PHIL 100 Exam 2 Study Guide
PHIL 100 Exam 2 Study Guide Phil 100
Popular in Appreciation of philosophy
Popular in PHIL-Philosophy
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Phil 100 at Colorado State University taught by Daniel Alvarez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 303 views. For similar materials see Appreciation of philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at Colorado State University.
Reviews for PHIL 100 Exam 2 Study Guide
Can you just teach this course please? lol :)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/01/15
Exam #2 Study Guide Chapter two Metaphysics Study Guide 1. Provide an overview of various general metaphysical positions and their relations, including dualism, monism, materialism, and idealism a. Monism: a position that is committed to the existence of one and only one kind of substance b. Materialism: the position that is committed to the existence of just physical items c. idealism: the position that is committed to the existence of just non physical items - mental and spiritual items d. dualism: the position that is committed to the existence of both physical and non physical items 2. State the mind-body problem . concerns the nature of the mind and its relation to the physical body 3. Describe Cartesian psychophysical dualism, locate its strengths and weaknesses, and evaluate Descartes' arguments for it . 4. Distinguish between the identity theory and eliminativist versions of physicalism . the identity theory and eliminativism both suggest that mental states are identical to brain states, but eliminativists claim that we do not have beliefs or desires or other mental states, but rather we merely have different kinds of brain states and processes 5. Explain the nature of functionalism, the Turing Test, and Searle's Chinese Room objection to strong AI . functionalists point out that mental states can be in various forms or instantiated in different media, regardless of what kind of “stuff” they are made out of a. the turing test was developed in order to determine whether computers can think or not i. strong AI theorists believe that computers have the ability to literally think ii. weak AI theories believe that computers only have the ability to simulate thinking b. the chinese room argument is designed to show that even if computers successfully pass the turing test, this would still not be sufficient to have thinking and cognition 6. Explain the hard determinists position in the free will debate and assess its strength and weaknesses . all human actions are caused by prior causes a. we do need metaphysical freedom to be morally responsible for our actions b. Determinism and metaphysical freedom are incompatible. We are determined. We do not have metaphysical freedom 7. Discuss the nature, strengths, and weaknesses of the libertarian's stance in the free will debate . all human actions are not determined by prior causes a. we do need metaphysical freedom to be morally responsible for our actions b. Determinism and metaphysical freedom are incompatible. We are not determined. We do have metaphysical freedom 8. Describe and evaluate compatibilism as a view in the free will debate . all human actions are determined by prior causes a. we do not have metaphysical freedom, circumstantial freedom is sufficient to be morally responsible for our actions b. Determinism and Circumstantial freedom are compatible; thus, we are both determined and free, and morally responsible for our actions. Terms to Know: metaphysics: the area of philosophy concerned with fundamental questions about the nature of reality metaphysical monism: a metaphysical position that claims that there is only one kind of reality metaphysical dualism: a metaphysical position that claims that there are two kinds of realities metaphysical materialism: a type of monism that claims that reality is totally physical in nature idealism: a type of monism that claims that reality is entirely mental or spiritual in nature Ockham's razor: the principle that we should eliminate (shave off) all unnecessary entities and explanatory principles in our theories ontology: the area of metaphysics that asks what is most fundamentally real mind-body dualism: the claim that the mind and the body (which includes the brain) are separate entities. physicalism: the theory that human beings can be explained completely and adequately in terms of their physical or material components interactionism: a type of dualism that claims that the mind and body, though different, causally interact with one another identity theory: a type of physicalism that denies the existence of a separate, non physical mind but retains language that refers to the mind; also called reductionism reductionism: see identity theory eliminativism: a type of physicalism that denies the existence of a separate, non physical mind and discards all language that refers to mental events functionalism: a philosophy that claims that the mind is characterized by particular patterns of input-processing-output folk psychology: pejorative term used by eliminativists to characterize traditional psychological theories multiple realizability: the property by which something can be realized, embodied, instantiated in multiple ways and in different media Turing Test: test produced by Alan Turing to determine whether a computer can think or not strong AI thesis: the claim that an appropriately programmed computer really is a mind and can be said to literally understand, believe, and have other cognitive states weak AI thesis: the claim that artificial intelligence research may help us explore various theoretical models of human mental processes, while acknowledging that computers only simulate mental activities intentionality: a feature of certain mental states (such as beliefs) by which they are directed at or are about objects or states of affairs in the world circumstantial freedom: the ability and the opportunity to perform whatever action we choose, that is, freedom from external forces, obstacles, and natural limitations that restrict or compel our actions metaphysical freedom: the power of the self to choose among genuine alternatives; free will determinism: the claim that all events are the necessary result of previous causes incompatibilism: the claim that determinism is incompatible with the sort of freedom required to be morally responsible for our behavior hard determinism: the dual claims that (1) having metaphysical freedom is a necessary condition for people to be morally responsible for their choices in any meaningful sense of the word and (2) we do not have the metaphysical freedom required for moral responsibility libertarianism: the thesis that we do have metaphysical freedom; a rejection of determinism compatibilism: the thesis that we are both determined and have the sort of freedom necessary to be morally responsible for our actions; sometimes called soft determinism theological determinist: one who believes that God is the ultimate cause of everything that happens in the world, including human actions pantheism: the belief that God constitutes the whole of reality and that everything in nature, including individual persons, are modes or aspects of God's being behaviorism: a psychological theory that limits the scope of psychology to the scientific study of publicly observable behaviors and their causes while rejecting any explanations that refer to interior mental states or processes agency theory: a version of libertarianism that rejects both determinism and indeterminism; this theory claims that events are brought about by agents event-causation: occurs when a prior event necessarily causes a subsequent event agent-causation: occurs when an event is brought about through the free action of an agent (person, self) facticity: Sartre's term for those features of our past or present that we were not free to choose and yet they seem to set limits on the course of our lives transcendence: Sartre's term for the root of our freedom, for our ability to define ourselves by our possibilities and all the ways in which each of us is continually creating our own future in terms of our choices, our plans, our dreams, and our ambitions bad faith: Sartre's term for when we deny our freedom and our responsibility for who we are soft determinism: see compatibilism
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'