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Popular in American History race and ethnicity
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tyler Murphy on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to amh 2097 at Florida State University taught by R. Soash in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see American History race and ethnicity in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
AMH 8/27/15 ➢ Nationality : A way of grouping people together based off the country where they were born or have citizenship. ➢ Ethnicity : a way of classifying groups of people who have something in common culturally, ex. Language, religion, food, and traditions ➢ Race : a way of classifying groups of people on the basis of real or imagined physical characteristics (seen as innate-fixed, inherent, existing from birth) Problematic Classifications -Nationality- it doesn’t always reflect the way in which a group self identifies Ex. 1. Subjects of the A-H empire 2. Kurds in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran -Ethnicity- it doesn’t always provide an indication about the location from which the person emigrated Ex. Jewish immigrants (Pre-1948) Problems with the concept of race 1. it was invented- carl Linnaeus (1735) Four races: European, American, African, and Asian Based his conceptions of race off of the idea of the 4 bodily humors and the 4 personalities, which he equated with groups of people. 2. Never any scientific consensus on the number of races Other authorities: Johann Blumenbach (late 1700s) 5 races Jean Armand De Quatrefages (early 1800s) 3 races Joseph Deniker (late 1800s) over 20 races Dictionary of Races (early 1900s) hundreds of entries 3. Racial Color Schemes Linnaeus and Blumenbach: first scientists to equate race with color Issues What do you do with “in between peoples” like those from the Middle East? Racial color isn’t a particularly accurate representation of a persons actual skin tone. 4. Using racial divisions, people took unquantifiable, subjective traits- ones that vary from individual to individual- and presented them as fixed, biological truths applicable to entire groups of people. Beauty Intelligence Energy Levels Cunning Ex. Blumenbach and human beauty 5. The biological aspect of race used to justify racial hierarchies Racial and Ethic Hierarchies- a system of stratification based on the belief that different groups are superior or inferior to others. Even bigger inconsistency: Race is supposedly fixed or innate.. yet whenever the order of the groups on the racial hierarchy changed, so too did the portrayals of their physical characteristics. 6. Race is a very rough approximation based on miniscule physical differences Just because race was invented, is tied to artificial color schemes, and in many ways is a social construct, does not mean one can disregard it completely, either historically or today. When individuals ignore race, they often don’t pick up on the ways that the concept- and the biases that accompany it is ingrained in society It sucks to hear people claim to be “blind to race” or “color blind” when you’ve experienced discrimination on the basis of race. Racial Stereotypes- Oversimplified images or ideas regarding the characteristics of entire groups of people -negative stereotypes- why bad? -positive stereotypes- also problematic- why? 9/1/2015 Native Peoples “We were enslaved and colonized as American Indians.” ● 15,000-12,000 BCE: Large nomadic wandering tribes of people from northern and eastern Asian crossed the Bering Strait. Groups moved down the coast to different parts of U.s and south America ● late 1400s: Columbus, 1492- landed in Cuba and made way around for search for faster route to Asia rather than going around Africa ● early 1500s: Spain- first to establish long term presence in new world- Cortez.. conquered Tenochtitlan(modern day Mexico city) by conquering – 200 plus years of control in Latin America and southeastern u.s. ● Early 1600s: British established permanent presence in new world in James town Native population pre Columbus- 10-20 mil native people in Americas.. ● Virgin soil epidemic - spread of viruses across an area where no similar diseases have occured before ex. Small pox, kalmura, typhis, ebonic plague no strong immunity because 1. as they crossed the land bridge they tended to leave sick and dying behind 2. Few domesticated animals compared to Europeans population decline- Cortez went to conquer Tenochtitlan- roughly 300 mil inhabitants, repulsed.. small pox hit and Cortez was able to come and conquer with only handful of men (killed ¾ black feet tribe) Stereotypes 1. Inferior Race: ● “Red”- ● Origins- Southeastern groups-cherokee and creek Indians (referred to themelves; Red Soil; Linaeus- 4 personality traits(irritable and grouchy) ● Why did European colonists embrace it?- took seriously idea of color; race is innate- unchanging ● Color associations ● Law-making 2. Noble Savage ● Origins: European/ philosophers had theory that colonies in U.s. were biblical/ forests, viewed people living there as noble ● Characteristics: nobility, piety, goodness ● Examples: 3. Ignoble Savage: ● Origins: individuals who struggle with wilderness on a daily basis ● Much less positive view of those who reside on that land 4. The Ecological Indian ● More recent version of the noble savage stereotype ● Refers to: environmentalist ● Ecologists vs conservationists Pleistocene Extinctions: mammoths, giant armadillo (hunted to extinction) The Hohokam-50,000 indivs living in harsh enviro of the Arizona desert ● Altering the Enviro: built largest canal system to irrigate farm land ● Their downfall- came from canals- so much water was brought in with numerous minerals that they created mineral and vitamin deposits that disturbed the ecological balance Buffalo ● Cliché: they used every part of the animal, applied only to some tribes ● Head smashed in buffalo jump o Methods: create a stampede where all buffalo fall of the cliff o Origins: indian boy wandered down into area and witnessed buffalo piling up.. so many falling that they squished him into the wall and smashed his head ● Individual Tastes: prefer female over male because hides were easier to work with Fire o Natives used fire to burn land and drive out animals Pocahantas- Colors of the Wind o Subvert stereotypes: superhuman- runs as fast as the deer, picks up a bear cub and didn’t get mawled o Embrace Stereotypes Writing 101 1. Opening Hook o Do Not a. Use sweeping generalizations (“Throughout history, immigrants were treated unfairly” b. Do not open with a definition from Miriam Webster o Instead a. Open with an interesting and relevant quote, fact, or figure b. Lead with a bold( but specific) statement (From the mid to late 19 t century, power dynamics determined whether or not Irish immigrants received favorable treatment in U.S.) 9/3/2015 The British ● Not a homogeneous people ● Picts, Britons, Celts Then a series of invaders ● Romans (1 s century) th ● Saxons, Angles (5 Century) ● Normans (11 th century) ● Vikings ● Late to the new world game 1500s: Spanish, French, and Dutch and settlers 1607: British from Jamestown Jamestown: Who goes? Second and third sons Who are they and why would they want to go to the new world? Oldest son inherited everything, just wait for daddy to die off, wouldn’t have land to inherit if second or third son “Knights, gentleman (jobs not involvindhandsrdmerchants(perfumiae and goldsmith), and other adventurers(2 and 3 sons)” ❖ Died Rapidly ● Starvation- came during drought ● Disease- malnutrition, inadequate med supplies, drinking out of river ● Powhattans ● Numbers: 100s- down to 16 ● Ex. Fernandino Wainman (died of disease year after arrival) and William West ❖ Who would actually want to go to the new world? ● The bored ex. 2 nd and 3d sons ● Religious ex. Puritans, quakers, and catholics ● The desperate ex. Convicts and indentured slaves ❖ Who goes where? 3 key colonies: Virginia, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania 1. Virginia situation -John rolfe saved the colony- grew tobacco( expensive luxury in Europe) -Got more people to come over here to profit off the goods -Who grows the tobacco? Import labor from slaves and group of Europeans(indentured servants, i.s.) -2 types of i.s. – laborers in England who couldn’t find work, convicts by 1700 roughly 170,000- over half coming from Europe were i.s. (60,000-convicts) -how are i.s. treated? Wealthy pay for shipping and then worked to death with severe punishment for those who broke the law -Colony’s attitude towards new arrivals? Pro immigration, anti immigrant wanted immigrants for cheap labor but didn’t want to give them many rights 2. Kings gone wild henry xiii creation of the Anglican church, also known as church of England catholics vs. Anglicans ● Disagreement with Anglican church=disagreement with british monarch= persecution, dismemberment ● Catholics est. colony in marlyand (1630s) ● Puritans est Mass. Bay Colony (1620s)- type of protestant -Puritanism: 1. A reform movement to change the church of England 2. the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy -beliefs: oppose catholics but wanted church to be more strict, oppose to excess and worldly pleasures(drinking, dancing, parties, plays, celebrate) -goals: give example for others on how to live -attitude toward migrants?: encouraged emigration and wanted more people to join their society but only if they conformed to their way of life 3. Pennsylvania ● Quakers -Beliefs: all believers had a priesthood -conflict with other religious groups- drew in members and effected money (Anglican) -william penn/ Charles ii (granted huge tract of land by king) ● Quakers a small religious faction in England. How do you fill all that land? Welcomed and encouraged people of every group -So attitude towards immigration? Pluralism- 1. Coexistence of an array of different groups or belief systems 2. The belief that various religious ethnic and political groups should be allowed to thrive in a single society 3 basic models of American attitudes toward immigration 1. want immigration for labor/ anti rights (Virginia) 2. exclude all but those like us (Mass.) 3. pluralism (Penn.) What are WASPS? ● WASPS: White Anglo Saxon Protestants ● Selective group: who actually meets these in colonial and rev. America? 9/8/2015 From Africa to Slavery Background- slavery ● Atlantic World The Spanish takeover of Hispaniola and Havana Initially use native population for labor (conquistadors took over land) Experimenting with sugar 1502 first African slaves arrive Bartolome De Las Casas (Spanish priest)- horrified of slavery affecting native groups ● The Asiento (1517) Stereotypes ● Africans are the same (hundreds of different people, dozens of diverse languages, a range of different alliances and allies) ● Naked Africans in huts (have trade networks that stretch to coastal cities in cairo and allow access to goods in Europe and asia) The Middle Passage Part 1 ● Slave Factories/ small forts ● European slavers ally with coastal powers (sometimes sold)-to go after enemies African slavery vs, trans-atlantic slavery (African- debter, prisoner of war, committed crime-temporary service- not based on color of skin) ● Time on the shore- spent time waiting for ship in bondage, branded ● Tight packing vs loose packing (fewer slaves wont have profit but fewer will die off) Deaths (1/3 will die before even get on ship, 1/3 will die on ship, thrown overboard if resist or look ill), statistics ● Methods of resistance Deaths (slave revolts- 1 per year) if couldn’t take over the ship- suicide was common Resistance The Trans- Atlantic Slave Trade ● Auctions- separated, stripped, bathed, and greased Prices- varied by health,males vs. females, age, abilities Unskilled adult male in good health: $500 then, $5000 now Unskilled adult female in good health: $300 then, $3000 now Skilled laborer: $1000 then, $10,000 now ● Seasoning Two part process 1. Teaching how to act: how to communicate (“yes” “master”), how to work 2. Teaching how to think: no longer free or an individual ● Branding- rebrand over or next to mark of the company that brought you over ● Terminology- Afr. (gone through middle passaged, not born in colonies, seasoned) vs. Afri Amer. (born in colonies, didn’t go through middle passage, no seasoning- no free memories) Slave Trade: Destinations/ Stats ● Majority heading to Brazil or the Caribbean rather than North America 80% vs. 4% ● Total brought alive: (1500s-1800s) 12-15 million Africans ● Total including: enslaved+killed: 30-40 million (does not include those born into slavery) Age of Flexibility (1619-1670) ● First African slave arrive in Jamestown in 1619 Back story: 20 slaves they couldn’t sell in carrib.,Dutch were desperate to make a profit so they bought with understanding to match price Treated like?- indentured servants (5-7 years of hell, then let free) ● Examples Antonio and Mary Johnson- worked as indentured servant, set free, and marries another former slave, moves to Maryland where eventually able to own hundreds of acres of property, passed it on through generations and eventually named after farm back In Africa Captain Smith and the Rainbow: Smith travels to Africa and cant find roots of coastal tribe to attack, kidnaps during Sabbath and heads back to u.s., owner not pleased and sues him. Mass. Legis. Frees slaves and make sure they get back to Africa ● How/ why does the era end? Barbados to SC pipeline- brought sugar through SC Introduce slave code (idiots guide to surpressing people) Slave Codes 1. Chattel Slavery Slaves are property (owner has absolute control) Never be free 2. Racial slavery ● Inferior race stereotype : skin color justifies status of slavery, easier to oppress people that are less human to you, racial hierarchy led to black slaves and white servants 3. Hereditary slavery ● Status of the mother? – determined the slaves status of a child because some owners were fathers to the slave children Miscegenation ● Definition: sex between the races ● Anti miscegenation laws Maryland, 1664 prohibited marriage between white owners and slaves Virginia, 1691 prohibited marriage between whites and free blacks Massachusetts, 1705 prohibited sex between races- keep supremacy down (black men and white women)- whipped, man would be jailed and sold far away, women support child & sentenced to indentured servitude (white man and black woman- both whipped, man fined and responsible for care of child, woman would be sold) o Terms: o How long did they survive? Until 1960’s Loving vs. Virginia ● Slave and master relations No ability to consent Wives reaction?-didn’t have power over husbands but could respond to slaves (whip genitals and breasts) Types of Chattel Slavery ● Plantation (southern colonies, Virginia, Maryland and down)-hierarchy on the plantation: owner (rich white man(owns several)), manager (related to owner with hopes to inherit), overseer (poor white guy, no relation, dealt with slave business), driver (black slave-slightly above other slaves) Slaves working in field growing tobacco/ rice/cotton Stats o 25% of southerners owned slaves o ¾ of slaves were on large plantations o 3,000 slaves in Virginia (1680) o 16,000 slaves in Virginia (1700) o 46% of Virginia’s population (1750) ● Family slavery in the northern colonies Slaves working with the family, in and out of the house Stats: o 1% of Massachusetts population ● Both horrible in their own way: conditions harsher in plantation slavery but with a group and not suffering alone.. Mass. Treatment is better but alone except for white family that owns you 9/10/2015 The Revolution and early years of the republic Roots 1977 ● Cultural phenomenon ● Won a golden globe- best tv series ● Nominated for 37 emmy awards- won 9 1732: last of the 13 colonies founded (GA) 1754-1763: Seven Years/ French and Indian War 1763-1775: Unrest in colonies ● Royal Proclamation of 1963 ● Quartering Act: 1765 ● Series of taxes on trade goods (sugar, tea, etc) and documents (stamps, wills) ● Boston Tea Party: 1773 ● Coercive Acts: 1774 1775-1783: Revolutionary War ● Terminology: Patriots/ Revolutionaries= pro independence of American colonies Loyalists= against independence, support british monarchy Non- WASP perspectives: native peoples History of playing Eur. Off against each other ● NE , SE Again Native Americans not a single homogeneous group ● Iroquois Confederacy splits 1. Mohicans- allies with Americans 2. Mohawks- allies with British 3. Noble vs ignoble savage ● Lenape split in Ohio 1. Pro American faction- treaty with Americans (ignored by 13 colonies when war is over) 2. Anti American faction- goes to war with Americans (makes them hostile) 3. Neutral faction- Christians 4. Moravian Massacre (1782) Non WASP perspectives: slaves ● African American Loyalists Dunmore’s Proclamation , 1775- any slaves who want to join with the British will be free (few thousand risked) ● African American Revolutionaries (trying to get all men created equal) Hoping to expand Black rights/ Civil liberties ● Siege of Yorktown (where British were held up- used African Americans to help build fortifications) ● Fate of Post-war Black Loyalists? NY: started grabbing people and putting them into slavery Canada: fleed when black people started to be taken into slavery U.S. Constitution 1787 ● Entire Constitution is one big balancing act- pass it by big and small states ● Founding Fathers attitude toward slavery Distasteful In a bind o Rhetoric (all men created equal; life liberty and pursuit of happiness) vs. Reality (important people are slaveholders) Their solution? o Don’t use the word slavery and aim for gradual emancipation September 15, 2015 The Constitution and the Early Years of the Republic (1788-1808) ● Slavery in Decline 1. Prices for slaves is high, fewer and fewer “easy” targets in Africa 2. Good land is hard to acquire, soil dried out after centuries of growing tobacco 3. Cotton, the most profitable crop, is difficult to harvest 4. Many Patriot leaders take the ideals of the American Revolution seriously 5. In the North, plantation slavery never feasible to begin with Emancipation ● Gradual vs. Immediate Emancipation o PA 1783: An Act for the Gradual Emancipation of Slavery ▪ Most Northern states preferred gradual including NH, CT, RI, NY, NJ (1780-1804) o VT, 1777: chapter 1 of their state constitution (Immediate) ▪ No adult “born in this country, or brought over sea, ought to be holden by law, to serve any person, as a servant, slave or apprentice” ▪ Loopholes Children- could be kept in slavery until adulthood “Ought” vs “shall” Enforcement mechanism? – no enforcement, no negative consequences for keeping slaves Founding Fathers Shoot and Miss ● Attempt to end the slave trade- Article 1 Section 9 o Article one, Section 9 in plain English ▪ U.S. could prohibit or tax the shit out of the slave trade in 20 years, but no sooner ● Their assumptions: Slavery will stay unprofitable With no ability for slave owners to import from Africa, the institution of slavery will die out over time ● The Reality? Invention of the cotton gin Founding Fathers’ Attitudes Towards Naturalization ● Naturalization= citizenship ● Article 1, Section 8 Gives Congress the authority to create a “uniform rule of naturalization” ● Congressional Debates in the 1790s o 3 Basic Positions No limits (Vast tracts of land to people ie. Huge areas of land to populate) Period of Assimilation (residency requirements Restriction (immigration) ● Naturalization Status o “Any alien being a free hite person” eligible for citizenship o + Assimilation period start with 2 year residency requirement, eventually settle on a 5 year req. type of people who were immigrating over? The Irish A Brief History of Ireland ● English take control in 1500s (Henry 8 th) ● Religious conflict Catholics vs. Protestants ● Oppression Religious: Henry tried to force the Irish to Protestant by tearing down Catholic churches and killing those that refused to convert Economic: plantation system by Elizabeth- take private prop. Away from Irish, put sheep on it, fence it in, and say “welcome to Ireland” Social and political: forced to work as tenant farmers to grow food for English and export out of Ireland…. Penal laws- prohibiting irish from voting, attending schools, or owning weapons English stereotypes of the Irish (tried to justify trying to take things away from them) 1. Racially inferior ● Great chain of being- blacks ● Black Irish (black on the inside) 2. Brainwashed by the Papacy (the pope) 3. Violent ● Communion, Transubstantiation Catholics believe: the bread and the wine become the actual body of jesus Protestants generally believe: the bread and wine is just a representation or metaphor for his blood and body ● History of rebellions- Henry 8 t took over, Irish are fighting back against British- inherently violent connotation A very brief history of the potato ● Best crop for the irish ● Potato blight of 1840’s Blight= fast spreading fungal infection that can affect vegetables Mass famine – gorta mor or “Great hunger” Pop decline: ● British assumption: god is just visiting his will hurting people he doesn’t like Why leave? ● Irish indentured servants starting in 17 th century th ● Large #’s in 19 century o Attraction of American jobs o English oppression (political, religious, and econ.) o Overpopulation : when the # of people in a country exceeds the amount of resources available to support them ex. Potato blight Jobs for Irish ● Men 1. Bare- knuckle boxing: illegal 2. Day laborers-construction, uncertain 3. Full time at factories- hard to get, few pay rights 4. Mills- cloth manufacturing, womens jobs 5. Mining- good pay, dangerous 6. Railroad- good pay, dangerous ● Women 1. Mills- creating cloth 2. Domestic- full time maid 3. Street walkers- urban areas, male pimp, pays well ● New anchor immigrants: women, send over most $$ and live longer Life in America -population: 1.5 million immigrants (1860) 4.5 million (mid 1900s) Institutional Catholic Church ● Schools for the irish ● Helps assimilate irish ● Reminds irish of home Social Movements ● Bad Timing: migration overlapped with 3 social movements 2d Great Awakening: Evangelical Christianity; salvation for everyone, convert everyone Temperance Movement: alcohol is sinful against God Nativist Movement: anti- immigrant attitude blows up- No-nothings (1850s) opposes Irish immigration WASPs in the U.S. stereotype the Irish as… 1. immoral- Irish had “pub” culture, beer was cheaper than bread, beer was thick, nutritious and filling. Drank at pubs for breakfast and dinner, after work. America has bars, Americans hated bars and stereotyped as drunks. Would publish names of peoples in bars. Irish men- drunks Irish women- “loose” Cholera, 1832, NYC: fecal contamination caused by unhealthy conditions in food and water. Irish in bad condition struck hard. WASPs assume God is punishing Irish for being immoral 2. Racially Inferior- “paddy” and “bridget”- stereotypical Irish characters drawn to be ugly, monkey like savages. (Simian features) compared to African Americans 3. Violent- brainwashed and corrupted by Pope. Long history of rebels against British. Bare knuckle boxing; proves their violent but not brought upon themselves 4. Invaders- WASPs believe theyre brainwashed, Irish coming to this country because of Pope trying to take over, not because of financial issues; Tied to Catholicism 5. Politically Corrupt- settle in ethnic enclaves (5pt/southie), Irish are white and can become citizens. They wanted to vote. Believe they are voting for one side; politically corrupt WASP preference Four factors of success 1. small numbers 2. spread out 3. have to have $$ 4. come to country of positive stereotypes irish prohibited from working in many occupations ● NINA: No Irish Need Apply September 24 th 2015 Civil War Myth #1: Slavery was for blacks own good/ slavery wasn’t that bad Reality: Slavery was hell. Deliberately ● Frederick Douglass What happened to his family? His mother was a slave, raped and sold to the plantation where he was born as an infant Overseers and punishment: overseer pulled out rifle and said when I call your name if you don’t answer-shoot Slave owners’ attitudes towards Black literacy? Myth #2: All slavery took place on plantations Reality: Slavery existed in the cities too, known as urban slavery Douglass- working in the ship yards of Baltimore caulking ships Other jobs: working on docks, unloading ships, artisans, construction, domestics Stats: Myth #3: slaves are passive victims Reality: slaves fought back- in both ways big and small running away slave rebellions th th ● Haitian revolution (late 18 and early 19 C) ● Nat Turners Rebellion (1831) Working slowly Social factors Myth #4 Everyone in the North wanted to eradicate slavery Reality: wide range of political opinions ● Election of 1860 o Southern Democrats- Breckenridge- 850k o Northern Democrats-Douglass-1.3 mil o Constitutional Union Party- Bell-590k o Republicans- Lincoln-1.8 mil ● Copperheads Myth #5: The south always supported states rights Reality: Support for states rights varied depending on who was in power ● Fugitive slave law (1850) Fined northern officials who didn’t help recapture runaway slaves Captured fugitive slaves have no right to a trial by jury or to have anyone testify on their behalf ● Northern states respond- Personal liberty laws Made jury trials mandatory Ordered state officials to “act as counsel” for escaped slaves through the trial process Prohibited use of state jails to detain fugitives ● During the war: Southern governors want: Confederate government needs: manpower Myth #6: South seceded over states rights, not slavery Reality: South seceded over states rights and slavery Ex. Alexander Stephens (cornerstone speech) Myth #7: Lincoln’s primary goal was to free the slaves Reality: Lincoln personally loathes slavery, but his primary goal was to restore the union Myth #8: The Emancipation Proclamation freed every slave Reality: The Emancipation Proclamation only specifies slaves in the Confederacy (not the border states still in the Union) Ex. Maryland and Missouri Why?- you risk pissing off border states, unloyal to union?....prepared nation for freeing all slaves ● EmanthProc. Jan 1863 ● 13 Amend passes congress Jan 1865 ● 13 t amend ratified by the states dec 1865 African Americans in the Civil War ● Black soldiers Lincoln initially opposed, finally allows it: takes 3 years Why do Blacks sign up?-hopes people will think better of them, fighting for their race for them to be free Confederate response?-pissed Union treatment?-paid less than white soldiers, worst assignments(manual labor, serving on front line) Stats:blacks $10/ month vs whites $13/month, 200,000 served in u.s. army or navy (1/5 of black pop.) 37,000 died during war The Irish ● As soldiers- most fighting for the north (boston and ny) Why? Already in north Stats: roughly 150,000 irish indivs. Fighting for north Irish and pro union, not anti slavery o What’s their fear?- have to send money back home, fear of getting jobs taken away ● NY City Draft Riot (July 1863) Union draft policies: Irish riot o Who do they target? o Why? Reinforces stereotypes
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