Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide 403-2B
Popular in International Relations Seminar
Popular in Public Relations
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dora Notetaker on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 403-2B at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Nikolaos Zahariadis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see International Relations Seminar in Public Relations at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
PSC 403 Seminar in International Studies Dr Zahariadis Study Guide for Midterm Our Midterm is Oct6 2015 The midterm is going to be mostly essay format the essay questions need to be longer and the short answer will have to be about a paragraph There will be 1520 multiple choice truefalse questions Bring blue booksllll Dr Zahariadis often does compare amp contrast essay questions History of integration in Eurone French Revolution 0 It was the 1st time ideas about a bigger community started taking hold 0 A rationalization to unite emerged that was not just driven by security reasons Napoleonic Wars 0 Nationalism became big because Napoleon used it and spread it across Europe 0 He used to build a strong army 0 an army that was fighting for more than just money like mercenaries of the past 0 Napoleon s army was now fighting for their home their village their country World War 0 They ran into 2 problems 0 1 The increased lethality of war I It became easier simpler and faster to kill people from farther distances cannons air force weapons of mass destruction 2 People started to question how they got there and why they were killing themselves I They started questioning absolute sovereignty Absolute Sovereignty What is it o It means absolute power by which a state is governed o 1648 Treaty of Westphalia introduced the idea of borders 0 Now there was a sense of what is mine and what is yours 0 They adopted sovereignty over a state and its borders The end of World War 0 Absolute sovereignty was blamed for WWI where troops fought just because governments told them to The Treaty of Versailles ended WWII and brought about 3 things 1 Demobilization of troops 0 They needed to show other countries that they re demobilizing so there s not a threat of imminent danger 2 Spheres of Influence o The winners of WWI took over and divided the losers colonies 3 Global Forums 0 Essentially the League of Nations 0 These were needed for communication to exist between countries World War II o Economic implications of WI 0 Reparations on losing countries meant they wanted money from those who couldn t pay 0 As a result there was hyperinflation in Germany during the 20s o Hyperinflation in Germany 0 Increase in prices devaluation of currency and loss of purchasing power 0 Wages stayed the same so poverty rose 0 Hitler 0 He said he ll bring back law and order to a politically unstable time Great Depression 0 During a depression people don t buy which means people don t sell and that leads to people getting laid off 0 Periods of high unemployment o This leads to frustration which leads to polarized politics and radicalization Protectionism 0 People put blame of economic downturn on foreigners 0 So ways to protect your economy 1 Tariffs tax on imports 2 Quotas 0 But if everybody practices protectionism nobody is selling exports so really there are no imports 0 So trade comes to a halt 0 Which leads to a deeper depression 0 Each country was isolated in its own bubble economically and politically Lessons of WWII 1 Protectionism is bad a It is a cause of prolonged economic contraction b There is a need for a new European order that will encourage trade 2 Nationalism need to be controlled a Isolated countries in bubble are dangerous because they allow for individuals Hitler to come to power and create problems for everyone else b Hitler used nationalism to expand Germany s borders to allow ethnic Germans to be a part of the nation again 3 USSR a Western European powers realized they couldn t contain an expansionist USSR b The US hated Communists and because the US was the victorious ally that dictated the rules they had to oppose the USSR 4 US Aid a the US realized that political instability is what Communists benefit from Communists actually almost came to power in Western Europe Why 0 The Communist message 0 They promise a better life and guarantee that people will have jobs which is not what Capitalism promises o Communists created political stability by dictating the rules US realized they must intervene 0 So they came up with the Marshall Plan to help Europe Marshall Plan o It was a plan to reconstruct Europe 0 Mostly for US s security reasons to check the USSR 0 They poured money into European infrastructure 0 US encouraged trade each other and encourage trade with the US German Problem 0 Countries noticed in hindsight that there is something aggressive in that country s political culture 0 They were responsible for 2 world wars 0 They have this inherent policy for expansion and we must contain it French Problem 0 The French have had a continuous problem with the Germans 0 They share a border and have been fighting over territory for decades 0 The French insisted on imposing war reparations in the Germans after WWI which was a cause of WWII and the US knew this Solutions 0 They knew they wanted NO MORE WAR and to solve the above problems 0 2 ideas were proposed 0 1 A united states of Europe I This idea involved dissolving national borders and creating a central national government I This idea was too revolutionary and people still thought in national terms And there was still political animosity between countries they couldn t unite with people who they fought against 2 A European Community I Proposed by Schuman in the Schuman Declaration I It says 0 1 No more war 0 2 Economic cooperation so reduced tariffs o 3 Committees will be created to make decisions collectively o 4 Collaboration with NATO to solve security problems so EU will be the government and NATO will be the guns Steps of Integration in Eurooe A European Community in Coal and Steel was created ECSC o in the Schuman Declaration 0 Its goal was to facilitate trade by reducing tariffs o The idea was to create an interlocked or interdependent economy 0 The more interlocked their economies became the less mistrust or misunderstanding would exist between them 0 And if it works others will want to join too Other countries became interested and wanted to join the ECSC 0 Members who joined next Italy and Belarus 0 Great Britain was invited because it was a major power but it declined 0 GB didn t want to be part of the continent because it saw itself as a bridge between the Europe and the new superpower US 0 The British only wanted a FTA Free Trade Area in Europe But Germany and France wanted an integrated Europe 0 They wanted the free movement of people goods services etc Why coal and steel 0 Coal 0 WII showed that oil was the new energy source but they didn t have oil they had coal 0 Until then economies were based on coal o It was the primary ingredient for anything being built at the time 0 Weapons They used steel to make weapons 1955 Exploratory Commission to see if free trade would be successful in other areas 0 Cultivated in 2 committees o 1 EEC European Economic Community I integrated economies I free trade 0 2 Euratom I atomic energy Next step in integration CU Customs Union 0 A region with free trade and a common customs policy 0 Before this free trade meant they could discuss whatever they wanted with 3rd parties 0 But a CU puts constraints on that Next EMU Economic and Monetary Union 0 First a single market 0 Then a single currency Single Market 0 Meant abolishing internal controls and harmonizing economies 0 Can t have great differences in economic policies varying between countries Single Currency 0 Benefits 0 1 You won t have translation risks 0 2 You won t have transaction costs 0 Stronger countries benefitted from exposure and control of the market 0 Weaker countries benefitted from borrowing to help boost their economies o Drawbacks o 1 Exchange risk I Meant that countries could borrow at a cheaper rate but if that does not generate income than they have to keep borrowing Greece EMU did 2 things for integration 1 Pooling sovereignty 2 Symbolic lt created a new identity with a new currency 1999 Change in name they called it the European Union 0 In which countries gave up sovereignty over their currency to the Eurooean Central Bank European Central Bank ECB o It has committees in which each country is represented 0 And an executive committee which decides interest rates 0 Interest Rates are important because they can regulate growth 0 You lower your interest rate making it easier for people to borrow people will have more money to spend which will then boost the economy o The ECB has 1 main goal 0 1 To tame inflation 0 Because it is modelled after the German Central Bank and the intenvar period in Germany and the high inflation and depression in Ger at the time 2000 s 0 Everyone in the Eurozone had lower interest rates making it easy for them to borrow 0 Now those with terrible credit got to borrow just as easily as those with good credit 0 Weak currency countries went on a spending binge now they had money 0 But did not think of repaying loans 0 Eventually it caught up with them the Euro crisis It exposed the problems of the EMU which are 1 No common fiscal policy a The European Central Bank regulates currency but each country gets to spend as much as they want 2 No bailouts a States don t have the obligation to assume the debt of other member states How to alleviate the problem 0 Elevate EMU to PU Political Union 0 In a federal system states can go bankrupt and the federal government comes in to help but states have to give up sovereignty which European countries don t want to do 0 So there is talk of a PU but it is unlikely to happen because of SOVEREIGNTY Enlargement of the EU There may be questions about the waves of enlargement and which countries joined when and why The enlargement of the EU during its early developing stages 0 France and Germany realized they needed more members in the ECSC 0 They invited other coal and steel producers 1960 France Germany Italy and Beneluxjoined 0 UK was invited didn t want to they were Eurosceptics o By 1961 they wanted to join Major things that made Great Britian want to join 1 British cities wanted the free movement of capital it means more money for them 2 lndustrialists were afraid they d have to pay tariffs a GB became a small market compared to newly forming market on the continent o Ones who resisted common market in GB Small shop owners and labor 0 They were afraid of losing to competition that would come in with new market 1974 First wave of enlargement o UK Ireland Denmarkjoined acquis communautaire 0 Applicant countries must accept the spirit and legislation of the European Community 0 Means that member countries must accept the primacy of EU law Prior to joining 0 Each country must go through every single legislation they have and harmonize it with EU laws Political implication 0 Means that countries are no longer completely sovereign 0 And voters are not asked 0 Someone other than the people s elected representatives are making the laws 0 This means that EU has a serious democratic de cit Steps of enlargement 1973 European Community as the time 1 Commission makes the recommendation that a country join 2 Each member country says yes 3 Agreement is made with the applicant country 4 That country now has to ratify this decision Ratification was different for each country c NonNay 0 put it to a referendum and the people voted it down 0 So NonNay did notjoin in 1973 0 Ireland 0 Constitution says everything affecting the state s functions requires a referendum 0 Great Britain 0 Put it to a referendum people voted for it 0 France 0 Party in power can pass any vote so they voted on it in parliament 1970 s 0 Other countries wanted to join for economic reasons to be competitive 1981 Greece 0 Greece has new reason to join political reasons 0 Said they wanted to join because EU facilitates democracy and they had been under a military dictatorship from 1967 1974 1981 Portugal and Spain 0 Same reasons also run by military wanted democracy 0 1986 became known as the Mediterranean Expansion and it was the 2nd wave of enlargement 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall 0 Former Communist satellite nations wanted to join too Eastern Europe wants to join o Argument They wanted democracy too and Communists may come back to power if they aren t allowed in Europe said no 0 Eastern European countries didn t have the economic capabilities to join 0 By mid 1990 s EU told them they will be admitted if they fulfill some requirements 0 And they were periodically assessed 1995 Austria Finland Sweden Norway joined 0 Had fear that they would be left out of Fortress Europe 0 ldea that Europe would create protective barriers and everyone outside would be left at a disadvantage 2004 Poland Hungary Czech Republic Slovakia Slovenia Malta Cyprus Estonia Latvia 2007 Romania Bulgaria 2013 Croatia Recap Waves of enlardement 1 January 1973 Denmark Ireland and the United Kingdom 1 January 1981 Greece 1 January 1986 Spain and Portugal 1 January 1995 Austria Finland and Sweden 1 May 2004 Czech Republic Estonia Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Hungary Malta Poland Slovakia and Slovenia 0 1 January 2007 Bulgaria and Romania completing the fifth wave of enlargement that started in May 2004 o 1 July 2013 Croatia Democratic Deficit in the EU 1st democratic deficit problem Representation The European Parliament EP 0 The legislative body of the EU 0 Appointed not elected by voters Council of Ministers COM o It is composed of individual national government ministers 0 These people are elected by voters but not for this purpose 0 They are accountable to their own voters but not to the European public So original democratic deficit problem 0 Decisions were made by people who were not elected for that role Modern democratic deficit problem 0 Decisions are made by people EP who are not elected therefore not accountable to voters 2nd democratic deficit problem Legitimacy 0 Even if EU decisions were accountable some things would be hard for EU citizens to accept 0 We ve seen this unfold in the EU crisis lt divided Europe into Creditors and Debtors c When creditors bailed out debtors they demanded something in exchange for the bailouts o Debtors resented this and did not want to pay when they already had so little and deflected the blame to creditors for making them pay 0 Citizens of creditor countries resented bailouts because they did not want to work twice as hard to bail out lazy foreigners Theories of lnteoration Know how to compare amp contrast these What is European integration 0 Collaborative behavior in Europe among countries with the aim of reducing barriers to exchange Theory 1 Federalism c We assume that integration does not happen during war 0 Federalism relies on economies of scale that are accomplished by bargaining c We assume that countries can t accomplish their goals on their own Problems under the Articles of Confederation in America that Europe knew had to correct 0 1 Currency 0 Not everyone had the same currency in Europe 0 So the EU s solution do away with separate currencies and create a single currency for everyone 0 2 Did not have the ability to raise a central military force 0 The Soviets were a large threat that the individual countries could not face alone Why did federalism never happen in Europe 0 Because of national cultures and historical issues 0 People still didn t trust each other completely 0 And because of the US 0 The US s wanted to hold back the Soviet threat so they had a large military presence in Europe so Europe didn t have to raise their own forces Theory 2 Functionalism c We assume 0 1 People want more prosperity o 2 Technology constantly advances o Functionalism tries to explain integration with the constant advancement of technology and how it is causing integration as more people want prosperity Functionalism says o It says to focus on technology and that will give you more prosperity o It says that integration is unidirectional o It only moves fonNard 0 Integration will spill over to other areas Downsides of Functionalism 1 It is moved by business interest a But politicians often don t share in the enthusiasm because integration means giving up a bit of sovereignty at a time over domestic business 2 It s unidirectional a This is not necessarily the case b Sometimes integration moves backwards Theory 3 NeoFunctionalism o Politicians not business will choose to integrate 0 And you go from integrating the hardest areas to the easiest high politics to low politics So they started with coal and steel 0 ldea was that if you start with steel it will be much easier to integrate things like your automobile industry Integration of goods o It means that everyone s products get sold for similar amounts 0 But if your industry is not as advanced and foreign technology is better it will kill your industry Drawbacks of NeoFunctionalism 1 It is still unidirectional a It assumes that since it s easier to integrate it will happen faster 2 It assumes that loyalty will also spill over from national to the international entity a But that is not the case even today 0 In the 1970 s and 80 s there was actually a backward movement in integration o It was due to the energy shocks in the 70 s when the Arab members of OPEC imposed sanctions on the west and restricted the supply of oil 0 Some went back to coal while others used nuclear power Theory 4 Intergovernmentalism o It says integration is initiated by governments not business 0 Integration is driven by intergovernmental bargains Neofunctionalism vs Intergovernmentalism o NeoFunct says that the more we integrate the more we will come to see its benefits 0 Integration will spill over into other sectors 0 Its business oriented o lntergovt says that the convergence of interests is not necessary 0 Governments have individual interests and here and there they get together to make bargains that serve their interests 0 NeoFunct says that identities would eventually move beyond interests and you will start to see a transfer of loyalty from the national to the supranational entity 0 lntergovt only driven by governments 0 So you will never see a transfer of loyalty o A transfer of loyalty would mean giving up sovereignty o NeoFunct In order to speed up integration you need to speed up the advancement of technology and help boost the economy 0 lntergovt In order to speed up integration you need to slow down membership admission o If you limit membership your group will become more homogenous and there means less opposition amp easier to make decisions EU Institutions The Commission European Commission o It is the executive branch and the bureaucracy of the EU 0 Func ons o It proposes drafts and implements legislation and the budget 0 The Commission should be nonpartisan and Europeoriented 0 Its members should throw away their national frame of mind and adopt what s best for Europe Doesn t happen like this in practice 0 The Commission guards European treaties European Commission Organization 0 28 Commissioners o From 28 member states 0 New ones get added as new states are admitted o 1 President 0 7 Vice Presidents o 20 Commissioners o All of these make up what is called the College of Commissioners President of the Commission 0 Pres elected for 5 year terms renewable 1 time so most serve 10 years 0 President has no legislative authority 0 He can push bills but does not decide them Selecting the President of the Commission 0 Pres is selected by the European Council which is made up of the heads of state 0 He or she is confirmed by the European Parliament 0 The Pres then appoints his or her commissioners to make up the College 0 These commissioners have to be approved by the European Council and the EP How commissioners are selected 0 The president asks each member state to send him candidates 0 He can ask for a particular portfolio 0 Like finance agriculture education etc o The president sends commissioner to the European Parliament to be approved 0 The EP holds hearings 0 They have to vote on them as a group Who do they send 0 Governments send people they want to reward get rid of or fear 0 These people represent current government ideals so when there is a change in party in the government they will most likely send someone else Commissioners dilemma 0 Commissioners have to shed national identity but this rarely happens in practice 0 They have to stand up to their own government to protect EU policy instead but then they must go back to their governments after their term ends and ask to be reappointed EU Headquarters 0 The Commission is in Brussels 0 Some HQ s are in Luxembourg o The EU Parliament is in Strasbourg Why 3 HQ s 0 National governments don t wantjust 1 place 0 Because changing it would mean giving up sovereignty Each commissioner heads a directorate general departments 0 There are currently 34 DG s 0 Commissioners from large countries tend to have more DG s small countries tend to only have 1 Each DG is headed by a directorgeneral o Directorgenerals are civil servants 0 They are not appointed like the commissioners so they keep theirjob forever 0 They have power because if they don t like the commissioner they can oppose his or her commands so nothing gets done Deputy directorgenerals 0 They are heads of units 0 Deputy directorgenerals of different units meet then bring things to the commissioner who then brings it to the Commission DG s directorategenerals 0 Currently there are 33197 people working in the EU 0 The majority work in 45 DG s o The biggest DG Translation 0 Each document or bill has to be translated into 23 languages 0 The Commission has 2 12 official languages English French and some German 0 Why have so many languages and a costly department just to translate 0 National governments don t want to lose their identity and their language is important to them Civil servants in the EU 0 They gather info monitor and implement policies Europewide o They re heavily unionized 3 Major problems of bureaucracy in the Commission 0 1 Fiefdoms 0 Individuals interested in particular DG s directorate generals want to lead them 0 2 Hard to climb up hierarchy 0 Few management positions for many jobs 0 Ambitious people are frustrated because they have no opportunities to get higher ranking jobs 0 3 Corruption 0 To avoid corruption external audit is necessary but this means people both the institution being checked and the institution doing the checking will not be upfront about their dealings Responsibilities and Powers of the Commission 0 1 Agendasetting o 2 Executive functions 0 Implementation I They monitor implementation the real implementation of EU policies is done by national governments o Supervision 0 Collection of information I The Commission uses common methodology to monitor implementation but data is given by national governments in different measurements 0 3 Legal guardian o The Commission makes sure that EU treaties are implemented 0 They can bring national governments to court which gives the Comm power 0 4 External representatives of the EU o It represents European interests worldwide 0 5 Mediator o It mediates disputes between member states 0 6 Consciousness of the European spirit How bills get passed in the EU 0 1 Bills are drafted in particular DG s directorate generals 0 They originate with midranking officials 2 They move up the ladder to coordinating officials in the DG 3 The head civil servant brings it to the commissioner s cabinet 0 The cabinet can check the bill for political criteria that corresponds with the commissioner s politics 4 The commissioner takes it to the College of Commissioners If it is passes it goes to the Council of the EU 6 If it is passes it goes to the European Parliament 0 The commission has people posted in the Council and the EP to explain the draft and answer any questions 01 Council Consilium of the EU Council of the EU 0 NOT the European Council 0 NOT the Council of Europe 0 NOT the Council of Ministers Composition and role o It is a codecider but not the sole decider o It is composed of representatives of national governments 0 Its composition changes depending on what issues are being discussed 0 Junior and senior ministers who are not equal in rank 2 Biggest councils o 1 General Affairs 0 2 ECOFIN o Composed of economic and finance ministers 0 Decisions vary based on who s doing the deciding 0 Ex If someone proposes a new plan the General Affairs Council will want to pass it but ECOFIN will want to know how to pay for it Powers of the Council of the EU 1 Agendasetting powers 2 Proposing powers 3 Decisionmaking powers Sectoral composition 0 The same ministers meet with their same counterparts different ministers don t cross 0 The presidency rotates every 6 months Troika The 3 Presidents o It refers to the 3 presidents of the EU 0 1 Permanent President of the Council 0 Presides over the Council 0 Institutional not political o Ensures continuity because the rest of the Council constantly changes 0 2 President of the Council 0 Political o Rotates every 6 months 0 From one of the member states 0 3 President of the Commission 0 He is the chief bureaucrat o Represents the EU in foreign affairs Rotating president 0 HeShe has agendasetting powers 0 So this allows each country to get a chance to bring their own issues to the table 0 Can bargain and try to reach consensus Downside to rotating presidency o Smaller countries don t have the capacity and the knowledge of how to go from presiding over 100 people to presiding over several thousand Committee of permanent representatives CoRePer o Theirjob is to make deals with other national governments before their bosses get together and sign the papenvork CoRePer l and CoRePer II II has more power than I because they get to work on bigger issues like foreign affairs Agriculture and Finance are not part of either CoRePer l or II because these are the most important so they need special attention o If the CoRePers can t agree they send the decision up to their bosses at the Council o If the Council can t decide they send the decision to the European Council European Council 0 Heads of state of each member country Structure of the Council of the EU 0 Each country is given a number of votes not 1 state 1 vote o If institutions want to have power amp effectiveness they need to have less consensus 0 But then they are in danger of being dictatorial o lfthey want to have more consensus 0 They are in danger of being less effective o If international organizations go by consensus 0 National governments are more satisfied with consensus 0 But when they veto resolutions they make the organization less effective 0 EU had to move away from consensus but consensus is still part of the culture since they originally ran by this principle Reasons for moving away from consensus 1980 s The British Rebate 0 In the 1980 s British PM Margaret Thatcher demanded money back from the EU that Britain was paying 0 She said GB was paying too much and demanded a refund 0 The Brits said they ll veto everything until they get their money back 0 And EU has no provision for getting rid of members so there was nothing they could do Qualifying Majority 0 After the British rebate the EU came up with qualifying majority o Qualifying majority means that 71 of all votes have to be in the affirmative for it to pass 0 They had to give some countries more votes and some countries less votes 0 How to handle this I In the US they came up with 2 houses in Congress I In the EU they used population to determine which countries will get more votes Larger more populous countries got more votes 0 This gives more power to larger countries 0 But they tried to seek consensus by culture so they never voted 2009 Treaty of Lisbon 0 The Treaty said they will now need 55 of affirmative votes to pass a resolution 0 But 35 have to say no for it to not pass 0 Unless o 55 of votes have to be affirmative for a bill to pass if it was drafted by the Commission 0 And 65 if it was not drafted by the Commission 0 So it pays to have it be proposed by the Commission 0 This is just to encourage EU institutions to work together Votes doesn t matter if they never vote 0 So why have this system I To make governments feel important
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