HIST 150 Study Guide for Midterm
HIST 150 Study Guide for Midterm HIST 150
Popular in History in the Western World
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Popular in History
This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 150 at Ball State University taught by Abel Alves in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 353 views. For similar materials see History in the Western World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
What is History History consists of two levels of dialogue I The rst is as follows a The rst level is as follows In words individual humans and their decisions are effected by their natural social and cultural environments and vise versa Their natural environment and social and cultural environments are also effected by each other b The ancient Greeks39 land their natural environment was rocky and fairly dry They made the decision to grow barley olives and grapes These things they then traded and sold olive oil and wine to other countries which led to a culture of trade c Culture is expressed in many different ways but charity sharing food and other resources in the community is expressed in many cultures 11 The second level is an addition to the rst a In words historians ask questions about a speci c time period then look to primary sources to nd answers 1 Primary sources are letters writings paintings pictures artifacts etc from the time period that is being asked about b An example of this is found if we were to ask about the French Revolution The book A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens would not be an example of a primary source because it is a work of ction even though it was written during at time period If we were to ask about the English opinion about the Revolution then we could consult the book because even though it is a work of ction it shared the opinions of the English about the Revolution c Corroboration is looking for evidence hat supports other evidence 1 Evidence of when humans began walking on two feet can be found in the skeleton Lucy People then corroborated and excavated footprints of people walking upright that were dated to around the same time Evolution by Natural Selection 1 Every living thing shares the four nucleobases adenine thymine guanine and cytosine which are connected in a double helix a spiral ladder by a phosphate deoxyribose backbone a There is always variation within a species no members of the same species are exactly the same New traits mutations within a species were called sports by Charles Darwin 1 Darwin was an agnostic who wrote On the Origin of Species 2 Alfred Russell Wallace had the same types of ideas as Darwin but believed in God 11 About 7 6 MYA million years ago humans and apes had a common ancestor called the hominids the human branchoff was called the hominins a 7 6 MYA sahelanthropus tchadensis came from the hominins b 5852 MYA ardipithecus kadabba c 44 MYA ardipithecus ramidus was the earliest found bipedal forest dweller walking upright d 42 MYA australopithecines Lucy Laetoli footprints were about 355 feet tall and walking upright in Africa 1 3 2 MYA kenanthropus platyops was an upright walking breed whose bones were found next to tools that they had crafted out of stones in Kenya e 2515 MYA homo habilis were found with the Olduwan tools sharpening hammers to make cutting tools in Africa f 18 MYA3O TYA homo erectus controlled fire hunted acheulian hand aX had sutures soft spots on babies skulls to make childbirth easier for mother and spread throughout Africa Asia and Europe 1 Neanderthals in Europe and Asia could not distance kill and did not draw but could mate successfully with home erectus g 150 TYA4O TYA modern homo sapiens painted cave art had utes and killed with bows and arrows Because the mitochondria the part of a cell that stores energy comes from the mother the mitochondrion was traced back to this time 111 Modern homo sapiens were able to solve problems of not haVing enough food by beginning agricultural communities a Some cities were formed before agriculture was a strong practice Many of them were near bodies of water so that the people could sh and still hunt and scavenge b At the end of the last ice age nomadic groups began to settle around 13 TYA c Some of the first things that people grew was grasswheat It was not very nutritious but it could be tolerated and was necessary to survive before other more sustaining plants were discovered d In Egypt the life expectancy was only about 25 years for the average citizen form their lack of nutritionHIST 150 Week 2 Notes 1001 and 1003 Ancient Egypt Egypt was also called Kemet sometimes spelled Kamut I Settlements began forming near the Nile River Delta near the Mediterranean Sea around 5000 BCE before the common era People called this land the black land in the red land black fertile soil inn the desert a The god Osiris is the god of agriculture and he was killed by his brother His sister and wife Isis mummified him and brought him back to life 1 Incest was fairly common especially among royals to keep the bloodline purely divine b Farmers began to fight over the land to plant crops and herd cattle and sheep This divided into Upper and Lower Egypt Upper was actually south of Lower because the Nile ows upward from the south North and South Egypt were united by the first pharaoh Narmer c The Nile oods from September through November so crops were planted on November and harvested before September 1 People noticed this was like clockwork so they recorded it and made the rst calendar based on the oods and the stars and moon II Pharaohs were viewed as the descendants of gods of as gods themselves a Pharaohs were needed to keep order and to stop ghts from breaking out between farmers as well as protecting them from invaders 1 They were thought to be the son or reincarnation of Horus god of justice and son of Osiris or AmonRa suncreator god 2 AmonRa was viewed as god but also as his son like the Christian views of Jesus and God 111 Old Middle and New Egypt a Old Kingdom Egypt 26862181 BCE 1 Pyramids were build over pharaohs graves but they were too obvious to grave robbers so they stopped building them 2 Old Egypt ended when desert people red people invaded b Middle Kingdom Egypt 20551650 BCE l Hieroglyphics were used to keep records record the calendar king s decrees and were like pictographs but could combine to form new words or phrases 2 Priests and scribes knew how to read hieroglyphics 3 The hierarchy during this time was Pharaoh priests scribes merchants then peasants 4 The scribe Ptah Hotep wrote about how women could have property if it was given to them in a will Their purpose in the home was to have children to be laborers in their father s eld c New Kingdom Egypt 15501069 BCE 1 Hatshepsut was a female pharaoh who ruled for many years she was the wife of the pharaoh who had just died and his son wasn t old enough to rule She also gave out workfare to all the workers families 300 liters of wheat and some barley for beer every month IV After the Old Middle and New Kingdoms the pharaohs were from Kush 7 1265 6 BCE until the Assyrians from Nineveh Shang China I Shang China was the basis for the Chinese culture as it is today Some hints at Shang China are seen in some presentday Chinese symbols a Before the Shang came farmers had inhabited the area of the Yellow River Valley because the soil was fertile 1 These people were using tone age tools and weapons stone blades heads and wooden handles b They planted things like millet and had pigs and goats c When the Shang came from the Ordos Desert 1 The Shang had weapons and tools with bronze blades and heads bronze age and chariots and took over the farmers 11 Shangdi is the supreme god of the Chinese a The emperor of the Shang would marry the Yellow River to bring fertile soil but because the marriage could not be consummated a peasant would be drowned the river b Once the peasants were asked to pay too much tribute Wu of Zhou rebelled around 1122 BCE 1 Zhou made a centralized Northern China 2 The Zhou dynasty lasted until around the 7 00s BCE when the warlords who lived in the countryside rebelled against the Zhou Vedic India I The first Indian culture was called the Harappan Culture from 2000sl700s BCE There were small gaps between rich and poor a The main thing that was grown in India was trees for lumber which was then traded to the Middle East There was a climate change that pushed the monsoons east out of India b lSOOslOOOs BCE was fairly chaotic It was during this time when they wrote the Rig Veda which was a compilation of old stories and stories of creation that were written in Sanskrit predecessor of Hindi c Indra was the skyfather god Agni god of re and Mitra god of justice 11 800400 BCE The Upanishads began Hinduism They said that the world is not the ultimate reality of life a Brahman is the in nite god that was the world and everything beyond it He came in many forms God came as Jesus but Brahman came as many different avatars l Brahma was the creator god Vishnu was the preserver god Shiva was the god of destruction 2 Brahman came as Rama the just king and as Krishna more peaceful b DeviShaktiPurgaParvati is names of the goddess version of Brahman l Parvati and Shiva were married but the same and had a son named Ganesha who was the god of all things prosperous c Atman was the spark of life in all humans and animals that was eternal and not created of destroyed 1 Since Atman was not destroyed it would move to another body after the first died reincarnation 2 If the person had good karma their life was guided b Brahman they were reincarnated as a human or as a revered animal but if they had bad karma they were reincarnated as a tiger who could be hunted by the peasants or another lower animal d The caste system 600 BCE was how people were classi ed by their birth First were Brahmin priests gt Kshatriya kings princes warriors gt Vaishya merchants landowners gt Shudra laborers gt Dasa slaves gt outcaste foreigners who were lower than slaves III Yogis were the founders of yoga a Yogis were people who did not agree or adhere to the caste system female form of the word is yogini b Yoga was practiced to make sure that the Atman was in charge of the body not the other way around breathing exercises walking on hot coals etc IV Jainism was another religion that was founded by Mahavira a man who was born high into the caste system but rejected it anyway a They believed in reincarnation 1 If a king was harsh to his peasants he could be reincarnated as a tiger which were allowed to be hunted and killed by the peasants 2 If someone had good karma they could be reincarnated as a human higher in the caste system an elephant cow or dog b They believed that all life is sacred not just human life so they would never kill any animals gently wipe away bigs when they sat down and wore masks where there were lots of bugs Buddhism 1 Siddhartha Gautama 563483 BCE a He was the son of a king who never wanted his son to know sorrow but he heard a servant singing a sad song and went on to explore and see the suffering in the world 1 He was shocked by the amount of suffering that he saw in the world and became a yogi b He was known as the Buddha literally means enlightened one 1 He said that people should live by the Middle Path not totally in suffering but not totally materialistic either 2 If you live on the middle Path then you can begin to follow the Four Noble Truths 1 Life is suffering 2 Suffering is caused by desire of worldly things 3 To end suffering you must end desire 4 You can end suffering and desire by following the Eightfold Path 3 The Eightfold Path is basically having the right attitudes compassion actions and re ection to live a good life c Dharma the way of life of the Buddha justice mercy and compassion d Nirvana means extinguishing a candle losing yourself to become one with the universe which gets rid of all your suffering I Bodhisattvas means little Buddha postponed attaining nirvana so that they could show compassion in next lives reincarnation e There were two main branches of Buddhism Theravada and Mahayana l Theravada only accepted the earliest Buddhist writings and traditions 2 Mahayana would integrate other religious practices into their Buddhist beliefs 11 Other important people a The Dali Lama is considered the leader of Buddhism to most Buddhists how the Pope is the leader of Christianity to most Christians b Kwan Yin is the Chinese goddess of mercy who became the Buddhists bodhisattva of mercy c Buddha Amida also called Amitabha is the supreme Buddha who is eternal and interconnected in the universe d King Ashoka 200s BCE tried to make Buddhism the national religion of India he also did away with most of the caste system 111 By the 300s CE 90 of NW China and Persia were Buddhists Confucius I Confucius was born into China when it was dominated by many warlords throughout the country he was originally going to be a type of accountant for a warlord but he didn t like the way they bossed the peasants around so he became a teacher a During this time Dao or Tao was a big part of the Chinese culture 1 Dao literally means the way they believed that the government was always the problemcorrupt not the people b Confucius thought that if you put the government in the hands of noble men that it would not be corrupt c Confucius taught sons of the elite 1 He judged based on people s merits not by their rank given by birth peasants could be noble 2 Women were always considered inferior to men except in the relationship between a mother and son 11 The Analects a Book 6 Analect 5 instead of turning down a gift that you don t need give it to someone who needs it b Book 7 Analect 21 Confucius did not speak on prodigies fortune telling force disorder or religion c Book 7 Analect 25 Confucius taught on culture moral conduct doing one s best and being trustworthy d Book 9 Analect 8 Confucius had no knowledge he just turned questions over in his mind until there was nothing left to them e Book 12 Analect 2 people shouldn t give orders for their own benefit but for the benefitout of respect and mercy benevolence of the whole community the common good f Book 12 Analect 7 out of weapons faith and trust give up weapons rst defend the food which leads to trust then food leaving trust as the most important g Book 14 Analect 11 gentlemen cherish mercy and respect the law but the small man cherishes whatever he can get out of a situation reece I Minoans were centered in the city of Knossos on the island of Crete a They traded olivesolive oil and grapeswine overseas along with shing b They were in uenced by Phoenician writing and Egyptian art 1 They had a system of linear writing but was not specifically an alphabet or characters like hieroglyphics c This culture fell apart during tsunamis caused by underwater earthquakes II Mycenaeans lived in city states in the valleys between the mountains in Greece 18501200 BCE a Different types of people who lived in these city states 1 Aristio aristocrats men who had arete means the ability to get things done later meant Virtue 2 Demos the common people literally means lowly 3 Women were looked at as property they could not own property and their main job was to have kids to be workers b They did lots of raiding and trading much like the Vikings who would steal from monasteries only to trade the things they stole to the next monastery they came across c They had the Linear B writing system we are able to translate and read their writings most of which were about taxes and other records d Mycenae was the biggest city state out of all the famous ones in the Iliad Athens Pylos Ithaca Sparta and Mycenae 1 They made and sold scented oils to trade and sell e This period ended when the demos revolted and invaders came from the north called Dorians don t know which happened rst or if one caused the other III Greek Dark Age 1100800 BCE a During this time period literacy rates went down b Subsistence liVing rose meaning anything that was done was mainly for the purpose of surViVing which meant trading went down c Polis was a place and a way of life 1 A polis was a city and the surrounding farmlands and probably a port 2 The way of life of the polis was politics IV Archaic Age 75 0550 BCE was a period of much colonization of areas around the Mediterranean Sea a Mainland Greece was beginning to become overpopulated so city states would send out people to colonize and trade with them the new areas worshipped the same main gods as their original city state Athens and their colonies worsted Athena most b Women were only wives and property and thought to be intellectually inferior than men 1 Sappho of Lesbos was a female poet who had multiple male and female sexual partners usually this was men who had the multiple partners of both sexes she also said that peace was better than war which was a dig at Homer in the Odyssey c Their language had three speci c words for love they thought that community could be built better through communication 1 Eros love that takes 2 Agape love that gives and asks for nothing in return 3 Philos love that gives and takes V Greek Classical Era 500s300s BCE a There were 2 main citystates in Greece at this time Athens and Sparta their way of life was poleis lawmaking that was from humans not from gods b There were three parts to the government in Athens 1 All citizen men who could vote were part of the Assembly which voted on legislation to become laws 2 The Council of 500 were 500 men who were elected at rst to serve a oneyear term that they could be reelected for of ce every year but did not have a salary they were the group who created the legislation that went to the Assembly to be voted in 3 Strategoi are generals who serve oneyear terms can be reelected commanded citizen armies enforced laws and were some of the only people who could speak before the Council and the Assembly c Other important political people 1 Solon was a politician around 600 BCE who helped make laws that prevented citizens from being sold into slavery to pay off debts and he helped make a law for ostracizing eXiling people for at rst 8 years then later 10 years if it was voted upon by the Assembly 2 Cleisthenes was a politician around 500 BCE who made laws that said that citizens can only serve on the Council for 2 terms not always consecutive and they were picked based on a lottery he also helped set up salaries for the people on the Council d Different ranks of people in Athens the biggest with about 350000 people 1 Citizens women and men and some foreigners could become citizens but only grown men could vote only 10 of population could vote 2 Metics foreigners who lived in Athens 3 Slaves 6000080000 some who were not skilled could be sent to the silver mines where the life span was about 2 years but skilled slaves physicians philosophers etc would typically work with a family and were treated much better sometimes able to buy freedom 4 Women in the upper class had to be escorted in public and stayed home to take care of the kids while middle and lower class women could walk around alone even though it was unladylike and raised kids while also working most likely in her husband s field or at his business Aspasia was a courtesan courtesans did sexual favors could talk to men at parties and performed music and poetry Pericles was a General in the Council who was married arranged marriage which was typical for that time but had an exclusive relationship with Aspasia e The government in Sparta was much like the government in Athens 1 The Assembly was all the voting citizens who voted on legislations to be made laws the same was as it was in Athens 2 The Council of Elders was 28 men who had to be over 60 years old who were elected for life and write the legislation that could become laws 3 The other 2 men on the Council of Elders were hereditary kings who voted just the same as an elder one vote each and were on the front line to lead the auxiliaries in battle if one king died in battle and his son or next in line was too young his mother would represent him as a queen f Different types of people in Sparta 1 Citizen men in Sparta from 07 years old lived at home and learned from their mother but from 7 30 years old they lived in a barracks where they learned fighting literacy and athletics when they turned 20 they were set up with a wife 2 Perioikoi were foreigners who lived in Sparta most of them were merchants 3 Helots were the original inhabitants of Greece Dorians who were not treated as slaves or property but were more like workers who outnumbered citizens 10 to l 4 Women were allowed to talk about politics but not able to vote they taught sons until they were 7 and daughters until they married they were taught music athletics and literacy they wore short tunics like men so they could move around more easily they were the very last resort backup auxiliaries if a married woman had a baby while the father was away he could possibly say that the father of the baby was Zeus VI Greek Classical Culture a Medicine used to be something that people prayed to the gods for but Hippocrates found that it was more of a process of nding what worked and using that treatment on others b History used to be what happened because the gods wanted it to happen but Herodotus said that history is thinking about things that happened and asking questions and nding answers Persian Wars Thucydides did the same thing with the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta Sparta won c Plays were usually either comedy or tragedy but both usually questioned a common belief such as the treatment of women d Philosophy was seen as the cosmos or the order of the universe 1 Socrates would ask people what they thought things were faith hope etc rather than what the original belief was he was tried for atheism and corruption of the youth and was killed he never wrote anything but his beliefs were written by his student Plato 2 Plato taught that we know that we are the same person that we are now compared to who we were when we were kids because we are in touch with our souls which are eternal in different forms of humans or trees or any type of thing he taught Aristotle 3 Aristotle thought that the soul did die with the body he rationalized ethics into four virtues that people should live by courage temperance prudence justice and he told us in The Politics that we are social animals that are different from other animals because we have a sense of justice and logic A good government run by one person was a monarchy but if it was run badly by one person it was tyranny A good government run by a few people was an aristocracy but if it was run badly it was an oligarchy A good government that was run by many was a polity but if it was run badly it was a democracy he said polity was the best form of government e Alexander the Great was the man who conquered the Persian Empire who was also the student of Aristotle 1 He became pharaoh when he got to Egypt but married a Afghan woman 2 He died just over 30 years old and his chief military commander Ptolemy killed his son and wife and split up his empire among the other generals Rome 1 Basic structure a Rome was not a Polis like the Greek way of life b Any Latinspeaking person could become a citizen Roman citizens if they deserved corporal punishment for a crime they had committed had a quick death while non citizens had long painful deaths 1 Patricians were the highest citizens who held government positions and were army officers 2 Equestrians were the middle class citizens who could be in the calvary but could not hold a government position 3 Plebeians were the lower class who were the foot soldiers and could not hold a government position c The plebeians threatened to start their own empire until tribunes were elected to veto any law that they did not think bene ted the plebeians later they threatened to leave again and they allowed anyone to have a position in the government d Paying taxes effected subjects of Rome subjects were not citizens but could be granted citizenship 1 Subjects were from conquered countries such as Spain Greece and N Africa and could serve 20 years in the army to gain citizenship after the 20 years they can serve another 20 years to get a plot of land 2 Rich citizens patricians would pay taxes for an area then hire publicans to collect money from the subjects in the area plus a little extra to make some money off of it 3 Soldiers who had small farms when they went off to fight were many times sold by the time they got back so they ended up poor and not able to pay taxes 11 Politics a Army generals were the main politicians l The general who was best at looting and gaining wealth were the best generals because they would typically split the wealth fairly among their soldiers 2 Politicians would bribe people to vote for them by having bread and circuses food and entertainment b Julius Caesar was one of the best generals he was supposed to lay down his arms before he got into Rome but he didn t disarm and became kind of like a dictator some people didn t like him because he was undermining the law c Caesar s great nephew Octavian was a politician but not a general but he was good at bread and circuses so the people loved him before he died he was able to pack the Senate full of people who would vote for his ideas he also gave himself the titles PontifeX Maximus leader of the Roman religion and Imperator leader of the Roman army 111 Religion a Most Roman religions were Hellenistic Greek in uenced and were called the mystery religions most Greek gods even had a Roman counterpart such as Zeus and Jupiter and Athena and Minerva 1 Dionysius was the Roman god of wine was resurrected by Zeus 2 Mithras killed a cosmic bull as a sacrifice to maintain life on earth followers were baptized literally in the blood of a bull 3 Isis the Egyptian god of motherhood resurrected her husband Osiris 4 The cult of Cybele was disapproved of because some of the men would publicly castrate themselves b Christianity began with Judaism which began with Abraham whose grandson was named Jacob but he was known as Israel whose 12 sons began the 12 Tribes and the 2 kingdoms Israel and Judah 1 The kingdom of Israel with the capitol city of Samaria was made of 10 of the Tribes and had a king named Ahab who was the first character in the Bible to be recognized in the records of other nations Israel was later captured and destroyed by the Assyrians The kingdom of Judah with the capitol city of Jerusalem was made of the Tribes Judah and Benjamin with a king named Josiah they were later captured by Babylonians but were set free to go back home after a time There were prophets such as Amos and Isaiah who were the voice of God to the two kingdoms c There were different categories of people in the time of Christianity Sadducees Essenes Zealots and Pharisees 1 Sadducees did not believe in personal immortality or an afterlife Essenes were Jews who lived in the desert and were looking for a peaceful savior Zealots were Jews who thought that the savior was going to someone like David who would free them from the Roman rule and reconquer Palestine Pharisees were divided into several different parts but they all agreed that the Torah needed to be interpreted the Torah was later added onto and it was called the Talmud Rabbis taught about the Talmud 6 Rabbi Hillel taught that the summary of the law was to love God and to love others 7 Philo Judaeus was a Rabbi who was highly in uenced by Plato s teachings and said that Plato could in uence Jews for the good 8 Josephus was a Jewish historian who wrote a GreekRoman history of Judaism he wrote that Christians were around during the 60s CE d There were many different writings for the Christian religion 1 The Synoptic Gospels are Mark Matthew and Luke Mark was the rst to be written focusing on genealogy and was written in Aramaic Matthew was written second using Mark s rendition and another source known as the gospel Q quelle Luke s gospel used the same sources as Matthew along with some similar phrases such as Son of Man and Kingdom of Heaven 2 The Gospel of John was written last along with the Letters of John and the book of Revelation around 100 CE these were called J ohannine Literature they spoke about God as love and that Jesus was logos the word because language and justice are what makes us human e Christianity caused many problems arise for the Romans 1 There was an option for the salvation of the poor sermon on the mount in a society where being rich was one of the most important things this was a big issue 2 It was said that it was dif cult for a rich man to enter heaven 3 Romans didn t know if these new beliefs and traditions of the Christians would remain faithful to Rome so they forced Christians to burn incense to the genius of the emperor of Rome if they didn t they were imprisoned if they didn t again they were tortured and if a third time they were killed f Gnostics were a heretical sect of Christianity who denied the humanity and death of Jesus 1 They believed that the body was given to us as a prison possibly by Satan and the soul is the image of God 2 They also had the Gospels of Mary Magdalene Thomas and Judas Iscariot 3 Mary Magdalene Thomas and Judas were also said to be the three main disciples of Jesus g Pauline tradition was the spread of Christianity through the writings of the disciple Paul 1 He was Saul of Tarsus a merchant citizen of Rome was a Pharisee who converted to Christianity 2 His writings re ect that Jesus was fully God and fully human 3 He also discussed how Jesus three main apostles were Peter James and John IV Christians in Rome The Fall of Rome a Emperor Diocletian used the Christians as scapegoats for the stag ation economic depression and in ation the Germanic tribes who were being chased into Rome and the civil wars among generals who wanted to become emperor b One general who won the empire title was Constantine whose mother St Helena was a Christian Constantine was baptized a Christian on his deathbed 1 In 313 he issues the Edict of Toleration which allows people to worship the old gods along with Christians to worship God which means that they didn t have to burn incense to the genius of the emperor 2 He pulled nearly all Roman troops out of the West England France Spain Italy to protect the rich part of the empire Egypt Greece Asia Minor and built a new capitol city called IstanbulConstantinople 3 He called together the Council of Nicaea which is where the Nicene Creed comes from where the bishops and patriarchs put together the main beliefs of Christians The Greek version of the creed said that the Holy Spirit descended only from the Father not through Jesus this is what all the Orthodox Christians believed The Latin version is what Roman Catholics and Protestants believe that the Spirit descended from both the Father and Jesus One sect called Pelagians believed that since God was allloving that he would not condemn people to hell forever and that everyone ended up with him in heaven heresy Another sect called Arians denied Jesus equal to God and the Spirit that He was the Word but he was not God heresy c In 390 Theodosius declared Christianity the official religion of Rome 1 Because the emperor was Christian all the Roman officials became Christian to suck up to him and get on his good side 2 Bishops and patriarchs became rich because all the rich officials were tithing d St Augustine was a Christian from North Africa who converted to Christianity and became a bishop 1 He wrote The Confessions and City of God which stressed how close Plato and Porphyry were to the truth of Christianity 2 He preached that reason and faith ere possible to eXist together and that the differences in the two creation stories are allegorical not literal V The Fall of Rome a Germanic tribes Visigoths to Spain Ostrogoths Franks to France Angles to England and Saxons were being chased by the Xiongnu or the Huns into the Roman empire through the 300s and 400s CE 1 There was an emperor in the West in Constantinople and a Vice emperor in the west one of these Vice emperors was named Remus Augustulus but he was chased out by Odoacer the Ostrogoth a warlord 2 The Byzantine empire continued for a long time after the fall of Rome women were allowed to be empresses such as Theodora who coruled with her husband Justinian Islam I Basic background information a The Arabian Peninsula was not part of the Roman empire but they were close trade partners the City of Petra in Jordan was a big trading hub between Africa Arabia and Rome b The two main cities were Mecca and Medina Medina had the Kaaba a wall built around a rock that fell from heaven II Allah Muhammed and the Koran a Muslims are the descendants of Abraham and Haggai whose son was Ishmael b Allah means the god he has three daughters Allat moon Manat morning star AlUzza evening star c Muhammed 570632 CE was born to a poor family that branched off of a rich family and an arranged marriage between he and a woman named Khadija from a rich family who bore his favorite daughter named Fatima 1 They both interpreted and taught the Koran 2 Women during this time were allowed to own property and worked like men however only men were allowed to have more than one sexual partner d The Koran is the holy writing of Islam it speaks of Jesus as a great prophet and that his followers misunderstood His teachings
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