ART 2313 Exam 2 Study Guide
ART 2313 Exam 2 Study Guide ART 2313
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Selina Quick on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ART 2313 at Texas State University taught by Pizer in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Fine Arts in Art at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Test 2 Review 70 05 20 image based50 MC TF Matching focus heavily on important names and their contributions to their era image 511 Christ is viewed as quotThe Good Shepherdquot It39s unusual to see the cruci ed Christ Orant gures humans standing in a prayerful stance arms up and palms out No beard on Jesus V VVV v The split of the Roman empire into Eastern and Western quotspheresquot Created to establish a clear line of succession This shows that art is about its message often created in a sophisticated manner 284 CE Dioplecian separated the Roman empire with 4 leaders when he retires only 2 leaders remain Constantine v Maxin have a battle Constantine wins gt He created a guideline for what was appropriate in art good art would Properly instructlead the people to Christianity 0 No illusions or trickery Grounded the senses gt Doctrine of Original Sin Christ is the quotsaviorquot or quotredeemerquot from mankind s fall from grace Sin was caused by women D Eve gt Apostolic Mission mission of the apostles to convert any nonbelievers although credit is given to Augustine STPAUL also contributed to this movement gt Christians are casuay caed quotNazarensquot because they were from Nazareth VVVU V 1 legalized Christianity in 314 CE He was a dei ed emperor 939 head on a 5639 body Fu statue used to be in the Basilica After Constantine Christ is imperial type shows Christianity as triumphant Sarcophagus ofJunis Bassus image 518 Christ on throne feet on Venus 359 CA yvvv e Basilicas a Roman law court later converted into public congregation places for worship gt Roman Basilica law emperor statues gt Christian Basilica religion statues of sacred idols doorways moved to the west end or the quotwest workquot facing holy land they had clear story windows l these are windows that are higher on the wall usually a oor level or more higher to allow illumination and a feeling of divinity f image 51 gt Often located in Basilicas where a work depicting the religious idol was centered this is the round dome part think of a grotto where they place holy relics like the virgin Mary 13401403 a Hieratic to view an art as though it contains a sacred power gt Iconoclastic Controversy con icts over whether representing icons is improper bloody battlesthose who escaped as refugees travelled to the West and revived art b Art is made of precious ivory metals textiles mosaics there are no surviving examples of large scale sculpture paganism was feared disapproved of large scale icons C gt His reign marks the beginning of the Byzantine Empire gt 570 CE to 1453 gt Christianity is declared the of cial religion of the state gt Compiled the law code Corpus Juris Civilis gt Muhammad was born during his reign d 12041205 gt When the 4th crusade sacked Constantinople e image 633 gt Crowing architectural achievement of the Byzantine Empire gt Ceilings and walls are covered in mosaic gt quotMother of Wisdomquot l The Virgin Mary gt Pendentives were used to structurally support the dome of the building These are triangular shaped columns at 90 degree angles f Corpus Juris Civilis the cornerstone of US legal system code of law gt Latin was only used with law Greek was the language of Byzantine gt Mosaics gt Depiction ofJustinian s wife gt h gt gt vvvvg d e f 9 h i vvvvz Theodora was an actressacrobatprostitute Good example of hieratic works D purple Theodora is larger than those that rank beneath hershe is centeredhas a halo image 54 Pantonractor quotruler from heavenquot Christ is angry the byzantine empire is blowing up Muhammad born in 570 5 Pillars of Islam Olms to the poor Professing your faith Prayer 5x day Pilgrimage Fasting Ramadhan 632 MUHAMMAD RETURNS TO MECCA SMASHED EVERYTHING IN THE KABBAH room where all sacred religious items were kept image 621 Marks the triumph of Islam as the 3rCI and nal revelation of God External is covered with mosaics Pillars are borrowedrefurbished from the destruction of older structures Where Ishmael was offered as sacri ce the story of Abraham amp Isaac in Islam Aniconic no artistic representations of religious gures not in human or animal form They wanted to prevent a misinterpretation of who the gures were DuranKoran means quotrecitationquot Contained hadith discussions between those of religious signi cance Allah God Mosque a place for bowing down Islam quotsubmission to the will of Godquot Hegira the most sacred date on the Islamic calendar Year 0 on the calendar 622 CE Means quot ightquot from Mecca to Medina sacred lands Surah chapters of the Quran with verses Mihrab Islam version of an apse circular dome part of a wall indentation Hadith religious based discussions between powerfulimportant people recorded image 623 In Demascus 1St mosque ever Styles borrowed from preexisting structures and cultural styles Mosaic VVV Focus heavily on increasing horizontal square footage Minurets originally roman guard towers became towers for prayer Central Apse Mihrab this pointed toward Mecca this was often the case with those who could choose the footprint of their mosque Fa umage 712 gt b a gt gt gt V Art is used to access the primal strugglepredator v prey or predator v predator Berzerkers Barbarians would be called this because they would psych themselves outget pumped up for battle painted their faces and messed up their hair to intimidate the enemy 732 victory led by Charles Martel over lslamic forces Partier France image 717 Emphasis on deathdamnationfear of Godneed for repentance Original sin still blamed on women Doorway depicts Adam amp Eve in the garden of Eden quotblamingquot one another Bronze doors gt gt gt gt VVV De ned Holy Trinity Fear of God gt Love of God Listed the 7 deadly sins Mystery scenes from Old Testament that were strongly linked to New Testament Miracle performed to depict lives and miracles of saints Passion dealt with the life and cruci xion of Christ Moralitv Hellmouth Satan or the devil calling for sin or salvationtook place in churchesbanned because people would quotact outquot sin too frequently Pilgrimage people would travel to view reliquaries in different parts of the countrytowns would build churches to attract people Monasticism devoting your life to spiritual knowledgelearning Feudalism an oath between a lord and his vassals Carried over from hierarchy in barbarian culture chieftan would be paid in part for what the chief lieutenants did Communalism serfs living in small villages have a connection to the land that they work onshare their tools because they have nothing b VVVQ 1st bronze equestrian statue since the ancient roman times Likened to a statue that was mistaken for Constantine was actually Marcus Arelius Charlemagne was crowned the Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Eve of 800 CE Renovatio Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Chapel designed by Charley built by Alciun of York Aachen Germany 792805 Modeled after San Vitali Illuminated manuscript Produced under the patronage of Charlemagne e architect capable of ful lling Charlemagne s ideals for a gt gt i v VVVEVVVV V cha el Gat ered intelligent people from across the region to solve all religious disagreements Collected sacred texts found important ethics in old script and pagan documents and transcribed them into a single document D created exact copies only used codi ed alphabet Gero Cruci x image 713 Relicaries started here relics sacred items like a lock of Virgin Mary s hairJesus shroud Pilgrimage across countries to see different churchesrelics Doors of Hildesheim C 1010 0 Scenes of Adam amp Eve emphasis on a need to repent fall from grace image 714 Created the quotlast judgment tympanumquot Autun Cathedral France quotMay these images terrify those weighed by earthly sinquot Depicted souls being weighedpurgatorywomen being tortured image 718 Romanesque starts at 10001001 Toulouse France Hall extensions held relics this prevented visitors from disrupting church services ambulatory halls Example of Romanesque style Rounded arches Stone ceilings most of the time Thick walls small windows Dark interiors Barrel vaulting c Tympanum arched form above doorways that depicts a religious scene Crusades One successful held Jerusalem for 60 yrs Chivalry women rewrote conduct while men were away at battle Elenore of Aquatane sp author of chivalry a Cathedrals VVV VV gt gt gt gt gt Pointed arches Buttressing with a pointed arch the weight of the walls bows out a buttress leans against the wall to counter the weight and support the building 0 Large stain glass Ribbed groin vaulting X shaped ceilings with little quotdashesquot in the lines of the X that project down to stabilize and counterbalance the arch Fought for a woman39s more active role Advocate for the Cult of the Virgin MaryMary Magdelon Against the idea of Aristotelianism Aristotle39s writings on rational thoughtBernard believed that religion was intuitive and did not require reasoning Emphasizes Lord s loving kindness Believes churches should be places of Christian worship Spaceunitymystery of GodRich and colorful life Architect capable of designing and building according to Bernard Builds the image 813 Focus on meditation light of divination unity Supported Aristotelianism Created the university D Oxford Paris etc 0 Male children of wealthy families could attend and learn abstract knowledge Learned languages so they would better understand their Latin bibles and whenever the priest spoke dogma during service Rose circular glass stain windows Upward striving lines the spires appear to be quotdematerializingquot as they Notre Dame Du quotOur Lady ofquot Notre Dame du Paris one of the most renown cathedralshas ying buttressing buttresses are external cannot be seen from the inside lamb statues that stand outside of the doors of a church Older ones have a more columnar appearance Foreshortening when viewed by looking up from eye level they appear shorter than the statues truly are giving them a more lifelike appearance Pope Gregory Gregorian Chant Melismatic one syllable over multiple musical notes Syllabic multiple syllables paired with one musical note Created 2nCI voice to plainchantmelodic chants polyphonic music 1St country outside of France to adopt Gothic Style Purposely misinterpreted the style 0 Long central maive short spires small windows Buttressing was purely decorative Last country to adopt gothic style Hallenkirche or a quotHall Churchquot is introduced to gothic style Emphasized windows wanted full lighting Less necessary buttressing Roettgen Pieta image 912 Wooden statue Virgin grieving over dead Jesus 0 Made for grieving mothers who lost their children in infancy or birth Italy is heavily in uenced by the GrecoRoman styles Milan Cathedral image 917 More emphasis on politics than religion Italy 1386 Duke used extortion to pay for construction Multiple architects with different views spoke different languages e image 822 gt 11451220 France gt gt 2 unique spires towers gt rise toward heaven f gt 9 gt gt Represent kings and queens gt Hildegard of Bingen gt gt gt gt gt Smaller building Stacking stain glass gt gt Claus Sluter image 819 a gt gt gt b artistimages 98 gt Skilled in naturalism gt Madonna enthroned she appears quotbyzantinequot in style c artistimages 99 and 910 gt quotMadonna Enthronedquot shows the female aspect can see the outline of her breasts quot The Lamentationquot Uses human emotional response from sacred gures Allows viewer to feel like a witness as opposed to detached from the historical scenes VVV Pages to take a look at 147 Constantine151 lmage154 StAugustine156 both images159 image163 image 526 basilicas165 Music174 mosaic of Theodora176 amp 185 Byzantine179 Muhammad192 Technology green section194 Masterwork red section197 dome of the rock211 church213 image 73215 feudalism216 serfs218 paintings220 image 711225 image 717 amp 718226 architecture229 music230 Hildegard blue section245 chivalry249 262 all images know churches and artists
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