Midterm Key Terms
Popular in Introduction to Comparative Politics
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Date Created: 10/13/14
Definititon 829 How and Why We Compare Significance comparative politics the systematic search for answers to political questions about how people around the world make and contest authoritative public choices Democracy in America by Alexis de Tocqueville studied American democracy by comparing it to the French democracy gives general answers to general problems offers systematic way to get answers method of agreement compare similar cases with different outcomes compare post colonial Australia to post colonial Nigeria both started out as British colonies highlights where cases diverge method of difference compare different cases with similar outcomes compare the processes of becoming a state of Western Europe and SubSaharan Africa both resulted in statehood highlights similarities between cases correlation measure of observed there is a correlation between does not prove causation can association between two economic development and indicate a relationship between variables democracy two variables causality a process or event that disease in an individual causes establishes a definitive produces an observable effect death of that individual explanation 93 The State and Its Formation state sovereignty over a particular Iceland effective states can adequately area and the people in it govern and do not pose risks to their citizens or the international community sovereignty ultimate responsibility for and Somalia has very little sovereignty allows for an legal authority over the conduct sovereignty effective state of internal affairs including a claim to a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within territory defined by geographic borders state building the construction of a functioning Western Europe and Sub the process often determines state Saharan Africa the successfailure of the state neopatrimonialism Rulers use the spoils of office to maintain power 19th Century US urban political machine detracts from state s internal legitimacy bureaucraticrational state the government follows a set of rules state is usually based on a meritocratic bureaucracy United States protects internal legitimacy state is autonomous 95 Weak Failing and Phantom States state building the construction of a functioning Western Europe and Sub the process often determines state Saharan Africa the successfailure of the state fragile state The state has external Somalia Fragile states pose legitimacy but lacks internal legitimacy humanitarian risks Foreign aid is risky because it maintains weak states and removes incentives for states to tax citizens with decreases internal legitimacy phantom state Definititon The state lacks external legitimacy but has internal legitimacy Somaliland Significance Phantom states can destabilize the region Recognizing them can potentially open a Pandora s box of groups that want to become states 910 Collective Action civil society collectively organized groups that are independent from the state goal driven does not include political parties local neighborhood watch Civil society can strengthen states regimes by increasing internal legitimacy CS can also undermine statesregimes by creating an alternate source of legitimacy civil society I Putnam apolitical consists of only voluntary associations civic associations Boy Scouts traditional civic engagement is declining CSI makes government function better civil society ll society outside of the state needs to educate people includes organizations that are more centrally managed America Federation of Teachers CSII acts as a counterweight to the government it is where revolutions originate social movement organized and sustained action collective claims challenge status quo informal loose boundanes US Civil Rights movement Social movements are an element of civil society and exist to challenge the government and other groups and foment change social capital networks norms and social Takoma Park MD citizens makes the democracy and trust that facilitate coordination demand things from these state states work better and cooperation for mutual benefit generalized trust 912 Nationalism nation cultural grouping with collective Japan nations define groups of people political identity more personal states are the political unit that emotionalpsychological may have sovereignty over a na on nationalism a subjective feeling of Scots in UK nationalism is the aspect that membership in a nation unites members of a nation nationstate state encompassing a dominant Egypt greater potential for conflict due nation that claims to embody and represent everyone else doesn t mean that only one nation exists to the diversity within the state ethnic nationalism based on ethnic identity ascriptive born into it ethnicity social institutions or attributes that make groups different Native Americans in America ethnic nationalism tends to divide groups civic nationalism feeling based on political principles anyone can be a member theoretically American patriotism civic nationalism can unite groups seccessionism attempt by national minority to exercise self determination could create its own state the South in the American Civil War Risk of ethnic cleansing civil war and unviable states irredentism Definititon Significance territorial claims made by a Kashmir in IndiaPakistan irredentism destabilizes the state or national group to lands region not the two states that lie within another state involved statenation state acknowledges the India more realistic model manages existence of many different tensions better than repression nations within its borders encourages loyalty to the state 917 Democracy and Democratization democracy political system in which rulers Canada Democracy is universally are accountable to the ruled valued all of the advanced industrialized states are governed by some form of democracy democratization a shift from a non democratic to South Korea democratization is often linked democratic regime to economic development civic culture a key aspect of a country s US has a strong civic culture good civic culture makes the cultural identity defined by three because its citizens participate democracy more effective characteristics high civic in public affairs possess equal engagement political equality rights and trust respect and and solidarity offer to help each other despite political differences modernization economic and technological Taiwan growth stabilizes regimes often development bring a coherent connected to democracy set of social cultural and political changes 919 NonDemocratic Regimes authoritarianism opposite of democracy no Chad authoritarian regimes solely limited contestation no accountability limits onabsence of individual freedoms dominate the political sphere and have limited effects on the social and cultural aspects of the state totalitarianism authoritarianism ideological and social component elimination of all socialpolitical economic pluralism utopian ideology citizens must buy into idea mobilization participation in regime North Korea totalitarian regimes control every aspect of life in the state competitive authoritarianism formal elements of democracy Venezuela competitive authoritarian but violate democratic policies regimes look like democracies but violate principles in practice military regimes selectorate is limited to the Burma Military regimes are a common highest ranks of the military officer corps form of authoritarian rule single party regimes single party dominates all government institutions and restricts political competition to maintain itself in power Mexico 19292000 Single party regimes can be either authoritarian or totalitarian 101 Democratic Institutions parliamentary systems Definititon constitutional format in which the executive and legislative branches have neither separation of origin nor survival United Kingdom Significance Parliamentary systems are more efficient because of the centralization of power presidentialism constitutional format in which the executive and legislative branches enjoy both separation of origin and survival United States checks and balances and diffusion of power make the system less efficient semipresidentialism constitutional format in which the president and parliament enjoy separation of origin but only the president enjoys separation of survival France ambiguity surrounding who is in charge single member district one seat per district winner takes whole district electoral system in US results in manufactured majorities not good for third parties proportional representation distributes seats proportionally to the vote each party receives Ponugal results in coalition governments more extreme parties multiparty systems lots of voices 103 Political Economy of Development public goods goods that everyone can airports effective states can provide consume whether they helped public goods to their citizens bc produce them or not of adequate infrastructure and resources inclusive institutions institutions available to all public goods inclusive institutions encourage people to engage in economic activities colonialism Rich countries colonize territories and either settle them or exploit them for their resources Western Europe in Africa colonies development dependent on the development of the rich country that colonized it FGSOUFCG CUFSG states rich in natural resources tend not to be democratic Dutch discovered natural resources and economy tanked explains why countries tied to resources are not successful states stateled development a strategy to promote economic growth that includes such policies as government coordination of private sector investment forced savings and preferential treatment to certain industries regarded as essential for national economic development Japan Stateled development can rapidly modernized states 108 Political Economy of Redistribution inequality the extent of the gap between the rich and the poor gap between the rich and poor in Brazil global inequality has been rising economic liberalism free market capitalism private ownership of means of production markets allocate resources United Kingdom favors individual freedom of choice neoliberalism Definititon limit the government s role in economic policy Latin America economic liberalization Significance states reduce their role in the market to what it was during the 18th and 19th centuries communism statesocialism collective ownership of means of production opposite of capitalism Soviet Union aspires to remove any private ownership social democracy limited state ownership of means of production still needs capitalism Sweden commonly associated with a large welfare state stateled development statism a strategy to promote economic growth that includes such policies as government coordination of private sector investment forced savings and preferential treatment to certain industries regarded as essential for national economic development Japan Stateled development can rapidly modernized states welfare state the role states play in protecting the economic and social well being of all its citizens through redistributive taxing and spending programs Sweden aims to protect citizens from risks ex getting sick losing your job losing your house 1010 Globalization political globalization the growth in the number and scope of transnational political and economic issues and the increasingly transnational responses to such issues economic globalization expanding movement of goods money and people societal globalization widening deepening and speeding up of global social relations economic liberalization in Latin America P countries had to meet the IMF demands to be bailed out E liberalized bc the countries weren t economically sustainable S neoliberal thought from Chicago School advisors in Latin America depending on the case political globalization can either strengthen or weaken both state sovereignty and democracy depending on the case economic globalization can either increase or decrease povertyinequality and social welfare spending societal globalization spreads different cultures but does not cause the disappearance of local and national cultures intergovernmental organization political institutions made up of member states that have a transnational presence and that take on governmental roles United Nations IMF World Bank intergovernmental organizations can take on governmenttype roles and place pressures on states in need of aid
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