Exam 2 StudyGuide
Exam 2 StudyGuide PSY 101
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nowak Notetaker on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Thomassen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Maddie Nowak P101 Exam 2 StudyGuide Neurophysiology Neuron nervous system cells that receive and transmit amp receive info electro Chemically Neurons identified by direction of info Sensory Neuron Afferent carry messages from environment to CNS Motor Neuron Efferent carry messages away from CNS to muscles and glands InterNeurons transfer info from neuron to neuron Greatest amount Glial Cells glue Don t directly communicate on their own Remove waste Fill space btwn neurons Help neurons communicate efficiently Loc wrap around neurons gt insulate gt myelin sheath protects and increases rxn speed Re exes Sensory neuron gt interneuron pathway gt spinal cord gt motor neuron gtmuscle contracts Loc spinal cord No brainerquot before message has reached brain body has acted Requires NO input from brain Neural Transmission btwn amp within neurons Synapse gt dendrites gt soma gt axon gt terminal buttons gt synapse etc Dendrites receive info Soma cell body Metabolic center MKNOWAK Info processed Genetic material stored Axon transmits info Action potential travels down Terminal Buttons part of Axon contain amp release chemical neurotransmitters into synapse Synapse gap where next dendrite picks up messages neurotransmitters Neural transmission within neurons travel electrically generating axn potential Neural transmission btwn neurons transmitted chemically release of neurotransmitters Resting Potential Uneven distribution of ions on outside and inside of cell gt tiny negative electrical charge K inside cell negative ion Na and Cl outside cellleave positive ions gt Net effect is negative Hyperpolarization Inhibits messagesneurotrans More negativity requires larger stim for threshold to be reached Action Potential Electrical signal excitatory message 1 Neuron receives stimuli mechanically or via neurotrans 2 Sodium channels open sodium rushes into cell gt positive charge 3 Threshold voltage reached and AP occurs Depoloralize More positive able to reach threshold Increase speed if myelinated glial cells MKNOWAK Nodes of Ranvier site of salutatory conduction hopping from one myelinated axon to next AP reaches end of axon gt triggers terminal buttons gt release Neurotransmitters 0 Relay info from one neuron to next 0 Excitatory or inhibitory message Refractory Period Rest period Additional AP cannot be generated Agonist mimic neurotransmitters Directly stimulate receptors Nicotine mimics AcH L dopa mimics effects of dopamine Parkinson s Valium mimics GABA Heroin mimics endorphins endogenous morphins Antagonist oppose or block neurotransmitters Prevent neurotrans Curare blocks AcH Hallucinogens to serotonin sites block perceptual pathway transmission Neuromodulators modulate effectiveness of other neurotrans Adenosine decreases neuronal firing and the release of neurotrans o Caffeine Adenosine Antagonist Peripheral NS Nerve bundles of axons that communicate with rest of the body Somatic NS nerves that bring info TO brain and nerves that connect to skeletal MKNOWAK Muscles for mvmnt body sensations wo environment wouldn t reach brain nor begin any mvmnt Autonomic NS autonomic involuntary needs HR ER glands digestion Regulated by hypothalamus Handle and recover from emergency situations Sympathetic NS fight or ight increase Parasympathetic NS rest and digest back to homeostasis decrease Brain Investigation Techniques EEG electrical activity in the brain CT highly focused XRays shows STRUCTURE not function PET radioactive substances glucose and 02 absorbed in brain areas that are Active Specific tasks diff areas of brain MRI detailed 3D anatomical view fMRI measuring blood 02 in brain what parts metabolizing 02 task specific Shows anatomy and function The Brain Hindbrain basic life support Medulla and pons HR breathing re exes Reticular formation arousal sleep head mvmnt Cerebellum coordination Midbrain neural relay stations and help coordinate sensory rxns tectum visual and auditory substantia nigra release dopamine Forebrain higher mental processes thalamus sensory input relayed closes input during sleep hypothalamus regulate Fs MKNOWAK Hippocampus memory Amygdala fear aggression defensive Cerebral cortex higher mental processes reason plan Lobes Frontal plan decision making memory personality higher level thought processes language production motor cortex controls voluntary muscle mvmnts Temporal auditory speech amp language perception Occipital visual processing Parietal includes somatosensory cortex Sense of touch temp pain The brain is lateralized each side responsible for unique and independent functions right hemisphere controls left side of body vice versa corpus callosem maj or communication bridge connects 2 hemispheres Endocrine System network of glands that communicate via bloodstream Hormones chemicals released into blood by glands to control internal regularity functions slower more widespread longer lasting Phenotype gene expression what you see Genotype actual genetic info inherited program DNA Twin studies identical and fraternal twins compared gt determine roles heredity and environment play in psychological traits Monozygotic one egg Identical MKNOWAK Homozygous Same environment inutero Dyzgotic 2 eggs separate Fraternal Not identical genetic material Prenatal Development Germinal Period 02 wks Conception gt implantation Most fertilized eggs fail to implant Embyonic Period 28 wks Mass of cells becomes arms legs fingers toes heart beat Sexual differiation begins at 78 wks Fetal Period 9th wkbirth Bones muscles systems mvmnt Last 3 months rapid growth body size and complexity of brain tissue XX female XYmale y chromosome secrets testosterone Terarogen environmental agents disease or drug that can potentially damage developing embryo or fetus Disease German measlesrubella mom gets win first 6 wks of preg gt baby at risk for heart defects Envirodrug alcohol fetal alcohol syndrome Neurogenesis processes of creating new brain cells neurons Environment affects in uences Antidepressants Hippocampus memory and experience in uences Brain Plasticity cells grow in size and complexity and supporting glial cells added MKNOWAK Babies maturation control of NS in a down amp out style Headgtshouldersgtarmsgthandsgtfingers Neuronmuscle connections in upper body develop b4 lower body Aging Brain Neurons die w age OR continue to increase in complexity Remaining neurons will increase in complexity Dendrites decrease in length decrease in cognitive ability Ability to recall decreases wage Recognition ability remains constant w age Dementia physical based loss in mental functioning 0 lt1 over 65 yrs old af icted o 20 af icted at 80 yrs old Basics of Erikson Cognitive development of thought Utero 018 mo overproduced gray matter followed by pruning Early Adolescent 1112 pruning connections lost end of critical sensitive period for learning languages Late Adolescent increase in myelination in adult cortex relates to maturation of cognitive processing frontal lobe changes Infant Study Techniques Preference if baby has visual capability to differentiate via measuring overt behavior of visual system what baby quotchoosesquot Habituation how baby perceives and remembers the world decrease in responsiveness to repeated stimulus MKNOWAK novelty new things Rewarding what cognitive abilities baby has memory simple motor mvmntaxngt reward Schemata mental models of the world used to guide and interpret experiences Assimilation fitting new experiences into existing schemata Ex classifying horse as doggie Accommodation change existing schemata to accommodate new experiences Ex new category for horses lean Piaget naturalist Binet and Piaget created first IQ test Noticed different cognitive abilities related to cognitive development Mental abilities Children s mistakes are systematic children think differently from adults development of thoughts based on schemata stage theory progressive and sequential Piaget s stages of cog development Sensorimotor 02 yrs revolve around sensory and motor abilities lack object permanence ability to recognize objects exists even when out of sight developed around age 1 survival re exes no distinction btwn self and enviro preoperational 27 yrs think symbolically but lack ability to perform certain basic mental operations imaginary play is common language development MKNOWAK egocentrism view world only from own perspective lack principal of conservation ability to recognize physical property of object remains the same despite superficial changes in appearance centration focus attention on one aspect and ignore the rest don t understand reversibility operations can produce or undo Concrete operational 711 yrs true mental operations verbalizing visualizing mental manipulation understand reversibility and categorizing difficulty understanding problems not with status quo Formal operational 11 adulthood master abstract thinking no limitations may invent and experiment not everyone may reach Moral Development Morality ability to distinguish btwn appropriate and inappropriate Kohlberg s Stage Theory based on REASONING for answer to moral problems Preconventional external consequences reward or punishment Conventional to maintain or disrupt social order Postconventional abstract ethical principle driven by personal codes that may not agree with societal norms Not seeking approval from others authority Harlow s Monkeys Primary motivator of attachment contact comfort Strong emotional attachments give a guarantee survival feeling Monkey chose soft fake mom wo food over wire fake mom wfood Temperament child s general level of emotional reactivity based in biologygenetic factors in uence inhibited shy or uninhibited strange situation test classify children according to type of attachment secure resistant avoidant or disorganized disoriented gradually subject kid to stressful situations gt how react towards parent caregiver MKNOWAK Erikson and personal identity development Personal identity sense of self and how well measured up against peers Infancy and Childhood Trust vs mistrust year 1 Autonomy vs shame or doubt terrible twos selfcontrol Initiative vs guilt 36 Industry vs inferiority 612 Adolescence and young adulthood Identity vs role confusion adolescence Intimacy vs isolation young adulthood adulthood and older adulthood generativity vs stagnation contributed successfully to community integrity vs despair success and failures KublerRoss Death and Dying Theory 1 denial 2 anger 3 bargaining 4 depression 5 Acceptance MKNOWAK
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