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SYRACUSE / Biology / BIO 121 / What is the difference between carbon-12 and its isotope carbon-14?

What is the difference between carbon-12 and its isotope carbon-14?

What is the difference between carbon-12 and its isotope carbon-14?

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School: Syracuse University
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology I
Term: Fall 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: StudySoupBioStudyGuideExam1.pdf
Description: Here's the study guide to exam 1 that I made up. Its 50 multiple choice questions just like the exam will be. Happy studying!!
Uploaded: 10/01/2015
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Bio 121 Study Guide: Exam 1


What is the difference between carbon-12 and its isotope carbon-14?



1) Which of these answers correctly places the levels of organization  from largest to smallest:

a. Biosphere > population > community > ecosystem > organism  > organ system > organ > tissue > cell > molecule > organelle  > atom

b. Biosphere > ecosystem > community > population > organism  > organ system > organ > tissue > cell > organelle > molecule  > atom  

c. Biosphere > ecosystem > community > organism > population  > organ > organ system > tissue > cell > atom > molecule >  organelle  

d. Biosphere > community > population > ecosystem > organism  > organ system > organ > tissue > cell > organelle > atom >  molecule  


What determines the reactivity of an atom?



2) Which explains the main difference between hypotheses and theories? a. Hypotheses are guesses; theories are facts  

b. Hypotheses can be tested and proved to be untrue; theories  cannot  

c. Hypotheses are usually narrow in scope; theories have broad  explanatory power

d. Hypotheses can be created; theories cannot  

3) Which of the following is qualitative data?  

a. There are 4 ducks sitting in the pond, each have 3 babies  b. The boiling point of water is 100oC We also discuss several other topics like What refers to any spontaneous flow of energy from one object to another due to difference in temperature of the objects?

c. Diatom bacteria are translucent in color

d. In an experiment we stir the contents of the beaker every 45  seconds  

4) Which of the following best demonstrates the unity of all organisms? a. Natural selection  


What is an ion?



b. Emergent properties  

c. The structure and function of DNA  

d. Descent with modification  

5) The difference between carbon-12 and its isotope carbon-14 is that: a. Carbon- 14 has 2 more protons

b. Carbon-14 has 2 more neutrons

c. Carbon-14 has 2 more electrons

d. They have a different atomic number

6) What determines the reactivity of an atom?

a. The potential energy of the valence shell

b. The number of protons an atom has  

c. The proximity of it to another atom  

d. The atomic weight  

7) What is an ion?

a. When an atom/molecule bonds with another atom/molecule b. When an atom gains an electron If you want to learn more check out What are the four types of regime change?

c. When an atom loses an electron

d. Both b and c  We also discuss several other topics like Which of the 7 hormones produced by the anterior pituitary triggers ovulation?

8) If an ion is negatively charged it is called a cation

True False

9) What coefficients should be placed in the blanks so that all the atoms  are accounted for in the chemical reaction?  

C6H12O6 -> ___ C2H6O + ___ CO2

a. 3; 1

b. none

c. 2; 2

d. 1; 2

10) A covalent bond is:  

a. a bond in which electrons are shared

b. a bond in which the positive atom of a molecule is attracted to  the negative end of another molecule  

c. a bond in which an atom gains/loses and electron

d. a bond in which electrons are split up from one atom to go to  another  

11) Which of the following is a hydrophobic material?  a. Table salt

b. Sugar

c. Oil

d. Paper  

12) What does it mean for a molecule to be polar? a. One atom has more electrons than protons If you want to learn more check out What does microeconomics focus on?

b. One atom is sitting higher in the arrangement of the molecules c. The molecule is more positively charged

d. The overall charge of the molecule is unevenly distributed  

13) Which of the following is not an emergent property of water? a. Water’s high surface tension

b. Water’s density when frozen  

c. Water’s polarity  

d. Water’s high heat capacity

14) Water’s qualities are due to it’s structure and interaction  between molecules and the existence of hydrogen bonds True False

15) A water molecule can transfer an H+ to another molecule to for  a __________ ion (____) and a _________ ion (___)  

a. Hydrogen (H), hydronium (HO3+)  

b. Hydronium (HO3+), hydroxide (OH-)  

c. Hydroxide (OH-), hydrogen (H+)  

d. Water (H2O), hydrogen (H+)  If you want to learn more check out How do rocks melt?

16) What is a buffer (in terms of pH)?

a. A substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution  

b. A basic solution

c. An acidic solution  

d. A substance that cancels out acids and bases  

17) Carbon can form up to 6 bonds

True False

18) Isomers are compounds that have the same number of atoms of  the same elements but are structurally different and therefore have  different properties  

True False  

19) A geometric isomer is  

a. An isomer that differs in its covalent arrangement of atoms  b. An isomer that is a mirror image of itself that differs in shape  due to an asymmetric carbon  

c. An isomer that forms the shape of a triangle  

d. An isomer that has covalent bonds to the same atoms but in a  different arrangement due to the existence of a double bond  

20) Which group is not present in this molecule?

a. Carboxyl b. Hydroxyl  c. Amino  

d. Sulfhydryl

If you want to learn more check out How is telophase different from anaphase?

21) A carbonyl group could be formed by which of the following  actions?  

a. The replacement of the –OH of a carboxyl group with hydrogen b. The addition of a thiol to a hydroxyl group  

c. The addition of a hydroxyl group to a phosphate  

d. The replacement of a nitrogen of an amine with an oxygen  

22) How are polymers formed from monomers?

a. Condensation reaction

b. Hydrolysis

c. By losing an electron  

d. They don’t  

23) What is the function of a polysaccharide?

a. To store genetic information  

b. To form cell membranes

c. To catalyze biochemical reactions

d. To store compounds for glucose  

24) Proteins are made up of _________ and are commonly used as  _________.

a. Amino acids, enzymes

b. Amino acids, DNA  

c. Nucleic acid, glycogen

d. Nucleic acid, enzymes  

25) Lipids and amino acids make up this functional group  a. Hydroxyl  

b. Phosphate  

c. Methyl  

d. Amino  

26) The amino group is made up of  

a. Carbons  

b. Carbons and hydrogens

c. Phosphates and hydrogens

d. Nitrogen’s and hydrogens  

27) Name the two main carbohydrates found is animals and plants  

28) A triacylglycerol is the main storage fat; it consists of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule  

True False

29) What is the structural difference of a saturated fat compared to  an unsaturated fat?

a. The absence of a double bond  

b. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature  

c. Saturated fats are usually animal fats  

d. Saturated fats store energy while unsaturated fats do not  

30) Why do lipids, when added to water, automatically form a  bilayer?

a. Because they like to stick together  

b. Because the hydrocarbon tails are hydrophobic and the  phosphate heads are hydrophilic  

c. Because the phosphate heads have an affinity for water d. The structure of a lipid is already like that without the addition  of water  

31) A peptide bond is  

a. The bond between 2 carbohydrates

b. The bond between two lipids  

c. The bond between two amino acids

d. The bond between two nucleic acids  

32) Peptide bonds from between the _____ of one amino acid and  the ______ of another  

a. carbon, nitrogen  

b. hydrogen, oxygen  

c. R-group, R-group  

d. R-group, carbon  

33) In this level of protein structure, the protein coils and folds into  shapes (double helix or pleated sheet), this is due to the hydrogen  bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide  backbone

a. Primary

b. Secondary

c. Tertiary

d. Quaternary  

34) A proteins 3D shape and its tertiary and quaternary structures  determine the functions of that protein as an enzyme  

True False

35) Which of the following is NOT a function of a protein? a. Function in cell movement  

b. Catalyze chemical reactions

c. Production of energy

d. Coordination of organismal responses  

36) Which of the following does not make up a nucleotide?  a. 5-carbon sugar (pentose)  

b. carbonyl group

c. nitrogenous base  

d. at least one phosphate group  

37) What is the difference between pyrimidines and and purines? a. Nothing they are the same  

b. Pyrimidines make up nitrogenous bases and purines make up  phosphate groups  

c. Pyrimidines are larger than purines  

d. Pyrimidines contain one 6-ring carbon, purines contain 2 rings  of carbons  

38) Prokaryotic cells contain a nucleus  

True False  

39) Which structure is not a part of the endomembrane system? a. Nuclear envelope

b. Chloroplast

c. Plasma membrane  

d. Golgi apparatus  

40) Which structure do both plant and animal cells have? a. Centrioles

b. Mitochondrion  

c. Central vacuole

d. Chloroplast  

41) Which structure-function is incorrect?

a. Ribosome; protein synthesis

b. Smooth ER; production of lipids

c. Microtubules; muscle contraction  

d. Golgi; protein trafficking  

42) What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized  protein that will be excreted by the cell?  

a. Golgi -> ER -> lysosome

b. Lysosome -> Golgi -> ER

c. ER -> Golgi -> vesicles that fuse with cell membrane  d. ER -> lysosome -> vesicles that fuse with cell membrane  

43) Does facilitated diffusion cost the cell energy? a. Yes

b. No  

c. I don’t know  

44) If a cell with a concentration of 10% sucrose is placed in a  solution containing 25% sucrose the cell is said to be in a  a. Hypertonic environment

b. Hypotonic environment  

45) Which of the following is not a major function of a transport  protein?

a. Transport

b. Cell to cell recognition  

c. The attachment of the cell to the endocelluar matrix d. Protein synthesis  

46) According to the fluid mosaic model of a cell membrane,  proteins of the membrane are mostly  

a. Confined to the hydrophobic interior of the membrane b. Randomly oriented in the membrane, with no fixed inside outside polarity  

c. Embedded in the lipid bilayer

d. Spread in a continuous layer over the inner and outer surfaces  of the membrane  

47) Catabolism is to anabolism as _______________ is to  _______________

a. exergonic; spontaneous

b. work; energy

c. exergonic; endergonic  

d. free energy; entropy

48) Some bacteria are metabolically active in hot springs because  a. Their enzymes have high optimal temperatures  

b. They are able to maintain a lower internal temperature  c. Their enzymes are insensitive to temperature

d. High temperatures make catalysts obsolete  

49) Which of the following is the main difference between  photoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs?

a. Chemoheterotrophs can only be humans; photoautotrophs can  only be plants

b. Chemoheterotrophs obtain energy by oxidizing chemicals;  photoautotrophs use light energy as their energy source c. Chemheterotrophs incorporate atmospheric carbon dioxide into  organic molecules; photoautotrophs obtain carbon from other  organisms

d. Photoautotrophs most likely came first on Earth

50) What is the difference between competitive inhibitors and  noncompetitive inhibitors?  

a. Competitive inhibitors always out win when competing for  attachment to an enzyme over noncompetitive inhibitors  b. Noncompetitive inhibitors bind at the active site while a  competitive inhibitor binds at another site on the enzyme c. Noncompetitive inhibitors completely stop substrates from  attaching while competitive inhibitors only change the shape of  the enzyme  

d. Competitive inhibitors bind at the active site while  

noncompetitive inhibitors bind at another site on the enzyme  

ANSWER KEY  

1) B

2) C

3) C

4) D

5) B

6) A

7) D

8) False

9) C

10) A

11) C

12) D

13) C

14) True  

15) B

16) A

17) False

18) True  

19) D

20) D

21) A

22) A

23) D

24) A

25) C

26) D

27) Glycogen and cellulose  28) True

29) A

30) B

31) C

32) A

33) B

34) True

35) C

36) B

37) D

38) False

39) B

40) B

41) C

42) C

43) B  

44) A

45) D

46) B

47) C

48) A

49) B

50) D

Bio 121 Study Guide: Exam 1

1) Which of these answers correctly places the levels of organization  from largest to smallest:

a. Biosphere > population > community > ecosystem > organism  > organ system > organ > tissue > cell > molecule > organelle  > atom

b. Biosphere > ecosystem > community > population > organism  > organ system > organ > tissue > cell > organelle > molecule  > atom  

c. Biosphere > ecosystem > community > organism > population  > organ > organ system > tissue > cell > atom > molecule >  organelle  

d. Biosphere > community > population > ecosystem > organism  > organ system > organ > tissue > cell > organelle > atom >  molecule  

2) Which explains the main difference between hypotheses and theories? a. Hypotheses are guesses; theories are facts  

b. Hypotheses can be tested and proved to be untrue; theories  cannot  

c. Hypotheses are usually narrow in scope; theories have broad  explanatory power

d. Hypotheses can be created; theories cannot  

3) Which of the following is qualitative data?  

a. There are 4 ducks sitting in the pond, each have 3 babies  b. The boiling point of water is 100oC

c. Diatom bacteria are translucent in color

d. In an experiment we stir the contents of the beaker every 45  seconds  

4) Which of the following best demonstrates the unity of all organisms? a. Natural selection  

b. Emergent properties  

c. The structure and function of DNA  

d. Descent with modification  

5) The difference between carbon-12 and its isotope carbon-14 is that: a. Carbon- 14 has 2 more protons

b. Carbon-14 has 2 more neutrons

c. Carbon-14 has 2 more electrons

d. They have a different atomic number

6) What determines the reactivity of an atom?

a. The potential energy of the valence shell

b. The number of protons an atom has  

c. The proximity of it to another atom  

d. The atomic weight  

7) What is an ion?

a. When an atom/molecule bonds with another atom/molecule b. When an atom gains an electron

c. When an atom loses an electron

d. Both b and c  

8) If an ion is negatively charged it is called a cation

True False

9) What coefficients should be placed in the blanks so that all the atoms  are accounted for in the chemical reaction?  

C6H12O6 -> ___ C2H6O + ___ CO2

a. 3; 1

b. none

c. 2; 2

d. 1; 2

10) A covalent bond is:  

a. a bond in which electrons are shared

b. a bond in which the positive atom of a molecule is attracted to  the negative end of another molecule  

c. a bond in which an atom gains/loses and electron

d. a bond in which electrons are split up from one atom to go to  another  

11) Which of the following is a hydrophobic material?  a. Table salt

b. Sugar

c. Oil

d. Paper  

12) What does it mean for a molecule to be polar? a. One atom has more electrons than protons

b. One atom is sitting higher in the arrangement of the molecules c. The molecule is more positively charged

d. The overall charge of the molecule is unevenly distributed  

13) Which of the following is not an emergent property of water? a. Water’s high surface tension

b. Water’s density when frozen  

c. Water’s polarity  

d. Water’s high heat capacity

14) Water’s qualities are due to it’s structure and interaction  between molecules and the existence of hydrogen bonds True False

15) A water molecule can transfer an H+ to another molecule to for  a __________ ion (____) and a _________ ion (___)  

a. Hydrogen (H), hydronium (HO3+)  

b. Hydronium (HO3+), hydroxide (OH-)  

c. Hydroxide (OH-), hydrogen (H+)  

d. Water (H2O), hydrogen (H+)  

16) What is a buffer (in terms of pH)?

a. A substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution  

b. A basic solution

c. An acidic solution  

d. A substance that cancels out acids and bases  

17) Carbon can form up to 6 bonds

True False

18) Isomers are compounds that have the same number of atoms of  the same elements but are structurally different and therefore have  different properties  

True False  

19) A geometric isomer is  

a. An isomer that differs in its covalent arrangement of atoms  b. An isomer that is a mirror image of itself that differs in shape  due to an asymmetric carbon  

c. An isomer that forms the shape of a triangle  

d. An isomer that has covalent bonds to the same atoms but in a  different arrangement due to the existence of a double bond  

20) Which group is not present in this molecule?

a. Carboxyl b. Hydroxyl  c. Amino  

d. Sulfhydryl

21) A carbonyl group could be formed by which of the following  actions?  

a. The replacement of the –OH of a carboxyl group with hydrogen b. The addition of a thiol to a hydroxyl group  

c. The addition of a hydroxyl group to a phosphate  

d. The replacement of a nitrogen of an amine with an oxygen  

22) How are polymers formed from monomers?

a. Condensation reaction

b. Hydrolysis

c. By losing an electron  

d. They don’t  

23) What is the function of a polysaccharide?

a. To store genetic information  

b. To form cell membranes

c. To catalyze biochemical reactions

d. To store compounds for glucose  

24) Proteins are made up of _________ and are commonly used as  _________.

a. Amino acids, enzymes

b. Amino acids, DNA  

c. Nucleic acid, glycogen

d. Nucleic acid, enzymes  

25) Lipids and amino acids make up this functional group  a. Hydroxyl  

b. Phosphate  

c. Methyl  

d. Amino  

26) The amino group is made up of  

a. Carbons  

b. Carbons and hydrogens

c. Phosphates and hydrogens

d. Nitrogen’s and hydrogens  

27) Name the two main carbohydrates found is animals and plants  

28) A triacylglycerol is the main storage fat; it consists of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule  

True False

29) What is the structural difference of a saturated fat compared to  an unsaturated fat?

a. The absence of a double bond  

b. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature  

c. Saturated fats are usually animal fats  

d. Saturated fats store energy while unsaturated fats do not  

30) Why do lipids, when added to water, automatically form a  bilayer?

a. Because they like to stick together  

b. Because the hydrocarbon tails are hydrophobic and the  phosphate heads are hydrophilic  

c. Because the phosphate heads have an affinity for water d. The structure of a lipid is already like that without the addition  of water  

31) A peptide bond is  

a. The bond between 2 carbohydrates

b. The bond between two lipids  

c. The bond between two amino acids

d. The bond between two nucleic acids  

32) Peptide bonds from between the _____ of one amino acid and  the ______ of another  

a. carbon, nitrogen  

b. hydrogen, oxygen  

c. R-group, R-group  

d. R-group, carbon  

33) In this level of protein structure, the protein coils and folds into  shapes (double helix or pleated sheet), this is due to the hydrogen  bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide  backbone

a. Primary

b. Secondary

c. Tertiary

d. Quaternary  

34) A proteins 3D shape and its tertiary and quaternary structures  determine the functions of that protein as an enzyme  

True False

35) Which of the following is NOT a function of a protein? a. Function in cell movement  

b. Catalyze chemical reactions

c. Production of energy

d. Coordination of organismal responses  

36) Which of the following does not make up a nucleotide?  a. 5-carbon sugar (pentose)  

b. carbonyl group

c. nitrogenous base  

d. at least one phosphate group  

37) What is the difference between pyrimidines and and purines? a. Nothing they are the same  

b. Pyrimidines make up nitrogenous bases and purines make up  phosphate groups  

c. Pyrimidines are larger than purines  

d. Pyrimidines contain one 6-ring carbon, purines contain 2 rings  of carbons  

38) Prokaryotic cells contain a nucleus  

True False  

39) Which structure is not a part of the endomembrane system? a. Nuclear envelope

b. Chloroplast

c. Plasma membrane  

d. Golgi apparatus  

40) Which structure do both plant and animal cells have? a. Centrioles

b. Mitochondrion  

c. Central vacuole

d. Chloroplast  

41) Which structure-function is incorrect?

a. Ribosome; protein synthesis

b. Smooth ER; production of lipids

c. Microtubules; muscle contraction  

d. Golgi; protein trafficking  

42) What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized  protein that will be excreted by the cell?  

a. Golgi -> ER -> lysosome

b. Lysosome -> Golgi -> ER

c. ER -> Golgi -> vesicles that fuse with cell membrane  d. ER -> lysosome -> vesicles that fuse with cell membrane  

43) Does facilitated diffusion cost the cell energy? a. Yes

b. No  

c. I don’t know  

44) If a cell with a concentration of 10% sucrose is placed in a  solution containing 25% sucrose the cell is said to be in a  a. Hypertonic environment

b. Hypotonic environment  

45) Which of the following is not a major function of a transport  protein?

a. Transport

b. Cell to cell recognition  

c. The attachment of the cell to the endocelluar matrix d. Protein synthesis  

46) According to the fluid mosaic model of a cell membrane,  proteins of the membrane are mostly  

a. Confined to the hydrophobic interior of the membrane b. Randomly oriented in the membrane, with no fixed inside outside polarity  

c. Embedded in the lipid bilayer

d. Spread in a continuous layer over the inner and outer surfaces  of the membrane  

47) Catabolism is to anabolism as _______________ is to  _______________

a. exergonic; spontaneous

b. work; energy

c. exergonic; endergonic  

d. free energy; entropy

48) Some bacteria are metabolically active in hot springs because  a. Their enzymes have high optimal temperatures  

b. They are able to maintain a lower internal temperature  c. Their enzymes are insensitive to temperature

d. High temperatures make catalysts obsolete  

49) Which of the following is the main difference between  photoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs?

a. Chemoheterotrophs can only be humans; photoautotrophs can  only be plants

b. Chemoheterotrophs obtain energy by oxidizing chemicals;  photoautotrophs use light energy as their energy source c. Chemheterotrophs incorporate atmospheric carbon dioxide into  organic molecules; photoautotrophs obtain carbon from other  organisms

d. Photoautotrophs most likely came first on Earth

50) What is the difference between competitive inhibitors and  noncompetitive inhibitors?  

a. Competitive inhibitors always out win when competing for  attachment to an enzyme over noncompetitive inhibitors  b. Noncompetitive inhibitors bind at the active site while a  competitive inhibitor binds at another site on the enzyme c. Noncompetitive inhibitors completely stop substrates from  attaching while competitive inhibitors only change the shape of  the enzyme  

d. Competitive inhibitors bind at the active site while  

noncompetitive inhibitors bind at another site on the enzyme  

ANSWER KEY  

1) B

2) C

3) C

4) D

5) B

6) A

7) D

8) False

9) C

10) A

11) C

12) D

13) C

14) True  

15) B

16) A

17) False

18) True  

19) D

20) D

21) A

22) A

23) D

24) A

25) C

26) D

27) Glycogen and cellulose  28) True

29) A

30) B

31) C

32) A

33) B

34) True

35) C

36) B

37) D

38) False

39) B

40) B

41) C

42) C

43) B  

44) A

45) D

46) B

47) C

48) A

49) B

50) D

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