Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 FSCN 1112
U of M
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Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Cummins on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Study Guide for Nutrition Exam 1 Week 1 1 2 3 What are nutrients What are the 6 key nutrients What foods are they in What are the 3 nutrients used for energy How many kcal g do you get for each 4 What are phytochemicals 5 What makes up a nutritional assessment 6 Does genetics play a role in nutrition If so how 7 What do these mean in regard to your diet DRI EARRDA AI UL DV and EERAMDRI 8 What is nutrient density Which foods are nutrient dense Which are not 9 Name the 3 main food label claims What are some common claims on food labels today Week 2 1 What factors affect nutrient composition 2 What are the 5 categories of food recognized by the US government What trends are they noticing in what we eat 3 What does it mean to be food insecure How many people are considered food insecure What programs are there to help those people in the US 4 What is the difference between under nutrition and micronutrient deficiency 5 What are the pros and cons of organic foods 6 What are the pros and cons of GMO s 7 What is rBGH Food irradiation Cloning 8 What are the pros and cons of food additives How does the FDA regulate them 9 Who is at an increased risk for foodborne illnesses Name 3 critical points of contamination 10 List 5 types of pathogens and give examples of eachwhat foods they can contaminate 11 What causes water contamination in the US What affect does this have on food Week 3 1 What are the levels of organization in the body 2 What system is directly involved in digestion Name the organs in order of food contact and the organs that are indirectly involved in digestion 3 What is the difference between digestion and absorption 4 What are the different layers that make up the lining of most of the GI tract 5 What is a sphincter Where are they on the GI tract 6 What ways do muscles in the GI tract move food 7 Name the major secretions involved in digestion Where are they made what are they for 8 What is the mouth responsible for 9 What is the epiglottis 10 How does the stomach digest food What gets digested in the stomach 11 Name all of the parts of the small intestine What happens in the small intestine 12 How does the liver aid digestion 13 What does the gallbladder do 14 What does the pancreas produce to aid digestion 15 Name 4 ways cells absorb nutrients 16 What is absorbed in the stomach The small intestine The large intestine 17 Where do nutrients go after they are absorbed 18 What is the most important part of the large intestine 19 What in uences the micro biome 20 What are some common GI tract diseases What are the symptoms and causes 2 1 What are carbohydrates How are they made What are they made of 22 What are monosaccharides Disaccharides Name some examples 23 What are complex carbohydrates What foods can they be found in 24 What are the differences between soluble and insoluble fiber Week 4 1 What are the major types of sweeteners used in foods 2 Put these in order from least sweet to most sweet sucrose artificial sweeteners lactose fructose What is the recommended daily intake of sugars Of carbs in general What are the benefits of eating carbs from a digestive health standpoint How are carbohydrates digested Which 2 hormones control blood sugar What do they do What are the differences between the 2 types of diabetes What is the glycemic index How is the glycemic load different What is the major type of fat eaten by humans What is it made of How is it made in the body Destroyed 10 Name examples for short medium and long chain fatty acids 11 What are the levels of saturation What foods are they in 12 What is hydrogenation What are trans fats 13 What are the essential fatty acids 14 How does the body use triglycerides 15 What are phospholipids 16 What are sterols 990N991er Answers Week 1 1 The substances humans need to survive are called nutrients Nutrients must a Be required by the body the body would be hurt without it b Must preform a specific biological function ex rebuild muscle tissue c 3 groups include energy supply materials for growth development and regulate body systems Energy Supply 1cal the amount of energy needed to raise a mL of water 1 C 2 The body needs energy to I Build structures I Contract muscles I Maintain ion balance in cells I Operate nervous system 0 Carbohydrates I 1g provides 4kcal of energy I Simple carbs called sugars ex table sugar sweetener in soda I Complex carbs ex bread pasta Carbs are not essential to support life however most people get the majority of their energy through carbs o Lipids I 1g provides 9kcal of energy most energy dense nutrient I Ex olive oil butter lard 0 Proteins I 1g provides 4kcal of energy protein is often not converted into energy because it is needed to do other work in the body I Builds structures repairs muscle damage GrowthDevelopmentRegulation o Vitamins I Water soluble BC I Fat soluble A D EK 0 Minerals I INORGANIC no carbon I Major Na K Cl Ca and P I Trace Fe Zn Cu and Se 0 Water I Body is 6070 water I Essential for body processes 3 Carbohydrates 4kcalg lipids 9kcalg protein 4kcalg 4 PhytochemicalsZoochemicals AKA functional foods 0 Compounds not REQUIRED in diet but have huge health benefits 0 Ex consuming capsaicin in peppers has been linked to longer lives lycopene is an antioxidant 5 Nutritional Assessment 0 Anthropometric I Physical measurements I Heightweight 0 Biochemical I Nutrients in body I Bloodurine analysis needed 0 Clinical I Physical evidence of poor health I Rash 0 Dietary I Food consumed I Nutritional value of daily intake of food 0 Environmental I Environment and economical background I In uences the other parts of the assessment 6 Environment and DNA in uence susceptibility to disease 0 Genes and genetic mutation determine an individual s nutritional needs and how nutrients are used 0 Higher risk of disease can run in families through common gene mutations an increased risk of breast cancer heart disease 7 DRI Dietary Reference Intake 0 Nutrient recommendations EAR Estimated Average Requirement Daily nutrient requirement for 50 of the population Must be quantifiable and have marked success Used for 17 major nutrients carbs protein vitamins Ex the EAR for calcium is based on the amount needed to avoid osteoporosis RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance 0 Based on EAR 0 Daily amount estimated to satisfy 9798 of the population s needs 0 A goal for daily intake to reduce minimize the risk of disease AI Adequate Intake 0 Estimate for nutrients that have insufficient data or are not linked to a singular disease marker 0 Ex fatty acids fiber UL Upper Intake Limit 0 The maximum dose of a nutrient that allows the body to stay at a functioning level Energy Recommendations 0 EER and AMDRI 0 Based on multiple factors in development growth pregnancy DV Daily Values 0 Developed by FDA and put on food labels uses DRA and DRV daily reference values 0 For any individual over 4 years old 0000 8 Nutrient density 0 Calorie to nutrient ratio 0 Ex coke vs milk milk is more nutrient dense 9 Nutrient density 0 Calorie to nutrient ratio 0 Ex coke vs milk milk is more nutrient dense Week 2 1 Factors affecting nutrient composition 0 Freshness foods loose nutrients over time 0 Processing can remove nutrients or make them more available through cooking 0 Soil compositionweather grapes for wine making depend on rain sunlight 0 Genetic background generic tomatoes vs heirloom 0 Storage freezer vs fridge vs hot sun 2 Food categories dairy meatbeans fruits vegetables grains oil a US gov says people need more fruits vegetables whole grains low fat dairy varied protein seafood and fiber b US gov says people need less salt saturated fat and alcohol c Serving size suggestions not always the size of the package have increased over the past few decades d Studies show an increase in portion size has led to a rise in obesity 3 Food insecurity uncertain access to healthy safe food 1 in 6 people worldwide are food insecure especially in developing countries a 13 of the world population has a micronutrient deficiency b In the US 15 of population is food insecure closely linked to poverty c Highest in children minorities and single parents Food security programs d SNAP supplemental nutrition assistance program i Food stamps ii 11 of US population participates e WIC support for women infants and children i 9 million participants f Second Harvest Heartland distributes 70 million lbs of food to MN every year 4 Under nutrition lack of energy supply carbs protein fat Micronutrient deficiency missing vitamin A vitamin D iron or any other vitamin mineral 5 Pros i Lower antibiotic resistance ii Lower environmental impact reduce dead zones around river deltas by decreasing harmful chemicals in water systems iii Reduce negative health effects related to harsh chemicals consumer and farmer b Cons i Expensive ii Not efficient lower yield iii Shorter shelf life iv NO NUTRITIONAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORGANIC AND NONORGANIC 6 Ex A gene in a certain type of bacteria makes a toxin that repels the European corn borer When the gene is added crop success rises because of the decrease in pest activity a Pros ii iii Cons ii Adds nutrients vitamin A inserted into rice Increases yield Makes crops disease resistant Big business has total control over all of their seeds because they are considered intellectual property GMOs mutate and can spread into neighboring fields US leads world in GMO production corn soybean cotton GMOs are banned in Europe based on consumer demand Safety concerns i ii iii iv Addition of new allergies to certain types of food no documented proof to support conclusion Unintended gene ow GMO crops reseed and drift to neighboring farms Crop gene pool is getting smaller and smaller species are becoming more homogenous ie development of Bt resistant insects can wipe out entire farms Insufficient regulation and oversight could lead to problems slipping through the system 7 Recombinant bovine growth hormone rBGH i ii iii iv Injected into cows to increase milk production Milk is chemically identical to that of untreated cows Concerns cow health unknown safety risks Banned in other countries based on consumer demand b Food irradiation C i Radiant energy microwaves emitted to kill pathogens on food and extend shelf life Cloning i ii iii Currently not approved for consumption No effect of cloning on meatmilk composition Could be used to propagate selected animals 8 Improve freshness and safety as well as add to nutritional value enhance color avortexture Incidental addition BPA leaching into food from packaging Can be synthetic or natural Food additive regulation FDA 0 O O O O GRAS generally recognized as safe Ex sugar salt To find out if an additive is safe it is fed to a mouserat in extremely high doses for a short period of time Not a very accurate way to measure humans differ greatly from lab mice and should be worried about a lifetime of exposure in low doses Concerns I Individual sensitivity to an additive I Informationresearch on additives is not detailed enough 9 Individuals at risk People with weakened immune systems HIVAIDS I Pregnantlactating women I Infants and small children I The elderly 0 Common points of contamination I Contaminated by feces spinach crops grown near fields fertilized by manure can pick up E coli I Contamination by affected individual open wounds can transfer pathogens I Cross contamination in the kitchen a cutting board used for raw chicken is used for raw veggies biggest concern for home cooks 10 Bacteria 0 Need nutrients water and proper temperature 41 F 1350 F in order to survive o Salmonella eggs poultry 1 million casesyear o Campylobacter meat poultry 850000 casesyear o E Coli beef produce 175000 casesyear most lethal bacteria Viruses norovirus o Reproduce inside of body cells 0 Seafood Parasites 0 Live in hosts 0 Tapeworm Prions 0 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE mad cow disease 0 Comes from eating infected brains Toxins o Mycotoxins form molds that are harmful 11 Threats to safety I Runoff from farms I Pollution from boats factories I Unlawful disposal of chemicals fecal waste I Can affect fish 0 Environmental concerns I Mercury and heavy metals in fish salmon I Other PCBs antibiotics Week 3 1 molecules cells tissue organ organ system organism 2 Systems directly involved with food mouth esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine rectum anus Systems indirectly involved with nutrient absorption liver pancreas gallbladder 3 Digestion is the process of breaking down foods into a form the body can use while absorption is the uptake of nutrients from GI tract into the body Mucosa inner most layer lots of mucus for lubrication Sub mucosa contains blood vessels that take nutrients away to body Muscles moves food through system Serosa protective layer 5 Sphincter prevents food from owing the wrong way 5 total 3 examples include ii iii 6 Movement 1 ii iii 7 Secretions 1 ii iii iv V vi vii Esophageal sphincter keeps food in stomach keeps acid in failure to do so results in heartburn Pyloric sphincter controls ow out of stomach Sphincter of Oddi controls ow of bile from gallbladder Peristalsis contraction of muscles to move food along Segmentation repeated contraction to break food up into smaller pieces Mass movements peristalsis over a long distance Saliva mouth lubrication starch breakdown keep a cracker in your mouth and it will start to taste sweet as large carbs are broken down into sugars Mucus used throughout GI tract lubrication Enzymes break down the majority of the food we eat each has a specific job breaking down a macromolecule into something smaller that can be absorbed mostly in small intestine Acid denatures proteins destroys microorganisms in stomach Bile aids in fat digestionabsorption made in liver controlled by gallbladder Bicarbonate neutralizes pH once food is done in stomach made in pancreas Hormones coordinate all processes and used throughout the body 8 Chewing enables us to swallow food increases surface are of food particles a Saliva components i ii iii b Tastes i ii Lysozymes breaks down bacteria Mucus holds bolus of food together Amylase breaks down starch Taste buds on tongue and soft palate 5 different tastes salty sodium sour acid sweet sugar bitter phytochemicals from plants and umami earthy savory amino acids iii Olfactory glands in nose are used to smell food and greatly impact taste 9 Epiglottis pushes food down esophagus prevents food from going down the windpipe 10 Acid HCl is used to digest food Little is absorbed through stomach Starts protein digestion Pepsinogen is secreted but only digests as pepsin in low pH Lipase is released to start fat breakdown Gastrin hormone that releases HCl and pepsinogen Mucus protects lining cells of the stomach from harmful HCl acid contact makes ulcers ulcers common in long term aspirin users 11 Most digestion and absorption happens in the small intestine a 3 parts i Duodenum ii Iejunum iii Ileum b Lots of surface make absorption possible i Villi finger like structures inside small intestine filled with blood vessels ii Microvilli fingers on the villi to increase surface area 12 The liver produces bile to help absorb fat helps make fat water soluble It is also the sorting center for all nutrients that have been absorbed into the blood stream fat soluble nutrients are treated in the lymphatic system 13 The gallbladder stores controls the ow of bile 14 Produces a hormones for the blood stream as well as for digestion b bicarbonate to neutralize HCl in stomach c lipases proteases and amylase enzymes d Hormones play a big role in digestion there is a lot of communication between the brain and gut qorhrbposrsv 15 i Passive diffusion nutrients move from an area of high concentration food to an area of lower concentration cells water fats ii Facilitated diffusion proteins help nutrients move into cells fructose iii Active absorption energy is required to get nutrients from food into cells glucose amino acids iv Endocytosis substances are engulfed by membranes to be brought into cells antibody absorption in infants 16 Stomach absorbs water and alcohol Small intestine absorbs carbs proteins and fat Large intestine absorbs minerals vitamin K biotin and fatty acids from bacteria 17 Blood vessels collect nutrients I Nutrient rich blood collects in the portal vein and then goes to the liver to be filtered I Fat soluble particles collect in lymph system 18 BACTERIA 0 Control pathogenic bacteria by forcing them to compete for survival 0 Make essential vitamins vitamin K 0 Produce short chain fatty acids from fiber side effect gas 0 O O O O 0 Over 5000 species of bacteria in gut 10x more bacteria in gut that there are cells in the body Good bacteria have been linked to lowering obesity cancer diabetes Probiotic live bacteria that provide health benefits Activia Prebiotic nondigestible carbohydrates that promote bacterial growth Cdiff can be cured by transplanting bacteria from a healthy person to infected patient fecal transplant Leaky gut front line of cells break apart and bacteria leak into blood stream which can then infect the entire body 19 Diet bacteria in gut grow and adjust based on what we eat Genetics cell communication plays an important role in working with the bacteria Immune system works in conjunction with bacteria making sure only the helpful ones get to stay Pathogens harmful bacteria compete with healthy bacteria to alter micro biome Antibiotics strong antibiotics can wipe out helpful bacteria forcing most of the biome to rebuild this can be good an bad First 3 years of life are crucial for developing which bacteria will be in the gut for your entire life i During this time the more antibiotics you take the harder it is to restore a normal ora ii Bacteria growth is linked to immune system and correlates to preventing disease as you age Mice study germ free mice were given bacteria from obese underweight mice and the germ free mice took on the traits of their bacterial donors 20 Heartburn and GERD gastroesophogeal re ux b 1 GERD is the chronic version of heartburn ii Foods that increase risk fats spicy foods iii Treatments include antacids and inhibitors that block HCl production in the stomach iv Laying down after big meals makes an episode more likely Ulcers i Caused by bacteria treated using antibiotics ii Aspirin can thin mucus lining of stomach also causing ulcers iii Smoking increases risk c Gallstones i Hard clumps of cholesterol build up ii Main reason people have their gallbladder removed d Intestinal gas i Byproduct of the fermentation of carbohydrates by bacteria in the gut ii Treat by limiting soluble fiber and ingesting enzymes that break down foods that only bacteria can digest Beano e Constipation i Caused when diet lacks fiber and water ii Physical activity can help f Diarrhea i Classified as 3 or more loose stools per day ii One of the leading causes of death especially in 3rd world countries iii Causes major dehydration g Irritable bowel syndrome IBS i Affects 15 of US adult population ii Irregular bloating pain h In ammatory bowel disease IBD i Includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn s disease ii Affects 1 in 500 Americans i Hemorrhoids i Swollen veins j Celiac disease i Inherited autoimmune disorder ii Immune system reacts to gluten a protein as harmful and attacks nearby cells in GI tract iii Destroys villi making it difficult to absorb nutrients iv Many people are not diagnosed v Treatment avoid gluten wheat rye barley corn rice and buckwheat are OK 21 Carbohydrates are molecules that provide the body with energy They are made up of carbon oxygen and hydrogen and are made through the process of photosynthesis 22 Monosaccharides i Hexoses 6 carbons 1 Glucose blood sugar very important in body 2 Fructose part of sucrose 3 Galactose part of lactose 4 Sugar alcohols xylitol sorbitol found in chewing gum ii Pentoses 5 carbons 1 Ribose and deoxyribose b Disaccharides i Connected by bonds that are very specific and have very specific breaking mechanisms ii Maltose 2 glucose molecule bound together with an alpha bond iii Lactose galactose and glucose bound together with a beta bond iv Sucrose glucose and fructose bound with an alpha bond 1 Most common sugar in human diet table sugar 23 Oligosaccharides 310 monosaccharides i Examples Raffinose stachynose ii Can t be digested by humans the bacteria in the gut will digest these b Polysaccharides i Digestible 1 Starch a Amylose long strait chain of glucose b Amylopectin branched chain of glucose Glycogen humans turn carbs into this to be stored in the liver to regulate blood sugar and in muscles to power movement 24 Digestible Starch o Amylose long strait chain of glucose 0 Amylopectin branched chain of glucose Glycogen humans turn carbs into this to be stored in the liver to regulate blood sugar and in muscles to power movement Indigestible glucose strung together with beta bonds Dietary fiber naturally found in foods Functional fiber added into food for health benefits Soluble fiber can dissolve in water examples include pectin and gums helps lower cholesterol by trapping it in fiber complex Insoluble fiber cellulose lignin responsible for plant support Bacteria feast on all of the indigestible fiber that we consume Cellulose insoluble found in outer skins Pectin soluble found inside fruits Ligninhemicellulose insoluble outermost shell of grains bran Soluble fibers in fruits oats and legumes help lower blood cholesterol delay gastric emptying lowers blood glucose and feeds bacteria in gut 0000 Week 4 1 Mono and disaccharides table sugar high fructose corn syrup 0 High fructose corn syrup 55 fructose 45 glucose similar to sucrose composition Sugar alcohols few calories used in sugar free gum Alternative sweeteners o Saccharin sweet n low 0 Can t be cooked 0 Doesn t provide any energy for the body 0 Aspartame equal 0 Can t be cooked 0 Contains phenalalanine o 4 kcal g but 200x sweeter than table sugar so less is needed 2 lactose sucrose fructose artificial sweeteners 3 FDA recommends 130g of carbs per day with as few sugars as possible There is no defined limit to the number of sugars 4 Eating carbs also spares the body from having to use proteins to make energy They also help prevent ketosis when carbs are not present energy is made by converting fat into energy Sometimes fats are not broken down all the way and are left as harmful ketones Consuming indigestible fiber promotes bowel health and prevents diverticulosis 5 The steps of carbohydrate digestion 1 There is a small amount of amylase in the mouth to start breaking down starches 2 Not much happens as carbs pass through the stomach 3 As carbs enter the small intestine the pancreas dumps in enzymes to break them down so simple sugars can be absorbed by the small intestine 4 In the large intestine bacteria break up the remaining insoluble ber 5 Once glucose and fructose are absorbed they are sent to the liver 0 Fructose is metabolized much differently than glucose so it needs to be converted to glucose before it can be used 0 If more glucose is ingested than needed it is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen for controlling blood sugar and to provide energy The rest is converted to fat 6 Blood sugar control 0 Insulin made in pancreas when glucose levels are high targets liver muscles and adipose tissue tells tissue to take in glucose from the blood and tells liver to stop adding glucose into the blood 0 Glucagon when glucose levels are low Tells liver to break down glycogen and release it as glucose into the blood stream 7 Type 1 childhood onset 5 of cases 0 The immune system destroys pancreas cells that recognize glucose in the blood o Insulin pumps must be used in conjunction with an adjusted diet 0 High risk of blindness heart disease or amputation Type 2 adult onset 0 Cells build up a tolerance to insulin and stop reacting so the pancreas makes more and more until the cells burn out 0 Results in hyperglycemia 0 Treatment prevention includes changing diet exercising or medication 0 Trend in rising levels of obesity is a direct cause of the rise in diabetes 8 Glycemic Index a Tests the blood glucose in response to food b A ratio of a blood glucose compared to a standard ingesting glucose at a standard amount by weight c Lower GI numbers are good the higher the number the faster levels drop back down to the quothungryquot level The glycemic load is similar to the GI but rather than measuring in a standard weight of food the GL uses a serving size of the food as the standard amount 9 Most of the fats in the human diet are triglycerides 0 Made up of a glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids 0 2 important processes in body I Esterification the reaction that builds triglycerides most cells in the body can do this I Lipolysis burns energy by breaking down fat 10 Long chain fatty acids 12 carbons or more Mostly animal based Medium chain fatty acids 610 Ex coconut oil Short Chain fatty acids less than 6 Not found in diet but made by bacteria in gut and then absorbed 11 Saturated fats no double bonds 0 found in animals coconut oil Monounsaturated fats one double bond 0 Peanut oil olive oil Polyunsaturated fats many double bonds 0 Soybean oil corn oil 0 Cis bent make the molecule exible 0 Trans make unsaturated look like saturated fats rigid made when fats are partially hydrogenated margarine shortening 12 Hydrogenation the process by which fats are saturated by breaking double bonds to add hydrogen Originally used because chains with double bonds would spoil more easily that saturated fats Trans fats make unsaturated fats look like saturated fats rigid They are made when fats are partially hydrogenated margarine shortening 13 Essential fatty acids the body can t make these both work as hormones to stop bad in ammation ex eicosanoids I Linoleic C182 Omega6 Used to make longer chain fatty acids in the body I Alphalinoleic C182 Omega3 Also used to make longer chain fatty acids Major component of fish oils 14 Most triglycerides are stored in adipose tissue They are used for insulation energy storage cushioning for organs and storage of fatsoluble Vitamins 15 Phospholipids O O O O 0 Makes up cell membranes Emulsifier makes small amounts of fats soluble in water Cam be made by the body or found in foods egg yolks Made of a glycerol molecule and 2 fatty acids When fats and water mix in the presence of phospholipids micelles form around the fat making a small amount soluble in water 16 Ring structure rather than fatty acids chains 0 Building blocks for hormones bile 0 Most sterols come from plant sources
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