  and  sound     iii.   Perception  of  a  rush  of  ideas     b.   Negative:   i.   Short  term  memory     ii.   Impair  motor  skills  and  coordination     iii.   Affects  judgment     3.   Active  ingredient  is  known  as  THC,  which  is  for  the  regulation  of   mood,  memory,  appetite  and  pain  perception     4.   No  strong  addiction   5.   No  physical  withdrawal  symptoms     6.   Possible  psychological  dependence     7.   Medicine  for  pain  /  nausea  and  recreational  drug     IV.   Hypnosis:  open  to  suggestion   a.   Definition:     i.   Hypnosis:  an  altered  state  of  consciousness  characterized  by  suggestibility   and  the  feeling  that  one’s  actions  are  occurring  involuntarily   ii.   Hypnotic  analgesia:  the  reduction  of  pain  through  hypnosis  in  people  who   are  susceptible  to  hypnosis   b.   Induction  and  susceptibility     i.   Hypnosis:  an  altered  state  of  consciousness  characterized  by  suggestibility   and  the  feeling  that  one’s  actions  are  occurring  involuntarily   ii.   People  who  are  easily  absorbed  in  entertainment  social  medias  are  the   best  candidates  for  hypnosis   c.   Hypnotic  effects     i.   Make  people  do  peculiar  things   1.   Person  who  was  asked  to  ignore  the  loud  noises  did  not  flinch  when   a  pistol  was  fired  near  his  face   ii.   Retrieve  hidden  or  lost  memory     1.   People  make  up  memories  to  satisfy  the  hypnotists  suggestions     iii.   Hypnotic  analgesia:  the  reduction  of  pain  through  hypnosis  in  people  who   are  susceptible  to  hypnosis   1.   Can  control  or  pain  in  surgeries  and  dental  procedures     2.   Better  effect  than  morphine,  diazepam,  aspirin,  or  placebos   V.   Meditation  and  religious  experiences:  higher  consciousness     a.   Meditation     i.   Produce  temporarily  altered  patterns  of  brain  activation     ii.   Influence   EEG   recordings   of   brain   waves,   producing   alpha   waves=relaxation   iii.   Low  levels  of  activation  in  the  posterior  superior  parietal  lobeà  fail  to   judge  physical  space  and  orienting  oneself  in  space     iv.   Experience  of  immersion  and  a  loss  of  self     b.   Ecstatic  religious  experiences     i.   Religious  tradition/  practices     ii.   Experiencing   religious   fever   gives   epilepsy   (neurological   disease   by   epileptic  seizures)   iii.   Right  anterior  temporal  lobe  is  involved  when  people  without  epilepsy   experience  profound  religious  feelings                


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