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All Lecture Notes & Study Cards on Lecture Notes MCB2000
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Thursday, May 19, y Exam 3 Lecture Notes Terms Used in the Study of Infectious Diseases Parasite: live off other resources, part of life, they always benefit from the other organism, includes harming the other Colonization: when the actual organism establishes and grows on your body Infectious Diseases: diseases caused by microbial organisms, (liver, kidney disease not infectious, nothing to do with microorganism), disease some functions of your system have been impaired and are not functioning normally Pathogen: only a small fraction of microorganisms cause disease as pathogens Pathogenic: some are opportunistic, may not cause disease in you, but may cause it in another person, healthy people are not usually affected by it, some people are immunocompromised individuals all people can be exposed but these people will get sick easily (ex: HIV) Immunologically compromised host: lower resistance to infection Systemic infection: transfer through the blood Latent infection: remains with you for a long period of time, microorganisms don ’t leave the tissue, no symptoms are observed, (ex: herpes virus can never leave you once gotten, every once in a while you have a flare up, rashes, can take medicine but cannot cure) (ex: syphilis bacteria infection, causes problems and goes away but can come back again and again if not treated with antibiotics), some cases latency is forever there is no cure Virulence Factors and Types of Infection Acute: short but severe, over soon, doesn't kill you right away, goes away soon, inflammation is good here if quick and efficient 1 Thursday, May 19, y Chronic: mild form of the infection for the long term, stays with you for a long period of time, damages your body as time goes by, if you have this the microbes are inside you in different partsthe immune system is constantly following theminflammation happens in different parts of your body this is not good within chronic infection causes damages without you knowing it, body can produce antibodies against your own body and your own DNA Fulminating Infection: with great intensity, (ex: meningitis), grows so fast and multiplies very quickly, very dangerous Latent: can be lifetime with no symptoms, asymptomatic Opportunistic: dont normally effect healthy people, is you have a low immunity it effects you Nosocomial: from healthcare facility, comes from staffpatients, old microbes can be moving and given to someone else Koch ’s Postulate: 1 microbe —> 1 disease, some exceptions; multiple microbes can be involved in the same infection, only applied for infectious diseases not all disease Pyogenic: pussforming, different than Pyrogenic fever inducing molecules Sepsis: microbes grow and multiply and spread through your blood, very serious condition, the toxins of microbes spreading in the blood or the tissue, can lead to.. Septic Shock: very serious, blood pressure drops collapse Septicemia: gram negative is more severe, when microbes are killed gram negative release endotoxins outer membraneLPS, own consequences inflammation bleeding hemorrhage fever, has to be treated with endotoxin treatment and bacterial treatment Zoonotic disease: primarily transferred from animals to humans 2 Thursday, May 19, y Virulence Factors Enzymes, pili, fimbrae, flagella, plasmid, endotoxins, exotoxins, cell wall, capsule, glycocelix Exotoxins are proteins produced and secreted that damage the cell, gram neg, and pos Endotoxins are part of the gram negative outer membrane, all gram neg Protein A: binds to immune system components, prevent phagocytosis Enzymes: coagulase, hyaluronidase dissolves connective tissue allows spread of the bacteria in the body Streptokinase: binds and activates the production of plasmid Coagulase: insulate the bacteria so the immune system cannot get to it, protects the bacteria by creating a gel blood Leukocidins: white blood cells Super antigens: molecules that act beyond a normal infection, treat the body with multiple infections, results in overreaction by the immune system, results in shock and selfinflicted wounds microorganisms can have the capacity to escape and not get caught, they use the capsule to attach and be able to block the immune system Protease: kill antibody, don’t allow immune system to function properly anything that can grow without any damage is a virulence factor Intracellular Pathogens protects against the immune system 3 Thursday, May 19, y obligate intracellular pathogens: have no choice of inside or out, some is bacteria virusfungi, rely on the host and everything for all energy sources and reproduction, Viruses are the only ones who need everything from the host Extracellular constantly follows you grows outside the cell Infectious Agents Bacteria, fungi, parasites, protozoans, viruses, prions, plant pathogens mycroplasma: serious disease, no cell wall in the bacteria, not gram pos or neg TB: has unusual cell wall, cant be described as gram neg or pos cocci or basilla Skin Epidermis: top layer of skin, constantly growing and shedding cells, includes dead cells, no pH, produces Sebum in the sebaceous glands, dry, cool, has own normal flora, general population of bacteria living on the skin microbes can crawl in around the shaft of the hair sweat glands produce salt, inhibitory with most microbes Strep: streptolysin, flesheating, fever, M protein Strep: less resistant to antibiotics, gram positive, cocci shape, in chains Staph: coagulase, resistant, protein A, penicillinase Staph: more resistant to antibiotics, cocci, gram positive, in clusters, causes diseases —> 4 Thursday, May 19, y Both Strep and Staph produce hemolysins, both can cause toxic syndrome Group A Streptococcus: most infectious agent to humans, more diseases caused by this group than any microbebacteriavirus, has a unique virulence pilirs: attachment & M proteinantiphagocytic, has capsule hyaluronic acid camouflage factorharder to detectallows bacteria to blend into environment so immune system cannot detect it streptolysin kills WBC and RBC in the epithelial layer part of normal flora, causes invasive and systemic infectionsrespiratory infectionssore throat — >Necrotizing Fasciitis flesh eating bacteria, destroys the tissue and spreads, life threatening, can kill you in 48 hours — >toxic shock syndrome bacteria produces superantigen which overruns the immune system and causes it to shut down and go into shock, — >causes MRSAmeticillin resistant staph auerus penicillin is the antibiotic used against this — >Cellulitis — > Scarlet Fever — >Impetigotype of brownish rash that spreads throughout the bodychildhood diseaseshighly contagious, topical treatment, full recovery, no scarring skin regenerates constantly — >Scalded Skin Syndrome bacterial infection, highly contagious, treated with antibiotics, mostly children and babies, top layer of skin peels off — >Conjunctivitis Trachoma eye infection caused by chlamydia, Mycosesfungal infection some staph are part of the normal flora Hospital acquired and community acquired Infections of hair molecules: styeye, furuncles, carbuncles all caused by staph infection Coagulase: form clot to protect bacteria, insulates bacteria against the system 5 Thursday, May 19, y Maculopapular Rash Diseases Childhood rashes, viral infections, all skin infections, all different forms of rashes these diseases are basically under control in this country, 70% of population or more are vaccinated much less of the disease is seen not much treatment available, vaccines available for all of them Measles, Rubella, Fifth disease, Roseola Viral Infections Lesions in small pox destroy the dermis (under layer of the skin), leaves permanent scarring, get by inhaling, vaccine available, this disease was eradicated, last person with the disease was found in 1970 chicken pox effects the epidermis (upper layer of the skin), get by inhaling, vaccine available, form of herpes virus it will never go away, Latency Hepatitis A: contaminated food from a person with this virus, it is eaten, virus comes out through fecal matter Conjunctivitus caused by chlamydia infection caused by gonnorhhaea Trachoma: blindness, caused by chlamydia CNS brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves Meninges casing, multilayer, covers all of brain Meningitis inflammed or infected, can die of quickly Meningiococcal Meningitis effects babies, more common in children than older people 6 Thursday, May 19, y Listeriosiscan cause meningitis Encephalitis diseases of the brain bacteria or virus moves through the nerve and gets into the brain and affects brain cells, can die of quickly Blood brain barrier, decides what passes through the meninges and what doesnt, has restriction sides Tetanus vaccine sometimes protection is lifelong sometimes its just for a period, bacteria that causes lockjaw keeps body in contracting position, makes stiff muscle, **clostridium group of organisms that cause many diseases anaerobic produces endospores (dormant form of life, resistant to heat, dryness) causes Tetanus BotulismGangreneCDAD present in soil, blocks communication between neurotransmitter and muscles Prions CJD Pollo Botulism If an infection gets through the nerves it can get into the CNS and cause problems Rabies sometimes there are alerts of the virus, raccoons are mostly on the eastern seaboard of U.S., bats can carry virus as well, disease of CNS, virus punctures through bites, zoonotic disease, if bitten get help before the disease shows up has long incubation period (weeks), preventionpost exposure passive, antibody protein produced by immune system, post exposure prophylaxis protection after the fact, brain and spinal cord are covered with casing where anything that passes through the body has a hard time getting into it Bacteria that causes Meningitis bacteria can get into the system, survive, and get into the meninges and cause problems has a capsule, makes it hard to remove and destroy 7 Thursday, May 19, y antibiotics HIB many receive vaccine, protects against homophilus influenza causes meningitis some fungi bacterial meningitis: more in danger of dying, antibiotics available viral meningitis: more common, much milder, not as severe, no treatment Polio everyone has received the vaccine for this disease inactive version of the vaccine is available ingest the virus through contaminated water, activity in pool water, fecal matter goes into the NS, effects the movement of your body, makes you cripple, cannot walk endemic still in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria 80% of world lives in polio free areas Arboviral Encephalitis Arboviral: arthropod borne viruses West nile virus travels with mosquito, usually covers the whole country, viral infections, geographic distribution, mosquitos breed in quiet undisturbed water Western Equine Encephalitis (EEE) sporadically in western parts / Canada, between horses and humans, St. Louis Encephalitis geography plays a role, North and South America ****just know these^^ are all viral infections that go between Horse and Humans 8 Thursday, May 19, y Microbial Diseases of the Cardiovascular System Septicemia: presence of microbes in the blood, G is more severe, release endotoxins Toxemia: release of bacterial toxins into the blood stream, Both^^: G is more common than G+, develops RAPIDLT (fever, chills, vomitting), blood pressure drops —> combination of all this is septic shock this system includes the lymph nodes: located everywhere, swell to protect the body, possible that cancer cells travel through the lymph nodes plasma: microbes: malaria, not a bacteria, not a virus, its a parasite, a protozoa, plasmodium species causes malaria, human is the host, arthropod borne disease Protozoa: two forms of life; 1) Cyst form transmission, if ingested you get sick, resistant to elements, resist water treatment system 2) Trophozoite infectious form, active form, grows inside the body, water treatment systems Plosmodium/Malaria cycle: human —> mosquito—> human—> mosquito is part of malaria, part of malaria goes to liverpart goes to RBC, then it ruptures RBCs, releases oocycles, in 48 hours there is fever and chill which are characteristics of malaria, its a cycle, eventually results in enemia and liver problems, recurrance it can come back later on, treatment is Chloroquine, Endemic disease, Malaria belt 300 million people affected, mostly in southern hemisphere of the worldin traveling overseas, life cycle is given through the human HIV: infects WBC/leukocytes, develops inefficiency, hits the cell of the immune system and kills them, lowers the immunity, prone to infection, sexually transmission is the most common way of transmission, RNA —>DNA—> Host, the problem with the virus changes a lotvery sloppy machinery for replication, Clads different variety makes the vaccines inoperable because the virus is always changing and mutating (fluvirus does this as well), Preventable disease avoid contact with a person who has it, Treatment RT inhibiter & Protease inhibiterantiretroviral drugssometimes become ineffective easily, millions infectedAfrica no people older than 3040 9 Thursday, May 19, y because all get HIV and die, main target is CD4 cells, attaches to the surface and uses the RT unique to viruses, mutation changes enzymes so it is hard to attack the virus AIDS: die of complications from other diseases/fungal infections/other infections, can develop chronic ulcer, neurosystem diseases, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, genitourinary tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, skin diseases, TB coinfection Endocarditis Streptococcus pyogenes causes damage to the heart, produce molecules that look as if they are other molecules, when your immune system tries to get rid of them they damage the tissue Septicemia gram + and gram , gram is more problematic, means the spread into the system, when body starts curing the gram releases endotoxins which causes more damage than the organism themselves bacteria or fungi can also spread through the blood stream most common mode of access it parenteral (cuts and bruises) can be diagnosed/discovered through a blood culture serious disease gram + cure: give antibiotics, the bacteria dies, you recover gram cure: start treating the patient, the patient bacteria starts dying, releases endotoxinsLipid A of LPS, results in shock and inflammation blood pressure drop fever intravascular coagulation, treatment includes symptoms of endotoxins as well when the gram bacteria is intact no endotoxin is released 10 Thursday, May 19, y Plague caused by bacteria Yersinia Pestis can go inside the cellintracellular pathogen and cause problems in the body of rodents, fleas feed off of the rats, bite humans too, flea is the vector of infecting humans has a capsule which resists the phagocytosis resists the immune system also can live as intracellular pathogen can survive inside the phagocytic cells easily treated by antibiotics Lyme Disease bacteria: Borrelia burgdorferi easily treated with antibiotics if you catch it soon enough reservoir infection have hours to remove the tick before it infects you; tick takes blood and mixes with saliva and then exchanges saliva with blood diagnose by the ELISA test, can not see the bacteria but instead looks for antibody that fights against this bacteria life cycle of the organism goes through different animals, humans are seen as the target, the life cycle isn't grown by human it just infects the human deer tick, bites human and transmit infected blood into human blood used to be called the great Masquerader arthritis, body ache, disease that is unusual with signs and symptoms 11 Thursday, May 19, y Hemorrhagic Fevers not very common, systemic infections, all viral, no treatment for any of them Ebola recently dropped from animals to humans, direct contact, recent issue with this Lassa recently dropped from animals to humans, droplet contact Yellow fever, Dengue fever biological vectors Anthrax Cutaneous: skin anthrax, very common, if you work with livestock there is a possibility you have these black skin rashes, not lethal, mild form of the disease Pulmonary: lung infection, more serious, breathe in the disease, bacteria forms endospores bacterial name: Bacillus endospore producing bacteria, dormant, in soil can be used as a biological weapon, turn the bacteria into endospores, spread into the population, breathed in and get sick endospores don ’t die, takes a long time to get rid of them Virulence factors: triple exotoxin, cipro Prevention includes a vaccine available for highrisk populations Respiratory Tract most common route of entry of bacteria into your system upper respiratory tract: normal flora, natural population of bacteria, moistens the air, warms it up, traps bacteria and virus lower respiratory tract: no normal flora, no bacteria living here lung has capacity to kill the inhaled bacteria within a few hours so there is no infection 12 Thursday, May 19, y epithelial cells: ciliated, beat and push liquid particles upwards so they can be brought into your esophagus digestive tract throat area best way to breathe is through the nose lung has its own protection, macrophages white blood cells, phagocytic, eat up and remove infection, located where the blood and the lung meet Streptococci most infectious agent against human more diseases caused by this than anything else has multiple virulence factors capsule made of hyaluronic acid (protein of polysacharide is normal), connective tissue, produce same compound that we produce, hides the bacteria, makes it hard to detect M protein antiphagocytic causes multiple diseases Pharyngitis: St. progenes, produces a toxin that kills red blood cells hemolysin, simply treated by antibiotics Common Cold endemic always around, always people coughing, sneezing no fever associated typical cold takes about a week to go away when the cilia in the trachea isn't working properly it makes the lung more able to succumb bacterial infections 13 Thursday, May 19, y best way to avoid a cold is to not touch your nose/upper respiratory area, don ’t let people sneeze on you no treatment or antibiotic, treatment is for actual symptoms runny nose, throat Sinusitis viral, no treatment normal population of bacteria living here that can cause worse issues fungi can cause upper respiratory infections as well Otitis Media ear infection, bacteria gets in and infects sometimes travels through respiratory tract Streptoccocus pneumoniae easily treated with antibiotics in younger children they place a tube inside the canal to collect fluid Diphtheria we all receive vaccine for this, not concern today for U.S., mostly under control virulence factors: toxin that damages your throat cells, causes growth of layers of membrane in which it is difficult to breathe toxoid inactive form of toxin, can be converted, form of vaccine, can be injected in human, body produces antibodies, DTP (name of vaccine) Influenza flu season: Christmas timelate january, complaints start in November Virus that changes, RNA nucleic acids, chromosome is segmented8 piecesnot one piece 14 Thursday, May 19, y the segments of the chromosome can overlap and mix & match and go under mutation, the mixing and matching can change it into another virus different forms of flu A,B,C A has caused most problems different forms have specificity for different tissues human, bird, pig/swine these do not cross human virus doesn't cause disease in swine virus and vice versa new vaccine every year bird flu once killed people but the virus went from bird to human not human to human multiple drugs that affect the H & N and the RNA of the virus has capsid, spikes, envelope, H & N can go from animals and birds Pertussis vaccine available that keeps it under control causes a toxin that doesn't allow the lung to be able to bring up the mucous produces a deep cough (whooping cough) bacterial infection Tuberculosis very important, remember all of this become more manageable now vaccine for TB, other countries have a vaccine as well, we don ’t use the vaccine, we have still been able to control the disease endemic in parts of the world 80s & 90s huge spike of TB 15 Thursday, May 19, y in some countries this disease is endemic, eastern Europe especially tuberculosis is caused by micro bacteria, nasty bacteria, inhaledgoes through system, immune system tries to kill the bacteria, it becomes intracellular divides and starts multiplying, the bacteria goes inside and survives inside the phagocytic cells problem with resistant TB, but good treatment available has an unusual cell wall protects bacteria, dies with heat does not pick up color combination drugs are given to the infected person, treatment is longer than average about a month or so certain strains resistant ones can have you in the hospital for several months tubercle area that immune system tries to control that contains the infection and tries to get rid of it TB test injected with proteins that are the cousin of TB, injected under the skin, takes 24 hours, after two days they measure the size of the bump of reaction the TB vaccine interferes with this test and shows a false positive that is why TB vaccine is not allowed in the U.S. if you have had the infection in the past but it is gone now, you will still show a positive result for the TB test Pneumonia bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses alveoli where exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen happens microphages phagocytic cells 16 Thursday, May 19, y part of trachea has cilia hairlike structures that constantly push the liquid and dust up the lung to protect it ciliated epithelial cells some viruses activate this to happen, makes it more vulnerable for lung infection fluid build up in the lung is equal to infection can have entire lobe or both lobe infected PCPPneumocystis caused by fungus Pneumoccal by streptococci vaccine for this, capsule with virulence factor, vaccine is made of capsule material mycoplasma atypical Legionellosis disease associated with chilling and A/C, contaminated air Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia gram , gram pos. bacteria from upper respiratory, most common route of entry endogenous coming from inside exodogenous coming from outside can come from being sick in the hospital or working around sick people in the hospital Lung Infections Caused by Fungi Histoplasmosis: a systemic fungal infection, lung infection, contracted by inhaled spores of fungi, exposure to damp soil, endemic in eastern U.S. amphotericin B targets the fungi Pneumocystis caused by fungi as cell spore becomes airborne, people inhale it 17 Thursday, May 19, y reproductioon no endospores Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System we have bacteria all over mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines microbes enter the system through ingestion 1)diarrhea, 2)kill intestinal cellsbloody diarrhea (dysentria), 3)come through digestive tract and leave for another organ Typhoid fever can become a chronic carrier if you have it, has to be on antibiotics for several weeks to eliminate, Salmonella can cause this, fecal oral route transmission (preparing food as a person with typhoid) Shigella causes bloody diarrhea, has a virulence factor called shiga toxin, kills the line up of the intestine, low ID50 doesn't take a lot to make you sick E.Coli: one type is EHEC works like shigella, associated with ground beef and hamburgers HAUS (serious disease that effects kidneys, young boys at risk), associated with Traveler ’s Diarrhea Yerosinia bacteria that causes plague/balck death, serious, a few centuries ago it killed 25% of the population in Europe, example of a bacteria becoming an intracellular pathogen, survives phagocytic cellsgrows inside them, get plague by bite of a flea bites rats & rodents natural reservoir of the bacteria CDAD clostridium difficile associated with diarrhea, organized by a group of bacteria causing CDAD, causes pain in the coloncolitisinflammation of the colon Norovirus & Rotavirus both highly contagious, both cause diarrhea, no treatment just needs rehydration, common to cruise ship Food Poisoning intoxication, ingesting preformed toxin, shows within hours, enterotoxin heat stable Staphylococcus produces one, clostridium produces one, bacillus produces one 18 Thursday, May 19, y gastern diarrhea, abdomical pain, cramp, vomitting, fever Protozoans unicellular, eukaryotes, cilia, flagella, pseudopods, no locomotion exist in two transition forms: cyst, trophozoite when cyst gets into body it becomes more active and then becomes a trophozoite mostly waterborne infection Giardiasis: inflammation, diarrhea Amoebic dysentery: bloody diarrhea Cryptosporidiosis: cyst, survives water treatment system, ozone gets rid of cyst Dental Caries stretococcus mutans attaches to the surface of your teeth, microscopic cracks adhesives attach them to the teeth, break down sucrose in your teeth, make polymers that allow them to cover themselves fermentation produces acid best prevention is to keep teeth clean and eat less sugar Periodontitis multiple organisms can cause this Gastritis & Gastric Ulcers helicobacter pylori has adheives, flagella, Ureasetakes urea and breaks it down into ammonia hydroxide, inflammation peptic ulcer, produces acid, highly active associated with stomach cancer 19 Thursday, May 19, y need antibiotics to take care of it Viral Hepatitis inflammation of the liver chemicals accumulate in system, turn into a sponge and can cause cirrhosis symptoms jaundice, fatigue, nausea, appetite loss A food borne, eat contaminated food & get sick, fecaloral route, acute, harsh then goes away, vaccine available B blood transfusion, sexual contact, injection drug use, chronic, long term, vaccine available, associated with liver cancer C blood transfusion, sexual contact, injection drug use, chronic, long term, vaccine available, associated with liver cancer STI asymptomatic PID Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, gonorrhea causes this, disease ascends and goes in through urethra and to the ovaries and cause infection, inflammation of the uterus and surrounding areas can result in ectopic pregnancy abortionendangers life of mother and childfetus dies Gonorrhea: causes eye infection in babies, bacteria has good fimbrae, conjuctiva, women asymptomatic get infected more often than the male, men results in infection & puss formation painful during urination higher possibility to show symptom, not intracellular, easily treated with antibiotics Silver nitrate rubbed on the eyes of every baby to prevent conjuctiva Chlamydia: organism that used the be mistaken for a virus, small sizeno cell wall, intracellular pathogenhas to live inside, cannot produce its own ATP, energy parasite, Elementary bodies EBinactive outside, reticulate body RBactive inside, 20 Thursday, May 19, y can cause PID, female asymptomatic, can also cause eye infection, most commonly reported STI, can cause blindness called Trachoma most common cause of non dramatic blindness in the world, easily treated with antibiotics, LGV lymphatic tissue is infected UTI (not sti) because of anus women get 8 times more often than male can sometimes cause cystitis above the bladder in women there is no bacteria, below there is normal flora bacteria encounter nosocomial infection Concepts in Antimicrobial Control sterilization: killing all life forms plus viruses Endospores dormant form of life antiseptic milder chemicals, used on human skin disinfection harsh chemicals, not to use on human body, used on inanimate objects sanitization cleaning up the area, not a lot of work Keys of Antimicrobial drug non toxic to human using it, the body of the chemical does not process or destroy, doesn't develop resistance quickly, chemical is active in the body, remains active in tissues and fluids Antimicrobial Drugs antibiotics, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoan, Microbicidal kills the microorganism Microbistatic stops microbe from growing Chemotherapy any chemical used to treat, prophylaxis disease Prophylaxis preventive drug that doesn't allow the disease to start 21 Thursday, May 19, y Antimicrobial Chemotherapy use of chemotherapeutic drugs to control infection, against microorganisms control infection (fungal, viral) Antibiotics Produced by natural metabolic process of some microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other organisms, made by some bacteria and some fungi made to kill the competition Semisynthetic Drugs chemically modified in the lab after isolation Synthetic Drugs produced entirely by chemical reactions Microbial Control Methods Physical: heat, radiation, ionizing radiationdepenetrating radiation (X ray, gamma ray), nonpenetrating do the same thing, Dry heat oven, Moist heat water/boil, oiling machine, Autoclave steam under pressure, temp goes above 121 degrees celsius, higher temperature needed for dry heat, incinerate everything is clean Mechanical: filtration, traps microorganisms, less than .5 micron Chemical: antiseptics, disinfection, sterilization More Resistant —> Less Resistant Harder to kill Easier to kill: Prion (infectious proteins, cause CJD, Mad Cow disease), bacterial endospores (dormant forms of life, Bacillus, Clostridium), mycobacterium, Staphylococcus & Pseudomonas (opportunistic infection, has Porinspresent in gram neg., very selective), Protozoan Cyst, Protozoan Trophozoites (overall protozoans are harder to kill), most gramneg. bacteria harder to kill than gram positive, Fungi & Fungal spores, nonenveloped viruses, most grampositive bacteria Actions of Various Physical & Chemical Agents upon the Cell Cell Wall made of peptidoglycan, good to target with antibiotic because bacteria has cell walls and we dont, always looking for Selective Toxicity identify targets n infectious agent that is absence in the human or animal, not all bacteria have cell wall 22 Thursday, May 19, y Cell Membrane usually not the best target for humans, fungigood target ergesterol cholesterol, not effect target for bacteria Cellular Synthesis metabolism, cells use pathways to make things or break things down DNA/RNA nucleic acid synthesis Metabolic Activities drugs called antimetabolitesmanmade compound that humans make, bacteria make their own folic acid, good to target this in bacteria Protein Synthesis good target, especially for bacteria, can be used to effect the cells, done in the Ribosome diff. in prokaryotes and eukaryotes Replication target so bacteria cannot replicate Transcription bacteria cant make RNA Translation bacteria cannot make protein Heat Autoclave put materials in chamber, set a temperature, fills chamber with super hot steam, eventually fills up and pressurizes it, kills everything all life form everything, 121 degrees Celsius Incineration kills everything Dry oven needs higher temperature than steam to kill at the same level, 200300 degree celsius with the oven, longer time as well Wet heat boiling, as long as it is boiling it is 100 degrees celsius it will not go above that, no matter the time it will not kill all life forms just majority As temperature rises, the cell starts slowing down, after some temperature its irreversible protein damage is irreversible, shorter the wavelength the higher energy the longerthe less energy, UV light, X rays, Gamma, damage cells DNA, above visible light doesn't damage infraredmicrowaves, radio waves 23 Thursday, May 19, y X ray or Gamma Ray break the chromosome, damage is irreversible, deeply penetrating into the tissue, cause cancer Zone of Inhibition- Disks Broad Spectrum kill everyone, gram positive and negative, effects own normal flora, more usually given Narrow Spectrum stop growth, kill specific group of organisms, preferred, kills only a small spectrum of bacteria Kirby Bauer system disks, has antibiotics in them, agar plate spread bacteria in plate, has bacterial culture on it, put disk around it and incubate, bacteria grows, components of the antibiotic diffuse and ooze through and cover the plate, if bacteria is resistance it grows right into it, if it is sensitive it will be killed Zone of Inhibition no growth, diameterruler to measure the cross, numbers in millimeters, Targeting Antibiotics Penicillin first antibiotic discovered Alexander Fleming, MRSA(MethicillinResistant Staph) — when developed it is resistant to penicillin disrupts cell wall synthesis— then they use Vancomycin target diff part of the cell wall Drugs that target the Cell Wall: Bacetracin Cephaloporina target the same thing as Penicillin Triarcyclines tagret protein synthesis Targets Protein Synthesis Streptomycin, Vancomycin(targets Cell wall Synthesis) works against MRSA Antimetabolite sulfmanidies , target folic acid synthesis Cypro affects the GNA gyrase, affects Cell Wall synthesis Polymycin affects the cell membrane/cytoplasmic membrane 24 Thursday, May 19, y TARGETS OF ANTIBIOTICS: DNA Synthesis Replication RNA synthesis transcription Translation Treating Fungal Infections has Chitin no peptidoglycan CLASSES: two classes of antifungal drugs, both disrupt the function & synthesis Polyenes Amphotericin B, affects function Azoles affects synthesis, destine alloue synthesis of ergosterol lots of times have side effects most are rubbed insuperficialskin infectionsnot ingested most of the time Antiviral Drugs lots of viruses have no treatment because they are obligate intracellular pathogens no membraneno cell wallno replicationno transcriptionUse host for all of this Fuzeon inhibits viral entry, block HIV infection Ayclovir (Zoviras) inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis, purine analogmimic A & G, most effective against Herpes Virus AZT affects the synthesis of HIV virus RNA virus, reverse transcriptase, combination of RT and Protease inhibiters Inhibition of Viral Assembly Protease enzyme chops long HIV sequences so they can be incorporated into the virus, PI drugs that inhibit Protease Activity major drug against HIV 25 Thursday, May 19, y Resistance can be a major problem MRSA can break down the “ring” so penicillin cannot work, Beta Lactamase breaks downmake antibiotics ineffective drug has to enter the cell to be effective some bacteria modify the surface molecule and mutate so the drug cannot enter, change the target of the drug if given antimetabolites use an alternative pathwaymale a detour THREE WAYS: inactivate drug, prevent entry by changing/modifying target, pump the drug out fast enough that it will never accumulate inside TIP for Exam: Make notecard: diseases based on which part of body, virus or bacteria or fungi or parasite, if there is a vaccine or not, specific treatmentonly if named 26 Thursday, May 19, y LECTURE NOTES STUDY CARDS!!!! https://quizlet.com/128402121/microkrexam3flashcards/?new Please don’t share! Goodluck ! 27