Study Guide 2
Study Guide 2 ANT 102
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Gaudette on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 102 at Illinois State University taught by Fred Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 389 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
ANTHROPOLOGY 102 0413 Study Guide 4 Terms some you have had before maternalfetal incompatibility If a mother and father have different blood types and the baby has a different blood type from the mother then the mother could experience problems with the pregnancy due to the incompatibility in blood types between her and her child sickle cell trait A form of anemia that is prominent amongst people who are originally from malariaridden countries or regions or people whose ancestors are from malariaridden countriesregions ex people of African descent Red blood cells collapse to form a sickle shape and often lead to blood clots and strokes The adaptive advantage is that people with the sickle cell trait don t experience malaria as intensely as people lacking it because the cells collapse on the malaria when they enter the cell Sundaland lost geography area in Southern Asia above Australia that has been covered by water this caused the loss of all fossils and such in that area and disables our ability to trace lineages and migrations in that area balanced polymorphism two different versions of a gene are maintained in a population of organisms because individuals carrying both versions are better able to survive than those who have two copies of either version alone rickets A lack of vitamin D or calcium in a diet which causes the weakening of bones and therefore bowing of the arms and legs Ainu the indigenous people of Japan Vitamin D important vitamin that cannot be obtained through our original diet but can now be obtained through several foods including milk Must absorb vitamin D through exposure to the sun Foods started being fortified with vitamin D when rickets became a problem in the US ABO a blood type DNA deoxyribonucleic acid the makeup of all life Two types mitochondrial maternal inheritance and nuclear paternal inheritance Bergman s Flue within a broad taxonomy system populations and species of a larger size are found in colder climates while smaller populations and species are found in warmer regions cystic fibrosis Deleterious hereditary disorder characterized by excessive production of mucus in all organs not just the lungs and malabsorption of nutrients Most people die young from fluid in their lungs Less frequently have typhoid fever cholera e coli and breast cancer The extra mucus in the body helps disease wash out faster and carriers are more fertile haplogrouphaplotype some mutations can define a lineage Allen s Flue body shapes and proportions of endotherms vary by climatic temperature by either minimizing exposed surface area to minimize heat loss in cold climates or maximizing exposed surface area to maximize heat loss in hot climates Acclimatization the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment what kids to they can change body Larger lung volumes more red blood cellsveins Adaptation a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection Hypothermia a consequence of moderate cold stress Hypoxia the condition of a lack of oxygen Mutation junk DNA that happens at a regular frequency but only happen once They don t code for anything and accumulate from generation to generation point mutation a type of mutation that causes a single nucleotide base change insertion or deletion of genetic material influenza the flu hypertension high blood pressure must eat a diet low in salt epidemic disease rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a population in a short span of time endemic disease when a disease is prevalent in a certain area for an extended period of time as exposed to epidemic where the disease is prevalent during short reoccurring periods of time asthmaallergies Allergies and hay fever are cause because we are not living in our aboriginal environment The first time someone comes across something they are allergic to their allergens trigger an excessive immune response adrenalinnoradrenalin a method of nonshivering thermogenesis attempt to keep the body warm in extreme cold without shivering plasticity the adaptability of an organism to changes in its environment or differences between its various habitats pygmiesnegritos some of the oldest lineages of DNA small to adjust to tropical forests vasoconstriction keeps core warm to prevent hypothermia vasodilation keeps nose ears cheeks all extremities warm so they don t get frostbite Eskimos have more blood cells plasma etc and are very vascularized Monge s disease chronic mountain sickness from a nonaboriginal living at high altitude for a long period of time lose ability to handle hypoxia black lips purple earlobes hemorrhaging beneath fingernails death likely unless given oxygen thrifty genotype Explanation of why diabetes occurs at such high frequencies in some populations It suggests that diabetes is a genetic predisposition efficient utilization of dietary energy from carbohydrates During hunter gatherer lifestyle in times of food shortage a diabetic person has more fuel available between meals because the longer sugar stays in your bloodstream the longer you can use it as energy huntergatherer niche our aboriginal niche we are now suffering health consequences from not living in our aboriginal niche Type II diabetes mostly adult onset and often related to obesity Sweating the body s way of cooling off the skin gets cooled off as the liquid evaporates from it Zoonoses a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans Lactose we are not supposed to be able to process milk past our weaning age which is 7 years old Parasites allergies are caused because the body thinks that the allergens entering the body are parasites nasal shape noses act as a natural humidifier it warms the air and filters particulate matter The more humid the climate the broader the nose the less humid the beakier the nose mitochondrial DNA maternal inheritance from an organelle in the cytoplasm which has its own DNA nuclear Y DNA paternal inheritance uses DNA from the Y chromosome African race aboriginal race and the only race We are all from Africa Polar T3 complex a hormone called thyroxine that is produced by the thyroid and stimulates the production of brown fat Polar T3 is suppressed by high protein diet and a high metabolic rate however this is lnuit dietphysiology and is not suppressed in them It s a genetic thing EskimoInuit Eskimos have a higher metabolic rate than Europeans They have round deep chests that help retain heat better they can t burn brown fat and they have adopted technologies to help them in the cold environment of the arctic parkas igloos Bushman the deepest lineage known due to isolation Goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland sometimes caused by absence of iodine or iodine deficiency PTC tasting Phenylthiocarbamide PTC TT very bitter Tt somewhat bitter tt taste nothing Bitter taste caused by a group of chemicals called thiocyanates that are found in cabbage turnips mustard greens broccoli and Brussel sprouts The thiocyanates block iodine absorption This whole theory can explain picky eaters Rhesus Factor an inherited protein found on the surface of red blood cells If your blood has the protein you39re Rh positive If your blood lacks the protein you39re Rh negative Rh positive is the most common blood type Questions to ponder as vou read vour text and vour notes 1 How and why does climate affect body shape and limb proportions What is a tropical body type What is an Arctic body type hint Bergman and Allen Why are pygmies small Climate affects body shape and limb proportions because people evolved to suit the climate they were in People who are leaner and have longer arms and legs are more adapted for warm environments or tropical body type while people who are short and stout with short arms and legs are more adapted for colder climates or arctic body type These body types can be explained by Bergman s rule and Allen s rule Bergman s rule the smaller the surface area that s exposed to the external environment the greater the amount of conserved heat Allen s rule application of principle to appendages more surface area for sweat Pygmies are small because they are adapted to the tropical forests 2 What is the primary way the body keeps cool What role does evaporation play in this way How can blood flow keep you warm as well as keep you cool The primary way the body keeps cool is through sweating Water and salt collect on the skin and when it evaporates off it cools the body Blood flow can keep you warm through the process of vasodilation or expansion of the blood vessels to allow blood to rush out to extremities Face gets flushed blood at skin surface and sweating makes for efficient heat loss with the use of convection and evaporation Blood flow keeps you cool through the process of vasoconstriction the blood vessels constrict and prevent blood from rushing out to extremities Blood stays nearer to the core of the body to keep you warm 3 How does the possibility of frostbite affect how the body responds to cold stress What evidence suggests Eskimoslnuits have an adaptation to cold stress hint Polar T3 and pattern of body core fat burning The possibility of frostbite causes your body to switch from vasoconstriction which keeps your blood near your core to keep you warm to vasodilation which means that your blood will rush out to your extremities This keeps your extremities from freezing off Eskimos have a higher metabolic rate than Europeans They have round deep chests that help retain heat better they can t burn brown fat and they have adopted technologies to help them in the cold environment of the arctic parkas igloos 4 What is the adaptive advantage of skin color Under what circumstances is light skin advantageous Dark skin Melanin is responsible for skin color and is produced in melanocyte Skin color has to do with latitude the farther North you go the less sunshine there is and the lighter the skin Lighter skin has more melanin to draw in nutrients from the sun and darker skin has less melanin to protect from the sun Dark skin is advantageous in a hot climate while light skin is advantageous in a cooler climate 5 What is the genetic evidence for high altitude adaptation How do populations acclimate and acclimatize to hypoxia hint acclimate is what adults do acclimatize is what children who are more plastic can do Genetically there are two populations that we can look at for evolutionary adaptations for living at a high altitude Natives to the Andes Mountains have a short stature and deep wide chests for greater lung capacity Natives to the Himalayan Mountains also have a small body size but they are not barrel chested Seeing as the Himalayan natives have lived at a high altitude for more time they have adapted a gene that affects oxygen saturation in the blood Acclimation is what adults do in climates that limit them physiologically It allows their body to handle high altitude for a period of time but while still experiencing the symptoms of high altitude stress If you are an adult and are at a high altitude for a second time you shouldn t feel the effects of the altitude because your body has already acclimated to it Acclimatization is what children do in climates that limit them physiologically Children are more plastic and are subject to many changes as they are growing If a child is growing up in a high altitude environment they can obtain larger lung volumes and more veinsred blood cells to aid in oxygen transport 6 What are zoonoses big hint diseases we acquired from animals like influenza small pox What role does epidemic disease play in human evolution big hint more contact with animals after agriculturalization What role did agriculturalization play in changing the role of disease as a selective force How is ABO like natural penicillin Zoonoses are diseases we acquired from animals Epidemic diseases such as influenza small pox and the plague are all zoonoses that occurred after agriculturalization because after agriculturalization we had more contact with animals pigs chickens cows etc from farming Agriculturalization forced us as humans to adapt to these new diseases we were being exposed to As we adapted different blood types became better at fending off or being immune to different diseases 7 How does selection operate to influence nasal shape lactose intolerance and frequency of cystic fibrosis Nasal shape is based off your aboriginal home If it is more humid you ll have a wider nose if it is less humid you ll have a beakier nose Lactose intolerance happens in people who lack the enzyme lactase People who are lactose intolerant will not be able to digest milk properly past the weaning age of 7 The frequency of cystic fibrosis can be attributed to the selective advantages of those with the carrier gene of the disease asymptomatic of typhoid cholera and e coli more fertile disease washes out of body faster and less likely to develop breast cancer 8 How does nutrition and affluence affect health ie does modern life reflect our true ecological niche How are hypertension Type II diabetes allergies diseases of modern life How are type II diabetes hypertension allergies and asthma reflective of an adaptive advantage Fiemember the discussion about PTC tasting and goiter Modern life does not reflect our true ecological niche which is a hunting and gathering lifestyle All the diseases listed above are diseases of modern life because they are only recently developing Because we are not in our true ecological niche we are developing health problems The adaptive advantages of type II diabetes hypertension allergies and asthma can be found in the key terms section of this study guide PTC tasting is also an adaptive advantage and can be found in the key terms section of this study guide 9 What is DNA What is mitochondrial DNA maternal inheritance What is nuclear or Y DNA paternal inheritance Why do refer to a DNA Grandmother Africa a DNA Mother Asia DNA is the makeup of all life on Earth Mitochondrial DNA is DNA of maternal inheritance that can be obtained from an organelle in the cytoplasm that has its own DNA Nuclear DNA is of paternal inheritance and uses DNA from the Y chromosome DNA Grandmother Africa is used to refer to the fact that fossil data shows us that the first modern humans are from Eastern Africa DNA Mother Asia refers to the fact that from Africa the modern people started expanding the population into Western Asia about 90000 years ago
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