BMED 3100 Lecture and Online Notes up to October 1.
BMED 3100 Lecture and Online Notes up to October 1. BMED 3100 A
Popular in Systems Physiology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biomedical Sciences
Mary Ellen Wood
verified elite notetaker
This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ernest Butler on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BMED 3100 A at Georgia Institute of Technology taught by Mrs. Barker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Systems Physiology in Biomedical Sciences at Georgia Institute of Technology.
Reviews for BMED 3100 Lecture and Online Notes up to October 1.
I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/30/15
BMED 3100 Neurophysiology Day 3 denotes to look up Slide 7 Brain Brain has 4 subdivisions Cerebrum 0 Balance Maintenance of Posture Diencephalon Cerebellum Brainstem o Comprised of Midbrain Pons and Medulla Oblongata Autonomic Control Basic functions to live Slide 9 Spinal Cord Gray Matter 0 lnterneurons 0 Cell bodies amp dentrites of efferent amp afferent neurons 0 Glial Cells 0 White Matter 0 Groups of efferent and afferent myelinated axons 31 Pairs of spinal nerves both sensory and motor 0 Ascending lower to higher levels of CNS 0 Descending higher to lower levels of CNS Slide 10 Peripheral Nervous System 0 12 pairs of cranial nerves 0 31 pairs of spinal nerves 0 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbarr 5 sacral 1 coccygeal 0000 Slide 12 Motor Nervous System Somatic voluntary o Skeletal muscle innervation One motoneuoron and the muscle bers it innervates Cell body of motoneuron located in CNS Axons synapse directly on skeletal muscle Achlnicotinic receptors OOOO Autonomicinvountary 0 Info carried across two neurons 0 Visceral organ innervation 0 Two Neurons Preganglionic Neuron Cell body resides in CNs Axons synapse on cell bodies of postganglionic neurons in gangHa Secrete Ach binds to nicotinic receptors Postganglionic Neuron Located outside CNS Axons travel to periphery where they synapse on visceral effector organs heart vasculature GI bladder Release either Ach or norepinephrine If postganglionic is in parasympathetic system it secretes Ach but doesn t bind to nicotinic If postganglionic is in sympathetic system it secretes norepinephrine and binds to adrenal receptors Cholinergic secretes Ach Adrenergic secretes norepinephrine Slide 14 Sympathetic Nervous System Preganglionic Neurons originate in thoracolumbar spinal cord Preganglionic axons follow 1 of 3 courses 0 Synapse with postganglionic neurons in ganglion 0 Pass upward or downward in chain and synapse in another ganglion 0 Pass through chain and terminate on of prevertebral ganglia Postganglionic neuros originate in 1 of 2 places 0 Sympathetic chain ganglia 0 One of the prevertebral ganglia Post ganglionic neurons are adrenergic o Secretes norepinephrine and binds to adrenal receptors Preganglion nerves are short postganglionic nerves are longer Chemical messenger carried in blood is hormone chemical messenger carries in synapse is a neurotransmitter Parasympathetic inhibits Slide 15 Adrenal Medulla Part of adrenal Gland Sympathetic system 0 Some preganglionic neurons pass all the way from spinal cord to adrenal medulla Stimulation of chromaf n cells by sympathetic preganglionic nerves release of large amounts norepinephrine and epinephrine into circulation Similar action as direct sympathetic stimulation except longeracting effects 0 Direct and indirect actions support each other or can substitute for each other Slide 16 Parasympathetic Nervous System Postganglionic neurons secrete Ach and binds to muscarinic receptors Preganglionic neurons originate in either the brain stem or sacral spinal cord Preganglionic neurons leave cranial region pass through cranial nerves 0 75 of all parasympathetic nerve bers are in vagus nervescrania nerve X Preganglionic Neurons leave sacral region through pelvic splanchnic nerve Ganglia are located near on or in effector organs Preganglionic nerves are long postganglionic nerves are very short 0 Most postganglionic nerves are cholinergic but activate muscarinic Receptors Slide 17 Signal Transduction Compared to NM 0 Postganglionic neurons innervate effector tissue through diffuse branching networks Varicosities sites neurotransmitter synthesis storage and release 0 Effector tissues may be innervated by many postganglionic neurons 0 Postsynaptic Rs widely distributed on effector tissues no motor end plate Slide 18 Autonomic Innervation Urinary Bladder o Micturition re ex o Sympathetic Bladder Filling D relaxation of detrusor muscle and contraction of internal sphincter autonomic not under your control 0 Parasympathetic Bladder Full D fullness sensed by mechanoreceptors in bladder wall l contraction of detrusor muscle and relaxation of internal sphincter Slide 19 Autonomic Innervation pupil Size of pupil controlled by radial and circular musles in iris Look at slide Slide 20 Autonomic Receptors Locations 0 With no NT binded to receptor subunit binds to GTP With NT binded to receptor subunit binds to GDP changes con gutaion and binds to Adenylyl Cyclase or Phospholipase 0 Cell bodies of postganglionic neurons 0 ln effector organs 0 G proteinlinked receptors 0 Linked to G proteins Bind GDP or GTP Heterotrimeric Alpha subunit Binds to GDPGTP Beta subunit Gamma subunit 0 Couples receptor to enzymes Adenylyl Cyclase cAMP Phospholipase C IPS Slide 21 Autonomic Receptors Cont on effector tissue Muscarinic amp alpha1 Rs 0 Phospholipase C Alpha2 betal beta2 o Adenylyl Cyclase Day 4 Slide 3 Sensory Systems 0 General steps of the sensory system 0 A stimulus activates a sensory R o Stimulus is converted into a receptor potential sensory transduction o The produced current ows along axon to a region of the membrane capable of action potentials nodes of ranvier Slide 4 Sensory Receptors Types of receptors 0 Mechanoreceptors Activated by pressure or stretch Touch blood pressure muscle tension 0 Photoreceptors Activated by light Involved in vision o Chemoreceptors Activated by chemicals Involved in olfaction taste breathing o Thermoreceptors Activated by temperature 0 Nociceptors Specialized nerve endings Activated by extremes of pressure temperature or noxious chemicals 0 Differential Sensitivity Each type of R is highly sensitive to one type of stimulus but almost nonresponsive to other stimuli ai39l39 v 39 lm c 5 Aetlen er Receptor lpeteintiel HR petentiel V J V s A it i it 4quot v t1 R f x End sDi If E antler Slide 5 Sensory Transduction 0 Environmental stimulus l Receptor Potential RP Mechanogated channels channels that openclose due to movement 0 Steps 0 Stimulus causes change in R depending on kind of R Change causes ion channels to open or close D depolarization RP o 0 APS are generated downstream o The more the stimulus the higher the RP the more frequent the APs Adaptation As the stimulus becomes constant receptors begin to adapt and frequency of the APs begin to lower Slide 7 Adaptation of Sensory Rs Phasic receptor Tomlin r39evpeptpr rapidly adapting slowly adapting Action polenliale Receptor potentials Slimming Eh Ev El Cln Clih Cm Eff Costanzo Physiology 4th Edition Copyright E 23113 by Saunders an imprint of Eisevler Inc All rights reserved 0 Slowly adapting Rs Tonic receptors 0 Almost continuous signal Rapidly Adapting Rs Phasic Receptors o Respond to change of stimulus o React strongly while change is taking place initiation AND termination of stimulus Slide 8 Sensory Coding Conversion of stimulus energy into signal that conveys relevant sensory info 0 Sensory unit a single afferent neuron with all its receptor endings o Receptive eld area of body that when stimulated leads to activity in particular afferent neuron Any where I can apply stimulus and activate sensory neuron Things that affect coding o Stimulus modality Pathways dedicated to one modality ex vision heat cold sound pressure 0 Intensity of stimulus 0 Spatial location Labeled Line Theory Central Slide 9 Stimulus Intensity V 39 Nervous System o The higher the RP the more frequent the APS 1 I 0 Increase intensity of stimulus lincrease Rs activated spatial summation PM Stimulation 0 Also increase the intensity of stimulus l increase different types of Rs that can be stimulated Acti o n Po lien ti al F req ue rlcy R H Alferet Neuron Slide 10 Stimulus Location Receptive Field 0 Area of body that when stimulated changes the ring rate of a sensory neuron o Affects acuity based on Size can be teeny tiny or very large Receptor Density Overlap Neurons are jampacked BUT helps with acuity Slide 11 Sensory Pathway l Ascending Pathways Afferent sensory pathways are formed by chain of 3 or more typically 4 neurons connected by synapses Carries into to cerebral cortex 0 Steps 0 First order sensory afferent neurons Primary sensory afferent neuron Cell body in dorsal root or spinal cord ganglion 0 Second order First order neuron processes synapse on second order neuron at Relay nucleus in spinal cord or brain stem 0 Third order Second order neuron processes synapse on third order neuron at relay nuclei in thalamus 0 Fourth order Third order neuoron processes synapse on fourth order neuron in appropriate sensory area of cerebral cortex Slide 12 Speci c Sensory Systems Somatosensory System 0 Vision Audition Vestibular Olfaction Taste Slide 14 The Control of Movement 0 The nervous system integrates the inputs and outputs of muscles and various sensory systems to produce purposeful movement o The neuromotor system is a complex network of interconnections between sensory afferent neurons interneurons throughout the nervous system and motor efferent neurons Slide 16 Motor Control Hierarchy Higher centers of brain 0 Includes Sensorimotor areas Association areas Areas involved in memory emotions etc o Conscioust planned movement 0 Middle level 0 Specify individual postures and movements 0 Includes Parts of cerebral cortex Cerebellum Subcortical nuclei Brainstem o Receives info from Higher centers of brain Receives sensory info from Muscles Tendons Joints 0 Skin Vestibular system 0 Eyes Relays info about starting position of body and its environment 0 Integrates info to create motor program Motor Program pattern of neuroactivity needed to carry out intention LocaILeveI o Receives motor program via descending pathways 0 Includes Afferent neurons Motoneurons Related interneurons o Determines which motoneurons will be activated 0 Check out slide 19 good stuff summarizing the motor control hierarchy Slide 21 Skeletal Muscle Sensory Receptors MuscIe Spindles sensory receptors 0 Every change to muscle ber happens to muscle spindles sending sensory info to brain Golgi tendon organs 0 Only connect to spinal cord not brain Slide 22 Function of Muscle Spindles try to get body back to rest homeopathic Muscle spindles are stretch receptors 0 Corrects for changes in muscle length 0 Ex Lengthening of muscles 0 Both extrafusal and muscle spindles are lengthened o Detected by sensory afferent bers 0 Stimulation of motoneurons innervating same muscle l contraction shortening of muscle KneeJerk Reactionask her about this Slide 23 Spinal Cord Re exes Stretch re ex Simplest of spinal cord re exes One synapse between sensory nerves and motor nerves Ex kneejerk re ex Steps Muscle ber stretched Group la bers activated ring rate increases Group la bers synapse directly on or motoneurons that innervate same muscle Activation of or motoneurons causes contraction of same muscle Shortening of muscle decreases stretch on muscle spindle Firing rate of group la bers returns to baseline There is also contraction of synergistic muscles and relaxation of antagonistic muscles Slide 28 Walking Steps Falling forward Move one leg forward for support Supporting limb Extensor muscles activated Nonsupporting limb Contralateral extensors inhibited Reciprocal innervation Allows limb to ex and swing forward Levels of control Spinal cord central pattern generators Rhythmic movement of legs Higher centers Voluntary override Slide
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'