Human Anatomy and Physiology II Exam 2 Study Guide Questions
Human Anatomy and Physiology II Exam 2 Study Guide Questions BISC 225 and 227
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nia Richard on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BISC 225 and 227 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr.Sheehan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 295 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Human Anatomy and Physiology ll Exam 2 Questions Where is the heart located? In the mediastinum of the and the thorax and resting on the diaphragm Where does the base of the heart lay? Beneath the 2nd rib Where is the apex of the heart located 5th intercostal space What encloses the heart and proximal ends of large blood vessels to which it attaches? Pericardium What is the outer fibrous bag of the pericardium known as? Fibrous pericardium What is the inner layer of serous membrane that covers the heart? Visceral pericardium Inner lining of the fibrous pericardium Parietal pericardium What is a space between the parietal and visceral layers of pericardium that contains a small volume of serous fluid that reduces friction membranes as heart beats? Pericardial cavity What are the 3 layers of the heart wall 1. Epicardium 2, myocardium 3. Endocardium What layer of the heart wall is serous membrane that consists of connective tissue covered by epithelium that includes blood capillaries, lymph capillaries and nerve fibers? Epicardium What is the middle layer that of the heart wall that consists mainly of cardiac muscle tissue,, muscle fibers arranged in planes, separated by connective tissues richely supplied with blood capillaries, lymph capillaries and nerve fibers Myocardium What is the inner layer of the heart wall that consists of epithelium and underlying tissues, contains blood vessels and purkenje fibers Endocardium What are the 2 upper chambers of the heart Atria and ventricle What are the earlike projections that extend anteriorly from the atria Auricles What are the two lower chambers of the heart? Ventricles What separates the right and left atria? Interatrial septum What separates the right and left ventricles? What is an opening in which the atrium on each side communicates with the other by its corresponding ventricle? Atrioventricular orifice What encircles the heart between the atria and ventricles? Atrioventricular sulcus Where does the right atrium receive blood from? Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinuses The 3 cusps of the tricuspid valve are attached to fibrous strings known as Chordae tendinous Blood exits the right ventricle through the Pulmonary trunk The pulmonary trunk divides into ...which carries blood to the lungs Right and left pulmonary ateries What is it the base of the trunk that consists of 3 cusps Pulmonary valve The left atrium receives blood from 4_____ Pulmonary veins What valve prevents blood from backflowing into the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts Bicuspid valve/mitral valve Blood exits the left ventricle through the Aorta The first branches of the aorta ... supply blood to thetissues of the heart Right and left coronary arteries When the atria contracts, atrial systole, while the ventricles relax, this isknown as Ventricular diastole When the atria relax, arial diastole, while ventricles contract Ventricular systole The sequence of events that constitutes a complete heartbeat Cardiac cycle About how much blood enters the ventricles during diastole 70%... When ventricle pressure exceeds atrial pressure what happens A-V valves close What are heart sounds due to? Vibrations in the heart tissue as blood flow is suddenly slowed or speeded with the The first part of a heart sound (lubb) occurs during when Ventricular contraction The second part of a heart sound (dub) occurs during when Ventricular relaxation Damaged valves may not close completely and some blood may leak back through the valve, producing an abnormal sound_____ Murmur Cardiac muscle fibers connect in branching networks forming a Atrial syncytium and a ventricular synctium What is a small node that is an elongated mass of cardiac muscle cells located in the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava whose fibers are continuous with the atrial syncytium? Sinoatrial node (SA node) How many pulses are initiated per minute in an adult by the SA node? 80 What is the SA node also known as? The pacemaker What provides the only normal conduction pathway between the atrial and ventricular synctia AV node What are the large fibers that carry impulses to distant regions of ventricular myocardium much faster than cell to cell conduction? Purkinje fibers Where does contraction of the heart begin? The apex What is a recording of the electrical changes that must occur in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle? ECG, electrocardiogram What wave corresponds to the depolarization of the atrial fibers which will lead to atrial contraction P wave What wave corresponds to the depolarization of the ventricular fibers just prior to ventricular contraction? QRS wave What wave is produced as ventricular fibers repolarize T wave Parasympathetic fibers innervating the heart arise from neurons in the medulla and make up parts of the_____ Vagus nerves What does the hormone Ach Do? Decrease nodal activity and causing heart rate to decrease Sympathetic fibers reach the heart by means of the Accelerator nerves What in the aorta and carotid arterties detects changes in blood pressure? Baroreceptors If blood pressure increases, what decreases the heart rate? Parasympathetic impulses If venous blood pressure increases abnormally, what increases heart rate and force of the contraction to reduce venous pressure Sympathetic impulses Rising body temp increases ... while lowering body temp decreases Increases heart action, decreases heart action What are strong elastic vessels that carry blood away from the heart under high pressure? Arteries What do arteries subdivide into? Arterioles What are the three layers to an artery wall? Tunica interna, tunica media, tunica externa What is the innermost layer that helps prevent blood cloting by secreting biochemicals that inhibit platelet aggregation? Tunica interna What is the middle layer of the artery that makes up the bulk of the wall, that includes smooth muscle fibers, encircling tube and a layer of elastic tissue? Tunica media What is the outer most layer of the artery that contains minute vessels that give rise to capillaries nad provide blood to the more external cells of the artery wall? Tunica externa What is it called when vasomotor impulses are stimulated? Vasoconstriction What is it called when vasomotor impulses are inhibited? Vasodilation Arterioles give off branches called______that join capillaries Interlobular arteries What are the smallest diameter blood vessels that connect smaller artertioles to smaller venules? Capillaries The higher the tissue rate of metabolism, the ... the capillary network Denser What is the most important means of movement? Diffusion In filtration, what kind of pressure forces molecules through membrane, usually more at the arteriole end? Hydrostatic pressure What are the microscopic vessels that continue from the capillaries and merge to form veins? Venules What carries blood back to the atria Veins Veins function as________ during times of blood loss Blood reservoirs The maximum pressure achieved during ventricular contraction Systolic pressure The lowest pressure remaining in arterties during ventricular relaxation Diastolic pressure Alternating expanding and recoiling of the artertoil wall can be felt as the Pulse Radial pulse is equal to the rate at which the...contracts Left ventricle The amount of blood discharged from ventricle at contraction Stroke volume The amount of blood discharged from ventricle per minute Cardiac output What does cardiac output = Stroke volume x heart rate What is the friction between blood and the walls of blood vessels? Peripheral resistance What is the law that states that the greater the myocardial fibers are stretched, the greater the force at which they'll contract? Frank startling law of the heart What center of the medulla keeps smooth muscles of arteriole walls in a state of contraction, which helps maintain peripheral resistance? Vasomotor center What are two vasodilators that are formed in the blood? Nitric oxide and bradykinin
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