CHAPTER 6, 7, 11
CHAPTER 6, 7, 11 PSYC 1101 B
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nathalie mautes on Friday March 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 B at Georgia Regents University taught by jane hodges in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia Regents University.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Study Guide for Chapters 6, 7, 11 Psychology 1101 Sensations: Include our 5 senses such as taste, touch, smell, hear and pain Perception: the process by which the brain organizes, perceives to make sense of the physical stimulus. Difference between bottom up and top down processing Bottom-up processing is data driven and requires not thinking Top-down processing draws on our experiences and expectations making it a requirement to think. Steps of perception 1) Reception (receive): physical stimulus goes to the receptor cells 2) Transduction(transform): neural signals that go to the brain 3) Transmission (deliver): information is sent to the brain for interpretation 2 types of Thresholds (your response to a stimulus) 1) Absolute which is the minimum stimulation needed to detect a light, sound, pressure, and odor 50% of the time 2) Subliminal is beneath you conscious awareness or absolute thresholds, and cannot detect it 50% of the time. Difference threshold is the minimum difference a person can detect between 2 stimuli half of the time Sensory adaptions is when you become less aware of something because you were constantly exposed to the stimulus. Ex: your house smell Webers Law prosed that 2 stimuli that are perceived as different must be different by a certain percentage. THE EYE Vision is based on the wavelengths (ROYGBIV), and the amount of energy in light waves through amplitude. Process of light: Hits the cornea, the pupil, the iris, the lens, then the retina, accommodation begins to bend the images, then the optic nerves flip them, it is sent to the occipital for interpretation 2 types of photoreceptor: includes rods for light, and cones for color Trichromatic theory: says that cones consist of 3 colors Opponent process theory: if you see an image long enough you will see an after image. Figure- Ground Perception: is the image you choose to see in the background of a picture. Depth Perception: is the ability to see in 3 dimension. Constancy: meaning that all objects remain the same regardless of the changes in the retina. Brightness Constancy- the way the retina perceives shadows. Size Constancy- Size is the same regardless the change in distance. Shape constancy- Your eyes connect object to see a shape that is not really there. HEARING The physical stimulus of hearing is considered as sound (sounds waves/air).Frequency the faster the frequency the higher the pitch. Amplitude: The higher the amplitude the louder the sound. Process: Transduction occurs through the hairs of your ear and sends those receptors cells to the brain for transmission. The vestibular system involves sensory information about motion, equilibrium/balance, and spatial orientation from the vestibular apparatus, which includes the utricle, saccule, and three semicircular canals in the ear. TOUCH Senses in touch includes: cold, pain, warmth, and pressure Gate control theory: Located in the spinal cord it is said that if large nerve fibers are stimulated it closes the pain signal from going to the brain Pain receptors: Nociceptors (in the skin and organs) A Delta Fibers- responsible for the pain that travels to the brain C Fibers- responsible for aching, throbbing, and burning sensation TASTE Receptor cells include the taste buds on the tongue Taste include: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami (meat/poultry) SMELL Also known as olfaction which is triggers by the stimulus of odor through olfactory bulb/nerves. Located close to the hippocampus which is responsible for memory. That is why we associate certain smells with a close memory. CHAPTER 7 Learning is a change in behavior or thinking that results from our experiences. Ex: If you put your hand on a hot iron, chances you learned not to do that anymore. Classical vs operant conditioning Classical conditioning (Watson, Pavlov) is when we learn to associate 2 stimuli cause us to anticipate events. Come in 3 stages: acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery Operant conditioning (Thorndike, Skinner) is when we learn to associate a response or behaviors and the consequences. The steps of classical conditioning: John Watson (Behaviorism) – idea that children have 3 basic emotional reactions: Fear, Rage, Love Reinforcement: strengthens the behaviors and can come in forms of positive and negative. Positive: For example, if your teacher gives the class candy for getting questions right from the reading. Negative: For example, if you don’t put our seatbelt on the car will start a buzzers, as a result you put your seatbelt in to stop it. Know the 3 Reinforcement Style and the differences in intervals and ratios Know the 2 types of motivation Punishment: the goal is to stop or just weaken the behavior. Know the positive and negative Cognitive learning is acquiring new behaviors and information mentally not from the environment Latent learning was proposed by Edward Toleman saying that you learn later with the act of reinforcement or reward. • Chapter 11 Stress and Health Health psychology- deals with attitudes, behaviors, and how we respond to stress. Stress is the way we appraise/interpret and respond to evens that we see as threatening. 3 types of stress Catastrophic: when everything you have is gone such as natural disasters Major life events are things that individually changes your life such as a new job Daily hassles are events that don’t make dramatic changes to your life causing stress such as traffic. Know the 2 types of stress and the process 1) Brief Stress– Stress that last briefly/ temporarily Ex: taking test 2) Prolonged Stress- Stress that lasts for a long time Ex: school Hans Seyle- idea was the general adoption syndrome which come in 3 phases Alarm- process when the stress hormones are released Resistance- When the hormones are constantly being activated Exhaustion- the point you get sick or ill Psychoneuroimmunology- study of how psychological neural and endocrine (hormone) factors effect health or immune system such as psychophysiological illnesses which are real illnesses cause by psychological factors Ex: stress can cause blood pressure IMMUNE SYSTEM B- lymphocytes: fight bacterial infections such as colds and flu T- lymphocytes: fight viral infections and some cancers Macrophages: ingest foreign material (also known as pacman) Positive psychology- your strengths as far as functioning and satisfaction Coping: ways of coping with stress could be walking or listening to music Problem-focused coping: reduce stress in practical ways which tackles the problem. Ex: planning ahead to study for a test. Emotion focused coping: reducing the emotional impact by getting support from others. Ex: Talking to a family or friend Locus of control- our perception of our actions that can be good or bad depending on the circumstances Internal LOC- the person is in control of the circumstances Ex: you take fault in the ticket because you were speeding External LOC- force out of our control. Ex: luck/fate, spiritual Optimism- looks at positive aspects of a situation Pessimism- looks at the negative aspects of a situation
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