Study Guide (Final)
Study Guide (Final) KIN 3400
Popular in Lifespans Growth and Development
Popular in Kinesiology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1302 - 004
verified elite notetaker
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Notetaker on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 3400 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Qin Lai in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Lifespans Growth and Development in Kinesiology at Wayne State University.
Reviews for Study Guide (Final)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/01/15
Final Exam for KIN 3400 Chapters 1013 Chapter 10 Perceptual Motor Deve0pment a Sensation vs Perception Sensation is the neural activity triggered by a stimulus activating a sensory receptor it results in sensory nerve impulses traveling the sensory nerve pathways to the brain Perception is the process used to interpret sensory information in the central nervous system it includes detection selection organization and integration of information received from the senses identical sensations can yield different perceptions gives meaning b Perceptual Motor Model Sensory Parole ptual Output input processing Central nervous Stimuli r Receptors system data processing I Motor F response Light Visual Sound Auditory Touch lltinesthotic Smell Tactiuial Taste Olfactory Gustatory 39 a I g quot quotquotT fquot39fjf39a 3 r39J39 xl 391 x a COW a Dorsal frLR 3quot x 392 parietalquoto u 39 Motion x PW 2 Kl DEBh I39 Form I If j l I E I Ilquot I I 3quot k I39m 3 I K ALE Etina39wu I I I 7 VJ gt 2 itquot 39 n gt F a quot 39239 xk 39 quot I I mVentral Jammy inferior 1 quot W quot I quot temporal pathway 7 quot 39 pathway M lvl oe fs 5 K c I l c Visual Process i Eyes receive light and generate messages through nerve impulses lightcorneapupillens retina rods and conesreceptors Rods for night vision and cones for day vision and color transfer light energy into electrical energy ii Those messages are transmitted through optic nerves from eyes to brain39s visual centers iii Visual centers make interpretations of those messages 1 Occipital lobe of the cortex it ll I gt RE Visual fieid a 39 39139 LtTS 39 39 gt V 39 Latt ra 39 a39 geniuulati nucleus Ganglion call d Acuity amp Contrast Visual Acuity is the sharpness of sight and the capacity to resolve small details i Normal visual acuity is 10min on visual angle Visual Acuity 1 Visual Angle VA Visual Angle 3438 x H D Where H the height of a stimulus and D the distance from the eye Visual accommodation the ability to maintain visual acuity over a range of viewing distances through changing ens39 curvature Contrast sensitivity is the ability to detect the difference in the light intensities in adjacent areas e Development in Visual Structure Newborn has no distinct fovea in retina By the end of the rst year the major structures of the retina are like those of adult Newborn s eyeba is short and the distance between the retina and lens reduced At about 2 mo infant39s visual cortex begins to process visual stimuli By 46 mo in visual cortex the myeinisation process is almost complete and dendritic development forms more branches Adult Newborn V Visitiai axis Iris r v a 1 I A J quot l i l quoti 39 quot Flovea Lens 39 amp out Pupil r ll l v W i J39 39 at 2quot s o ecu an k quot i39 39 I KKK Cornea not M l symmetrical wit I 1 quot SWEEP quot HR 0 ri brain Y nilEa Dw n1 IV I 39 Eh I ewes 5 quotk Cornea y I thmir 39 39 i I I I 39 F39US DE39 I Ciliar y39 V Weak musde Retina I l V quot Retina r D 0vea f Development in Visual Function Vision in infancy Newborn s visual acuity is very poor At 1 month 20400 Visual acuity increases rapidly in the rst year Visual accommodation and contrast sensitivity are poor at birth but develop fast in the rst six months Vision in childhood and youth full visual acuity is obtained until the age of 510 Myopia closer objects are seen clearly but distance objects are seen blurred Astigmatism Blurred vision results from misshapen cornea Vision with aging Presbyopia the ability to accommodate on near objects due to the changes of the lens and the ciliary muscles the lens yellows and the illumination decreases declines in vision have implications for skill performance as well as tasks of everyday living r 1 mo min 2 months l quot months Aciul g Symptoms of Visual Problems at Any Age Lack of eyehand coordination Squinting Under or overreaching for objects Unusual head movements h Perception of Space Perception of depth and distance is needed Information can come from retinal disparity the retinal images of an object fall on disparate points on two retina optic ow and pictorial cues such as overlap familiar size relative size shading and texture gradients Depth cues size texture shading etc and retinal disparity 1 d39quotquot39 J I l l I uqceqlfixmi n mini arr asco Interpretlistener 39 i Development of Space Perception Infants have the mechanics for retinal disparity and motion parallax By 6 months infants perceive depth Cliff experiments Depth perception is re ned to adultlike levels in adolescence Number of older adults who fail depth perception tests increases j Perception of Objects Object attributes are size shape and motion Perception is based on information about edges Edges are classi ed as boundaries or not boundaries Boundaries are assigned to objects k Aspects of Object Perception Figure and ground objects of interest seen as distinct from the background Whole and part parts of a picture or object discriminated from the whole yet can be integrated parts and whole perceived simultaneously Shape and orientation object recognized even if its orientation changes Development of Object Perception Infants may use depth and motion more than edges Children re ne gureandground and wholeandpart perception especially under dif cult conditions Children reach adult levels in preadolescence Adult sensitivity is beyond what is needed to perceive objects in the everyday world m Distance and Object Perception lnteract Adults perceive that objects retain their size even if the retinal image size changes because their distance from the observer changes Newborns demonstrate perception of size constancy with varying distance n Development of Shape and Orientation Perception Newborns are sensitive to object shape Newborns perceive faces Children re ne their ability to deal with subtle changes in object orientation 0 Perception of Motion The ability to detect track and intercept a movement object lnfant can perceive motion as early as two weeks after birth Saccadic eye movement rapid movements between one point of visual xation and another At maturity 12 years 90 of visual targets only use a saccadic movement But infants need several saccadic movement to reach a visual target Coincident timing the ability to coordinate visual and motor behavior to a single coincident point interception such as catch in a ball Accuracy tends to decrease as velocity increases p Kinesthetic Development Kinesthesis arises from the two proprioceptors somatosenors and vestibular apparatus a Vestibular Apparatus located in the inner ear Provides information to the brain about the positions and movements of the head Primarily related to the perception of balance also important in maintaining visual xation Ear drum EtdEEma39 Cranial nerve auditory Cechlee canal lquot i 256quot 739 External eer Hemmer Stirrup Semi circular een ale b Somatosenors Muscle Spindles Located between the bers of the muscles Parallel in structure with the muscles Stretch when the main muscle is stretched Gauge the degree of tension in a muscle and act an auxiliary motor unit Joint Receptors Embedded within the joint capsules Provides information to the brain about the position movement range velocity and acceleration etc Golgi Tendon Organs Located in the muscles adjacent to the muscletendon junction Provide information about muscle tension q Kinesthesis in Infancy Receptors probably are functioning prenatally Newborns respond to touch and can locate touches to the face Vestibular apparatus is functioning by age 2 months if not earlier r Tactile Localization Newborns can feel touches Perception of touch location improves in early childhood Thresholds for discriminating between one touch and two nearby touches improve in childhood 5 Body Awareness Identifying body parts children improve in labeling body parts Knowing the body39s spatial dimensions children master up and down rst then front and back and nally side to side Knowing the sides of the body are distinct laterality children show adultlike responses by age 10 years labeling left and right improves in late childhood Preferring one eye ear hand or foot over the other lateral dominance Infants show preferences handedness is established around age 4 years and no evidence that pure dominance is necessary t Spatial Orientation and Direction Infants are restriction to egocentric orientation references to self At age 7 children can describe objective localization references to other objects Directionality improves in late childhood Transposing right and left improves in adolescence u Kinesthetic Changes With Aging Some sensitivity may be lost Some older adults show impairments in judging passive leg movements Accuracy in judging muscle tension remains More research is needed v Auditory Process Three structures are involved in hearing external middle and cochlea of the inner ear Frequency of sound human can hear frequencies between 20 to 20000 Hz Amplitude of sound dB 20 logppo p0 0002 dynescm2 Soundeardrumossiclesorgan of Corti in cochlea auditory nerve temporal lobe of the cortex w Audition in Infancy Infants39 threshold for sound is higher than for an adult but allows detection of a normal speaking voice Rapid improvement is seen in the rst week At three months infants hear lowfrequency sounds well x Auditory Changes With Aging Hearing loss presbycusis is more frequent in older adults Some loss might have a physiological source Some loss might result from lifelong exposure to environmental noise Absolute and differential thresholds generally increase Hearing amid a noisy background is more dif cult y Intermodal Perception Events are perceived through various modalities Two perspectives exist Infant must learn how unique sensation from different modalities are related to one another and infants must learn about the world from information coming through various systems 2 AuditoryVisual Intermodal Perception Newborns turn toward a sound Discrimination of patterns across these modalities improves in childhood A task is easier for children if the visual pattern is presented rst aa VisualKinesthetic Intermodal Perception Infants seem to relate objects they can see with objects they have mouthed Recognition across modalities is shown in the rst year but matching comes later Finer discriminations improve in childhood Visual rst presentation is easier bb AuditoryKinesthetic Intermodal Perception Perception improves in childhood knowledge of the names of objects is a consideration More research is needed cc SpatialTemporal Intermodal Perception Space and time might be invariant across Integrating two spatial stimuli is easiest two temporal stimuli hardest Integrating spatial and temporal stimuli is intermediate in dif culty Integrating subtle aspects continues to improve during adolescence Chapter 11 Development of Strength and Flexibility a Strength is the ability to exert force Strength enhances the following sport skill performance dance skills ability to perform activities of daily living b Muscle Mass and Strength Muscle mass growth follows the sigmoid pattern In part the force a muscle can exert depends on its crosssectional area Neurological factors are also involved Strength does not always parallel changes in muscle size c Developmental Changes in Strength Strength increases as children grow Boys and girls are similar in strength levels until age 13 years Peak strength increases follow peak muscle increases Among children the same size but of different ages more mature children are stronger There is probably an endocrine in uence on strength Neural factors are also likely including improved motor unit activation with maturation d Strength in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Males add more muscle mass in adolescence Males are generally stronger especially in the arms and shoulders Size does not account for all of the gender differences Cultural norms can affect motivation and affect habitual activity levels After growth ceases increases in muscle mass are associated with resistance training e Strength in Middle and Older Adulthood Strength generally declines gradually after the 305 Muscle mass declines in the average older adult Loss of strength might be greater than the loss of muscle mass Muscular coordination factors might be involved in declining strength Some older adults do not lose strength Loss of strength is greatly affected by exercise and activity levels f Strength Training Prepubescents can increase strength with training improved neuromuscular coordination plays a role and youths should be monitored to avoid injuries Adolescents and adults can increase strength and muscle mass with appropriate resistance training muscle mass can increase with training over time and those cardiovascular diseases should be monitored g Assessment of Strength Force is exerted against resistance lsotonic or isokinetic strength if limbs move and isometric if against immovable resistance Muscle group movement speed of movement and joint angle must be speci ed Common isotonic tests use one repetition maximum Common isometric tests use a dynamometer or cable tensiometer Functional strength tests include chinups exedarm hang and rope climbing h Flexibility is the ability to move joints through a full range of motion it can bene t skill and dance performance Limited exibility can be a factor in injury is speci c to each particularjoint i Developmental Changes in Flexibility Infants and toddlers are very exible Studies show that declines in exibility start in childhood Flexible individuals can maintain or improve levels Girls as a group are more exible than boys exibility exercises are socially quotacceptablequot for girls and girls participate in activities stressing exibility ln adolescence exibility is variable with some individuals losing a signi cant degree of exibility j Flexibility in Adulthood Gradual loss of exibility occurs especially in littleused joints and after the 40s Adults who maintain training for exibility maintain their levels k Flexibility Training Training can maintain range of motion in those with full range Training can improve range of motion in those with limited range Assessment of Flexibility Because exibility is speci c to a joint it must be measured for every joint you wish to assess A goniometer is often used Axis is placed over joint center and instrument arm is aligned with the limb at the extremes of movement range The sitandreach test is a common measure but it has disadvantages Chapter 12 Develobment of Bodv Composition a Importance of Body Composition Body composition determines appearance It affects selfconcept It is related to working capacity Excess weight adds to workload Excess fat limits range of motion Obesity places one at risk of diseases b Development of Body Composition Genetic and environmental factors have an impact Two environmental factors can be manipulated diet and exercise Fat tissue increases rapidly in the rst six months and in early adolescence Increase continue in girls throughout adolescence Muscle tissue development follows that sigmoid pattern c Body Composition and Exercise in Youths Parizkova 19681977 Study boys n100 for successive 4 years The boys in the most active group signi cantly decreased the percentage of body fat compared the least active group Physical activity had a bene cial effect on body composition d Body Composition and Exercise in Teenage Girls Parizkova 1963 1977 Study followed 32 gymnasts and 45 nontraining girls for ve years Girls who did not train gained fat weight Those who trained showed no overall trend to add fat weight gained subcutaneous fat during inactivity lost fat and gained muscle during training and increased caloric intake during training e Body Composition and Exercise in Adulthood The average middleaged adult loses fatfree body mass and gains fat Regular exercisers are known to maintain muscle and fat levels Research studies general nd bene cial effects of exercise among groups but individual results are often variable f Obesity Obesity rates are increasing around the world and at all ages Chances are that obese children remain obese into adulthood In the United States 20092010 Percent of adolescents39 age 1219 years who are obese 184 percent of children age 611 years who are obese 180 and percent of children age 25 years who are obese 121 Metabolic and thyroid disorders account for less than 1 of cases Rapid increase implicates environmental rather than genetic factors BMI Body Weight kg Body Height m2 g Exercise as a strategy to reduce obesity Exercise can offset the decrease in basal metabolic rate that accompanies caloric restriction Exercise promotes muscle tissue which requires more calories for maintenance Exercise expends calories Exercise is effective in controlling obesity over the life span Chapter13 Develooment of Cardioresoiratorv Endurance a Physiological Responses to Prolonged Exercise During a prolonged period of activity responses include oxidative breakdown of food stores and depletion of local energy reserves Aerobic power is the rate at which the longterm oxygen demands in met Power WorkTime Aerobic capacity is the total energy available for prolonged activity Vozmax Heart and respiratory rates cardiac output and oxygen uptake increase to deliver oxygen to muscles Cardiac output can increase through increased heart rate or increased stroke volume b Aerobic Responses in Childhood Children have a smaller stroke volume therefore a smaller cardiac output hypokinetic circulation Children compensate in part with a higher heart rate Children have lower hemoglobin concentrations Hemoglobin is the blood protein that carries oxygen Children have an ef cient system but cannot exercise for as long as adults can c Changes in Aerobic Response with Growth Heart size increases Hemoglobin concentration increases Ability to sustain exercise is related to body size and maturity level By late adolescence trained men have an advantage over women d Maximal Oxygen Uptake De ned as the highest amount of oxygen the body can consume during aerobic work It is strongly related to lean body mass Maximal oxygen uptake increases linearly from age 4 years to late adolescence in boys and to age 12 to 13 years in girls Maximal oxygen uptake per kilogram of body weight is stable in boys and declines slightly in girls e Aerobic Performance in Adulthood Average maximal oxygen uptake per kilogram of body weight falls about 1 per year after peaking in the 205 Athletic and active adults maintain a higher maximal oxygen uptake than sedentary adults f Structural Changes in the Heart with Aging Loss of cardiac muscle loss of elasticity in cardiac muscle thickening of left ventricle brotic changes in the valves and loss of elasticity in major blood vessels g Functional Changes Accompany Structural Changes Maximum achievable heart rate with exercise declines Stroke volume in some older adults declines Cardiac output declines h Respiratory Changes with Aging Elasticity of the lung tissue declines Vital capacity decreases especially in smokers Oxygencarbon dioxide exchange loses ef ciency i Training Effects in Children Growth status and maturation level must be considered quotTriggerquot hypothesis Katch 1983 holds that the hormonal levels of puberty are necessary for a substantial training effect Aerobic training yields small improvements at best in preadolescents Aerobic training yields signi cant improvements after puberty j Training Effects in Older Adults Adults who remain active decline in aerobic endurance only gradually Sedentary adults who begin training can signi cantly increase maximal oxygen uptake Improvement is associated with increases muscle mass
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'