PSY-0022 Emotion: Study Guide 1 - History, Evolution, Culture, Communication
PSY-0022 Emotion: Study Guide 1 - History, Evolution, Culture, Communication PSY-0022
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Bu on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-0022 at Tufts University taught by Dr. Heather Urry in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at Tufts University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
PSY 0022 Emotion Study Guide for Exam 1 1 What is an emotion according to the modal model of emotion Historically how have views about emotions being good or bad for us changed Modal most popular Model of Emotion emotions arise only when one sees the situation as relevant and they are multifaceted fullbody responses that involve behavior subjective experience and both central and peripheral physiology Historically for over 2000 years emotions were thought of as base primitive and destructive see anger In that era it was more desirable to be able to control one39s passions emotions with reason 2 Describe the emotion generative cycle as conceived in the modal model of emotion 1 Situation 2 Attention 3 Appraisal 4 Multisystem Response Situation state of affairs Attention notice of the situation Appraisal evaluation of relevance valence goodbad familiarity etc MSR involves subjective experience expression and physiology The MSR may motivate the individual to modify the situation 3 What is affect How is affect related to other emotionrelated phenomena such as stress emotions moods impulses On what bases can stress emotions moods and impulses be distinguished from one another Affect is the superordinate category of emotional states and involves a goodbad valence discrimination It encompasses 4 groups stress emotion mood and impulse Stress inability to cope with demands negative Emotion shortterm can be positive or negative response is specific to an object Emotions will bias change actions Locally rational makes sense to the individual feeling it Mood longterm often has no specific object can be positive or negative May bias cognition change thinking but not necessarily bias actions Impulse physical demands eg hunger thirst pain that influence affect Poses call for clear resolving action clearly biases action eg hungry eat 4 How is a discrete approach to emotion different from a dimensional approach In what way does a dimensional approach account for discrete emotions Discrete approach appraisals cause distinct wholly different emotions where each emotion is equipped to deal with specific types of situations Dimensional approach components of appraisal can lead to several emotions depending on activationdeactivation pleasantnessunpleasantness Circumplex Model of Emotion 5 Describe the Darwinian evolutionary J amesian physiological social constructivist and cognitive theoretical perspectives on emotion Darwinian emotions are vestigial like the appendix derived from habits in the past as they once contributed to survival For example jealousy may have helped keep mating pairs together to increase fitness of offspring They may also have served a sociaUcommunicative function as they do today Although vestigial emotions are still an important function to us Consistent to evolution theory there should be similar emotions across all species especially closelyrelated ones Jamesian emotions arise as a result of the individual39s perception of their physiological response They are adaptive and help survival and each emotion must have unique pattern of bodily response Support for this theory includes facial feedback Social Constructivist emotions are a product of the particular societyculture and they are simply learned social rules They carry a social function and they are learned not innate Cognitive Theoretical emotions and thoughts are inseparable and emotions arise only because of how you appraise it judge if goodbad Some theorists say that emotions are caused by combination of specific appraisal dimensions eg novelty pleasantness control outcome certainty responsibility Appraisals not always conscious automatic TwoFactor Theory event gt physiology AND cognitive label gt experience of emotion 6 According to some cognitive theorists how do discrete emotions get created According to Lazarus discrete emotions are created by appraising 1 goal relevance is it worth responding to determines whether there is emotional response 2 goal congruence is the situation in my interest determines if emotion is positivenegative 3 ego involvement does this improve or hurt my self esteem perform secondary appraisals to differentiate the emotions further eg improve se gt pride hurt se gt anger According to Oatley amp Johnson a primary appraisal determines a basic emotion which equips the brain to deal with the corresponding emotionspecific situation It is a state ofreadiness but has no meaning until the secondary appraisal according to the emotions core relational themes or their essential meaning eg anger demeaning offense against self anxiety facing uncertainty the individual provides a causal explanation decides how to respond and considers what will happen 7 What was Freud s important contribution to the study of emotion Freud39s psychoanalytic work on case studies suggested that adult emotional life is heavily in uenced by the relationships experienced in childhood with parents or caregivers This was a foundation for John Bowlby39s work who created Attachment Theory and suggested that infant attachment style was the base upon which all later social development builds Lazarus combined Freud39s ideas with Darwin39s to suggest that emotions arise from evaluating situations in relation to our goals 8 How have philosophers such as Aristotle the Epicureans the Stoics and Descartes contributed to current thinking about emotion Aristotle first systematic analyses of emotion we are responsible for our emotions because they are caused by our beliefs appraisals Judgement determines emotion Epicureanism and Stoicism are founded on this view Epicureans among first emotion researchers promoted the idea that humans deserve the right to pursue happiness People should shift attention away from wealth and luxury which cause anxiety jealousy and anger gt emotional regulation Stoics among first emotion researchers believe that most emotions especially negative ones such as anger or jealousy damage the self and society and should be disciplined away in favor of rationality gt Both E and S thought that emotions were diseases of the soul Descartes 6 fundamental emotions are connected to the soul and affect physiology originates in and reflects the soul like impulses re ect the body Thoughts cannot control but can regulate them emotions depend on our evaluations While usually functional emotions can also be dysfunctional gt Contribution to Modern Views Despite all that how to pursue happiness How to regulate damaging emotions How to be useful despite selfish desires 9 What were the four humors that were thought to give rise to emotional states What emotional state was linked to each Blood hope vigor Phlegm placidity Yellow bile anger Black bile despair 10 How did John Harlow s patient Phineas Gage shape our understanding of emotion The case study provided evidence that emotions were directly causal with the brain 11 Based on what evidence did Walter Cannon call the Jamesian view of emotion into question J amesLange theory stated emotions arose from the viscera and severing the viscera should mute emotions Cannon found the opposite severing the viscera lead to intense objectless emotion 12 How might we define empathy What s one region of the brain that s been shown to be involved in emotional aspects of empathy using functional magnetic resonance imaging Empathy Having an emotion that is somewhat similar to that of another person elicited by observingimagining the other39s emotion while knowing that the other is causing your emotion The anterior cingulate cortex brain region involved mediates emotional quality 13 What are the core tenets of evolutionary psychology 1 Behavior psychological mechanisms input to mechanisms eg friction gt skin callus input is necessary 2 Psychological mechanisms originate from evolutionary processes evolution shapes adaptation 3 Selection is the most important evolutionary process responsible for creating psych mech eg those who feel jealousy survived and reproduced Adaptations are selected 4 Evolved psych mech are infoprocessing devices emotions identify and solve adaptive problems eg input faced problem gt decision rules what to do gt output act on solution 5 Evolved psych mech are instantiated in specific areas of the brain 6 Evolved psych mech are functional solves recurrent adaptive problems 14 Why is it incorrect to suggest that the purpose of evolution is to ensure individual survival How do genes maXimize replicative success Purpose of evolution is to ensure survival of genes and vehicles thereof ie family relations so they can reproduce Maximize success by being able to cope with selection pressures increasing attractiveness etc 15 Identify three key ideas emerging from the interview with Leda Cosmides and John Tooby 1 All emotions have adaptive purpose 2 Anger can be positive and cooperative 3 Emotions that cause people to seek solitude are helpful recalibrate thoughts 16 What is an adaptation How does being afraid of things like spiders and the dark potentially represent an adaptation Adaptation genetically based traits that allow organism to cope well with a specific selection pressure to survive and reproduce Spiders may be poisonous the dark may hold unseen dangers Both threatened our ancestors survival these phobias are evolutionary 17 Provide three specific examples of how emotions serve adaptive functions by motivating adaptive behavior 1 Fear escape danger increase chance of survival 2 Love bonds parent and infant parental attention increase survival chance for infant 3 Anger defend status and asserts power higher status begets more resources and survival chance 18 Describe the five motivations that relate to emotions 1 Attachment maintain contact with parents begins between infants and caregivers attachment style persists in adulthood 2 Assertion motivation for power desire to move up the ladder 3 Affiliation friendships relationships motivation to associate with others and repair bonds 4 Antisocial hostility loyalty to ingroup in case of intergroup con ict 5 Nonsocial solitary emotions or activities eg selfimprovement selfpreservation exploration 19 Choose three emotions Describe the motivation behind them how they enable people to relate to each other and the recurring situation they may be adapted to address Hint See Table 23 EMOTION INTERACTION MOTIVATION RECURRING SITUATION 1 Sexual desire Sexual contact Attachment Increase chances of reproduction 2 Jealousy Maintain pairbond Attachment Threat of interloper 3 Guilt Repair relationship Affiliation Mistakes wrongdoings 20 The Griskevicius et al 2009 study demonstrated that evolutionary predictions about emotion hold true in the context of persuasiveness of ads What was their basic method and what did they discover Hypothesis fear should promote social cohesion lust should promote desire to stand out Method show Group 1 scary video show Group 2 romantic video Present two ads art museum and casino one with slogan promoting uniqueness one with slogan promoting group cohesion Ask participants which ad they prefer Results were consistent with their hypothesis 21 Define culture Culture is re ected in essentially two ways What are they What are two implicit theories about emotions in Western culture Culture system of ideaspractices in common for a group of people living in particular time and place ie society 1 Reflected in Things material culture eg clothing buildings food 2 Reflected in Thinking subjective culture eg ways of viewingjudging norms knowledge Western theory 1 emotions are irrational and obsolete should not be trusted Western theory 2 emotions are guide and guarantee to authentic self and the source of values 22 What are the core tenets of cultural psychology 1 Culture drives everything we do we rely on ideas values strategies feelings and goals in all our actions which was shaped by social expectations 2 Cultural knowledge is acquired through social transmission between conspecifics This is enculturation eg your parents do X you are more likely to do X as a parent in the future 3 Some regularities exist both psychological and otherwise are universal for humans across culture eg music buildings instruments gt all exist in different forms 4 Despite 3 psychological phenomena may differ substantially across cultures e g greeting methods in Japan bowing VS America handshake 5 Cultural differences are reflected in values and motivations 23 What assumptions are made by people who adopt a cultural approach to emotions Hint See KOampJ p 60 What is one basic strategy for examining cultural differences in emotions Assumption 1 Emotions are constructed by the processes of culture their elicitation and value were shaped by historic and economic forces Assumption 2 Emotions are roles that people play to fulfill culturespecific identities and relationships according to social expectations eg role of motherloverfriendsubordinate Strategy Mesquita suggests focusing on the practice of emotion daily relevance experience situation where it is appropriate etc eg shame may be positive in some cultures but negative in others instead of the potential for emotion capability to feel 24 Mesquita distinguishes between potential and practice when it comes to emotion What does she mean Potential what actually happens in people39s emotional lives how emotions are relevant to them Practice capability of showing universal emotional responses in terms of experience expression and physiology 25 According to your textbook why is there cultural variation in emotion Provide one cross cultural comparison to illustrate your answer Cultures vary as to which emotions are focal most important in daily life according to values eg humility honesty deference Different values gt different valuerelated emotions arise Individualisticcollectivistic leanings and historical philosophies eg Romanticism also contribute Comparison 1 In Japan the emotion amae is comfort taken in interdependence and acceptance However although Westerners may have the potential to feel the emotion they do not have a name for it because it is discouraged in adult society Comparison 2 Toda Indians only get jealous if spouse has another lover outside of the Toda community but not if within Westerners would be jealous in both scenarios 26 Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama study selfconstrual Describe the two types of self construal they identified Where in the world are these two types of selfconstrual prevalent Independent individualism assert uniqueness and independence more internalselffocused Interdependent collectivism self is fundamentally connected with others One39s status identity and roles within groups are seen as more important than the self 27 Describe Matsumoto et al s 2008 model for understanding how culture might in uence emotion regulation eg suppressing expression of emotions Em Earning13 Ithai l I39llr Hull El n A I51 I Inquot 391 r mum 1 LEE Hi l l 1 Emma I 7 i Elfin llihmhp FJ39SHF39E f Higan E lll maulgm t FU E Ll wian 11quot the mlnlitjm hip mtwnmen guILural valueg ll it l l l and gmrgll rn regula titm 1 A complex society has a need for order 2 Culture determines the value of different emotions the value of different interpersonal relationships and display rules dictate a norm for emotion expression 3 The two sets of values interact with each other and feed into the cultural norms 4 The norms serve to maintain social order Since different cultures have different norms and display rules about which emotions are appropriate in which settings members of those societies will suppress different emotions than each other eg Japanese more likely to suppress negative emotion when with a researcher 28 What are Hofstede s six cultural dimensions Provide one example of how one of these cultural dimensions is related to suppressing expression of emotions Hint Lara discussed this during her portion of the relevant lecture 1 Power distance degree to which less powerful members accept the unequal power distribution 2 Individualism social framework where individuals care for only immediate selffamily 3 Masculinity how much people want achievement heroism material rewards power etc 4 Uncertainty avoidance degree to which members are uncomfortable with ambiguity of future 5 Long term orientation whether a society honors old traditions and dislikes change low score or encourages change high score 6 Indulgence degree to which society allows free gratification of drivesenjoymentfun Relate to emotion suppression people in societies that emphasize social order tend to suppress more emotions and vice versa Therefore societies with high power distance where members accept their fixed position and low long term orientation adheres to strict tradition may suppress the most emotions 29 In what ways are the evolutionary and cultural approaches to emotion the same and different Hint For the differences Table 32 will be useful Similarities both assume emotions help solve basic social problems Both assume emotions help humans form attachments take care of offspring fold into hierarchies and maintain relationships Differences 1 Universal evo VS culturespecific cul 2 Biological process evo VS interpretationroles beliefs cul 3 Originate from selection evo VS learned from valuesinstitutionspractice 30 The dialectical epistemology that is favored in Eastern cultures is guided by five principles What are they What is one example of a study that illustrates one of these principles 1 Change so that nothing is static 2 Contradiction that opposites often are consistent and both true 3 Covariation so that events are interrelated in complex fields or systems 4 Compromise so that truth may lie in the synthesis of opposites 5 Context so that events occur not alone but in contexts Peng amp Nisbett 1999 Asians find more meaningpleasure in contradictions 2 than Americans Chinese proverbs are more contradictory American ones are more straightforward Chinese and American students were presented with a set of proverbs Chinese students found contradictory dialectical proverbs to be more comprehensible likeable and usable US students preferred the more linear proverbs 31 Describe five kinds of nonverbal behavior 1 Emblems directly translate to words eg peace sign middle finger 2 Illustrators accompanies speech to make dramatic eg hand facial gestures 3 Regulators aid conversation eg nodding raise eyebrows encouraging sounds 4 Selfadaptors release nervous energy may not have clear objective e g twirl hair bite lip 5 Displays of Emotion signals in the face voice body and touch shows emotion 32 How did Darwin conceptualize principles of expressions of emotion 1 Principle of serviceable habits habits that proved useful serviceable stayed through evolution eg anger furrowed brow protects exposed teeth threatens 2 Principle of antithesis opposite states have opposite expressions eg pride raise head expand chest shame lower head slump shoulders 3 Principle of nervous discharge excess undirected energy releases itself in random expressionsacts eg touch face jiggle leg twirl hair 33 What evidence is there to suggest that expressions of emotion are universal and for which emotions What evidence is there to suggest that it s wrong to think expressions of emotion are universal Darwin emotions are human universals because expressions that were adaptive in human history still exist e g furrow brow bare teeth when angry expand when dominant cower when submissive Tomkins proposed affect theory gt emotions are hardwired responses passed by genes and affect derives from 9 universal basic face expressions Studies found that 6 facial expressions can be correctly identified worldwide but a new 7th contempt has been proposed Critique 1 The same expression can be interpreted different ways depending on context 2 Forced choice critique of Ekman39s study of Fore tribe members and US students they had to pick one answer out of predetermined options 3 Ecological validity all photos used in Ekman39s study were posed expressions natural ones may look different 34 What two methods are used to determine whether people can communicate their emotions via their voice What is one example of a study that illustrates each of these two methods Encoding hypothesis experiencing different emotions should lead to the same distinct expressions in every culture Decoding hypothesis people of different cultures should interpret expressions the same way Ekman amp Friesen 3000 photos of 35 What are the four functions of tactile contact ie touch Which emotions can be reliably communicated by touch 1 Soothing calming reduces stress 2 Signal safety promote secure attachment 3 Increase cooperation promote affiliation 4 Provide pleasure promote intimacy 36 In what three ways do expressions of emotion coordinate social interactions 1 Informative function rapid important information about social world eg sender39s current emotions relationship between sender and receiver 2 Evocative function trigger specific responses in perceivers e g empathetic mirroring become defensive when see someone angry 3 Incentive function invites desired social behavior e g parents smile when children behave 37 Artists conceive of their art as a means of expressing their emotions What is one example of a study finding suggesting that emotions are reflected in music in particular What evidence is there to suggest that we are able to recognize emotions communicated in music Gabrielsson 8 Juslin 2001 Juslin 8 Laukka 2003 voice and music share emotionally expressive properties with intentionally expressed accoustics e g tempo loudness timbre pitch Study Participants forced to choose one of anger sadness happiness or tenderness to describe a wordless melody that aims to convey one of the emotions 70 accurately inferred the emotion from tempo loudness and pitch similar of accuracy in voiceface 38 Definitions Emotions are vestigial in the Darwinian sense Emotions like the appendix are a product of evolution and helped our ancestors increase fitness and survive However unlike the appendix Darwin believed that they remain useful to us today and continue to serve a social function Emotions are locally rational The emotional reaction to a situation make sense is rational to the individual who experiences it local Trait Personality longlasting aspect of personality Biology genetically determined characteristic Emotion accents Stylized cultural expressions of emotions small variation on a shared base Appraisal dimensions 8 attributes of a situation during the appraisal process which lead to differing emotions 1 Attention Degree to which you focus on and think about the event 2 Certainty Degree to which you are certain about what is going to happen 3 ControUcoping Extent to which you have control over outcomes in the environment 4 Pleasantness Degree to which the event is positive or negative 5 Perceived obstacle Extent to which the pursuit of your goals is blocked 6 Responsibility Extent to which others you and situational factors are responsible for events 7 Legitimacy Extent to which the event is fair and deserved or unfair and undeserved 8 Anticipated effort Extent to which you must expend energy to respond to the event Environment of evolutionary adaptedness The environment to which human emotions became adapted as they evolved Fitness How successful a species is at survival and reproduction natural selection favors those of high fitness The usefulness of traits and abilities affect fitness level Emotions are functional Emotions serve to solve significant recurring adaptive problems Adaptation Genetically based traits that allow organism to cope well with a specific selection pressure to survive and reproduce Exaptation Where a trait changes its function through evolution eg bird feathers heat regulation gt mating display gt enable flight Selection pressures Features of socialphysical environment where humans evolved that determined whether individuals survived and reproduced eg predators scarcity of resources disease Intersexual competition selection Where one sex selects for specific traits in the opposite sex eg female peacocks select males with big colorful tails big colorful tails become selected for and persist Intrasexual competition selection Where members of the same sex compete for sexual attention e g stags fight and lock horns to see who is more dominant and deserving of resources or mates Cultural relativism relativity Cultural norms and values derive meaning within a specific context Enculturation Acquiring social knowledge eg norms expectations through social means from conspecifics Affect evaluation theory Tsai Emotions that promote specific cultural values and ideals are valued more so they are more prominent in the social lives of people in that culture Display rules Dictate and influence how and to whom it is appropriate to express different emotions Good luck
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