Exam 1 Study Guide - Bio 313
Exam 1 Study Guide - Bio 313 Bio 313
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Erickson on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 313 at Ball State University taught by Metzler in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Exam I Study Guide Chapter 1 Microorganisms and Microbiology 3 Domains of life include Bacteria Eukarya and Archaea Trait Bacteria Archaea Eukarya MembraneBound N0 No Yes Organelles Cell Wall PG present No PG No PG Membrane Lipids Ester Linked Eth er Linked Ester Linked MembraneenC Osed Absent Absent Present nucleus Plagella Mechanism Rotation Rotation Whiplike Sensitive to penicillin Yes N O NO streptomycin chloramphenicol Nitrogen Fixation Yes Yes No Endospores Yes No No Gas Vesicles Yes Yes No Chlorophyllbased Yes No Yes photosynthesis Growth above 70 C Yes Yes No Growth above 100 C No Yes No Chapter 2 Microbial Cell Structure amp Function Bacterial MorpholORies Cocci Bacillus Spirillum Spirochete Appendaged Filamentous note if bacterias form a chain strepto if bacterias form clumps staphylo if cells form in a cube sarcinae Gram Cell Wall Teichoic Acids Protein Up to 90 PG 0 Contains Teichoic and Lipoteichoic Acids O acids interact with lipid bilayer Gram Stain will be Purple Gram Cell Wall Very little PG Layer 0 Outer membrane has LPS Lipopolysaccharide O Periplasmic Space has high protein concentration Will be pinkred in Gram Stain Flagellum Cell Surface Structures 0 Capsules a tightly attached matrix that excludes small particles 0 Slime Layers a loosely attached matrix that excludes small particles 0 both slime layers and capsules can be used for attachment avoiding dehydration and virulence factors 0 Fimbriae filamentous proteins that allows cells to stick to surfaces or form pellicles Fimbriae are short and cells will have many 0 Pili filamentous protein that allows for attachment motility and genetic exchange Cells generally only have one pili and they are generally longer Chapter 5 Microbial Growth and Control Microbial Growth 0 Cells divide by binary fission 0 uses Fts Proteins and creates a divisome 0 Generation time the time it takes one cell to form two cells 0 ln lab batch cultures go through growth curve Microbes can grow in 0 Hot amp Cold temperatures I Psychrophile cold lover I Mesophile middle temps I ThermophileHyperthermophile hot lover 0 Various pH s I Acidophile acid lover pH of 55 or less I Neutrophile neutral pH pH of 55 8 I Alkaliphile base lover pH of 8 or more 0 Osmolarity I Salt halophiles I Sugar osmophiles I Xerophiles dry 0 Oxygen I Aerobes obligate facultative microaerophiles I Anaerobes obligate or aerotolerant Oxygen can be toxic due to byproducts 0 Growth can be Measured by O Microscope Counts O Viable Counts O Spectrophotometry Growth can be Controlled by 0 Physical Methods I Autoclaving I Pasteurization I Ionizing Radiation I Nonionizing Radiation I Filtration 0 Chemical Methods note sterilization killing all microbes decontamination treatment to make it safe to handle disinfection targets pathogens only Chapter 6 Microbial Genomics Genomics Vocab I M Genome the total complement of genetic info in a cell Metagenome total complement of all cells in an environment Epigenome total number of possible epigenetic changes Methylome total number of methylated sites on DNA I m Transcriptome total RNA produced under certain conditions I Protein Proteome total set of proteins encoded by a genome Translatome total set of proteins present under certain conditions lnteractome total set of interactions between proteins interactome is not well understood C Metabolites Metabolome all small molecules and metabolic intermediates Glycome total complement of sugars and other carbs I Organisms Microbiome all microorganisms in an environment Virome total complement of viruses in an environment Mycobiome total complement of fungi in an environment Prokarvotic vs Eukarvotic Genome O Prokaryotic genomes have few noncoding regions C Size of genome in prokaryotes can vary generally small but big range I Eukaryotic genome includes protists yeasts molds and parasitic microbes O Parasites have smaller genomes as do single celled organisms Evolution of Genomes O Prokaryotes can share genes 0 Vertical Gene Transfer Cell Division 0 Horizontal Gene Transfer Transfer DNA from one cell to another 0 Mobile Elements DNA moving within a cell Gene duplication is the most common mechanism creates paralogs and orthologs O Homologous genes gt Homologs O Orthologs gt genes in one organism are similar to genes in another because of a common ancestor O Paralogs gt genes in one organism are similar to genes in another because of gene duplication Core vs Pan Genome 0 Core Genome genes required for survival 0 Pan Genome extra genes typically beneficial but not necessary Transcriptional Regulation 0 Types include 1 Negative Control Repression or lnduction a Repression enzymes that catalyze production are not made when product is present ex Arg Operon b lnduction enzyme is made only when substrate is present ex Lac Operon 2 Positive Control Activation a Activation regulatory protein activates the binding of RNA polymerase to DNA ex Maltose Operon 3 Global Control a Global Control Regulation of many different genes b Often used when multiple Carbon sources are present RNA Control Mechanisms Regulated by Sensing amp Signal Transduction O 2 Component Systems and Quorum Sensing O RNA based Regulation involves noncoding RNA types 0 rRNA O tRNA 0 sRNA I Antisense or Trans sRNA Mechanisms include 0 Riboswitches affect translation 0 Attenuation affect transcription Chapter 10 Genetics of Bacteria and Archaea More Genetics Vocab O Mutation a heritable change in the base sequence of the genome 0 Genetic lnsertion insertion of a single base pair 0 Genetic Deletion deletion of a single base pair Frameshift Mutation mutation that results in the shift of the reading frame Mutagenesis Mutations can be Spontaneous or lnduced O Spontaneous can be from replication errors Cannot be Prevented O lnduced caused by mutagen Can be Prevented Types of Mutations Point Frameshift Silent O Missense Nonsense Reversion 3 Methods of Genetic Recombination 1 Transformation uptake of naked DNA 2 Transduction DNA transferred by bacteriophage 3 Conjugation transfer of plasmid
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