Exam 1 Notes
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Date Created: 10/13/14
Chapter 1 Psychology as a Science Psychology Scientific study of mind and behavior Describes how peopleanimals behave Provides understanding and an explanation to the causes of behavior Allows for the prediction of behaviorsreactions across situations Allows for the control of behavior by understanding its causes and consequences Wilhelm Wundt Defined consciousness as a person39s subjective experience of the world and mind Established structuralism Estabished the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig Germany first question on the exam Structuralism Explores the relationship between the basic elements of consciousness Relies on introspection William James Built on principles of introspection and consciousness but instead based his idea on the why and the adaptive reasons for what and how we perceive the why behind a person39s thinking and consciousness Established functionalism Functionalism Study of the functions of consciousness in enabling people to adapt to their environment Applies Darwin39s theory of natural selection to the mind Sigmund Freud Identified the role of unconscious forces that determines our thoughts feelings urges behavior that in turn determines our personality Psychoanalytic perspective Believed the conflict between good and bad can lead to anxiety Personality is dependent on early life experiences Focused on sexual and aggressive impulses Freudian slip when the unconscious is accidentally revealed Humanistic perspective Freud is too pessimistic All humans have positive potential and free will Humans have an inherent drive to reach their full potential and to better themselves Behaviorist perspective Focus on behavioral responses Environment impacts a person39s actions Inner mental processes are private events that cannot be studied scientifically Looks at classical conditioning associative learning and operant conditioning reinforcement and behavior Classical conditioning Originated from the behaviorist perspective Studied the association between stimuli and response Environment not genetics shape behavior Operant conditioning Originated from the behaviorist perspective Explores reinforcement and punishment as determinants of behavior animalspeople will repeat behaviors that have positive outcomes and avoid behaviors with negative outcomes Social Learning Theory Behavior is influenced by the observation of others video games make you violent Cognitive perspective Studies the inner mental processes like perception attention memory and reasoning Explores how one understands and then thinks about solving problems Focus is on storage and retrieval of information Mind is like a computer Biologicalbiopsychological perspective and cognitive neuroscience Understand the mind emotion and behavior through biological processes in the brain Explores the electrical and chemical processes of neurons affecting mood perception cognition and behavior Gage39s brain damage in his frontal lobe caused his personality to completely change Evolutionary psychology Understands the mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive selection of traits and functions over time natural selection Developmental psychology Explores universal aspects of physical cognitive and socioemotional development across the l espan no matter the culture babies learn to crawl before running Identifies variations in development across experience Social psychology Individual and group behaviors and responses across situations Recognizes that people exist in a network of other people and examines how individuals influence and interact with one another Examples Migram s Obedience to Authority and Zimbardo39s Prison Study Cultural psychology Identifies and explores the role of culture on the psychological processes of its members Culture can influence thoughts perceptions and behavior Personality psychology Define describe and measure the stability of behaviors and personality traits over time shy children will stay somewhat shy but their environment can help to make them more outgoing Experimental psychology Conduct lab studies of learning motivation emotion sensation and perception physiology and cognition to show how we see and perceive things Health psychology Interaction between psychological factors and physical wellbeing and illness For example stress and the immune system are related when stressed our immune systems become depleted Clinical psychologists Diagnosis and treatment of emotional problems Neuropsychology focuses on central nervous system disorders trauma and dementia Forensic psychology interacts the the legal system involving in competency custody and risk assessment Schooleducational psychologists Enhances school performance and solves emotional problems curriculum and teacher training Counseling psychologists Deals with problems of everyday life and transitions Industrialorganizational psychologists Staff human service departments in businesses working on issues of moral job satisfactions and productivity issues Chapter 2 Methods in Psychology Theory Systematic way of organizing and understanding observations Leads to a hypothesis Hypothesis Proposed relationship between two variables Empiricism Using observation to gain knowledge about the world Perform research based on experiments observations and evidence Provides the basis of scientific method Continuous variable A variable which can be measured across a continuum For example weight Categorical variable A variable with a fixed meaning or attribute Examples marital status depression diabetes Research methods Develop a theory based on observation Develop a hypothesis from the theory Design a research study Gather data Analyze the data and report findings Validity Does it measure what it is supposed to measure Is the measurement conceptually related Reliability Do you get consistent measurement results when repeated Data collection techniques Direct observation Questionnaires Interviews Psychological tests Physiological recordings Examination of historical records Experimental method A type of psychological research Includes systematic observation subjects experimental and control groups extraneous variables standardization demand characteristics generalizability etc Subjects must be a random sample of people Sampling biasskewed samples can occur if subjects are not random Results can be skewed if demand characteristics social desirability experimenter bias or generalizability occurs Research procedures must be standardized in order to avoid skewed results Questions asked of the subjects must be worded properly must be clear and consistent or results will be skewed Placebo effect can occur Advantages permits researchers to draw conclusions about causation can be replicated Disadvantages may not have real world applicability not appropriate for all areas of inquiry due to ethicalpractical limitations Systematic observation Independent variable changes a dependent variable Experimental group A group of subjects that are being experimented on Control group A group whose independent variable does not change They are used to show how the independent variable can change a situation Extraneous variable Variable other than the independent variable that impacts the results Can create differences in the standardization of the procedures in a study Examples time of day lighting or procedural variations Demand characteristics Subjects may behave in ways they think are expected of them Subjects respond to subtleunintentional cues Can skew results Social desirability Subjects give answers which are quotcorrectquot or quotappropriatequot and not necessarily true Can skew results Replication Studies that are repeated with different situations and subjects Allows researchers to retest hypothesis in order to ensure the first test produced valid results Milgram first tested his shock experiment on adult male subjects compensated for their time in a Yale laboratory and later retested his hypothesis in a different laboratory with uncompensated collegeaged males and with female adults Leads to generalizability meaning the results can be applied to different situations and populations Generalizability in answers Consistency in answers reflective of a patterned response For example answering A for every question Singleblind study Subject doesn39t know if they get actual meds or placebo Doubleblind study Researcher doesn39t know if subject gets actual meds or placebo Experimenter bias Researcher39s expectations impact the interpretation of results Descriptive and correlational studies A type of psychological research Looks at patterns of behavior across conditions Links variables which show consistent patterns of relationships Case studies indepth study of an individual or small group provides systematic observations limited generalizability susceptible to research bias John Money39s JohnJoan case study Person born male was sexually reassigned and raised as a female Study of one39s gender identity Twin brother acted as a control group while she was the subject Money reported the surgery a success and that the girl was succeeding but really she was depressed and threatened to commit suicide Case study was bad because it is unethical to replicate and there was only one subject Genie case study Genie was locked in her room alone for 13 years and was rarely exposed to speech resulting in her not acquiring any language skills After being saved Genie could only master very simple English Showed that if a child isn39t exposed to language by a certain age they cannot speak properly when older Showed the ethical challenges of dual roles and treatment vs research Naturalistic observation Looks at behavior in a natural environment Observations can be described and reported but cannot explain behavior Survey method Large sample size Questionnaires and interviews Response bias are people answering honestly Sample bias why are some people answering and not others Correlation studies Explores the relationship between two variables using a numerical value Scale from 1 to 1 1 strong negative relationshipinverse relationship 1 strong positive relationshipdirect relationship 0 no relationship Correlation do not indicate relationshipscausations hair color and intelligence aren39t related Third variable correlation Athird variable might explain why two variable appear to be related For example exposure to media violence is related to aggressiveness because there39s a lack of adult supervision Mean Group of scores added and divided by the number of scores Median The score which falls exactly in the middle of the scores Mode Most frequently occurring score Standard deviation How much individual scores vary The greater the standard deviation the less typical the mean Informed consent Awareness of what participation will entail Freedom from coercion Voluntary Limits on quotpressurequot like payment and consequences Protection from harm Protect subject from physical and psychological harm Riskbenefit analysis No large risks Institutional Review Board IRB reviews Deception Must be justified and alternatives not possible Subject must be debriefed meaning explanations are required and corrective measures taken if necessary Confidentiality Keep dataidentifying information private Issues when dealing with children and infants Parental consent for minors Children old enough to grant consent 7 Must explain purpose and instructions in reasonable language Approval and accuracy All research must be approved by IRB Researchers must report findings fairly and accurately and share raw data when appropriate Zimbardo39s Prison Study Explored the power of situational forces and social roles Lacked a proper hypothesis demand characteristics and control variables Chapter 3 Neuroscience and Behavior Nervous system Body39s electrochemical communication system Divided into the central and peripheral nervous system Central nervous system CNS Made up of brain and spinal cord Receives processes and stores incoming info Sends out messages to muscles glands and internal organs Controls thought and movement Peripheral nervous system Nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord Handles input and output of the CNS Connects the brain and spinal cord to the other areas of the body like organs and muscles Two primary systems somatic and autonomic nervous system Neurons Individual cells which receive integrate and transmit info Nerve cells which communicate to from or inside the CNS Sensoryafferent neurons Schreier definition Carry info to the brain from the skin muscles or organs Textbook definition Receive info from the external world and convey this info to the brain via the spinal cord Motorefferent neurons Schreier definition Carry the brain39s output to muscles glands and organs Textbook definition Carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement lnterneurons Neurons that connect sensory neurons motor neurons or other interneurons Mirror neurons Activated by performing an action or seeing another perform an action May play a role in developing new motor skills Plays a role in empathy and language Glial cells Hold neurons in place Nourish and insulate neurons Nonneuron cells which provide a supportive function for the nervous system Form the myelin sheath Dendrite Receive messages from other neurons Transmits those messages to the cell body Cell bodysoma Keeps neurons alive Contains substances for growth Determines whether to fire the messages Axons Transmits messages away from the cell body to other neurons Myelin sheath Fatty material that insulates axon Helps the nerve impulse travel faster Node of Ranvier Gaps between myelin sheaths Because these small areas of the axon are not insulated by the myelin sheath they can produce electrical activity Synapse Gaps between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neuron Communication occurs here Enriched environment for rats have allowed for function and structural brain changes in the synapse and neuron connections Resting potential A neuron at its stable negative charge High concentration of potassium ions inside the neuron relative to the outside of the neuron Inactive Action potential When a neuron is stimulated an electrical impulse occurs and moves down the axon to the end of the axon39s terminal tip The synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters which bind to the next neuron39s dendrite receptor site Can excite or inhibit the firing of the receiving neuron Absolute refractory period Minimum amount of time during which another action potential cannot begin Grey matter Consists of the synapse between neurons Primarily associated with processing and cognition White matter Consists of glial cells and myelin sheath Modulates the distribution of action potential acting as a relay and coordinating communication between two different brain regions Neurotransmitters Chemical substances which carry info across the synaptic gap to the next neuron Each neurotransmitters bends to a particular receptor site Only certain neurotransmitters can bond to certain receptors like a lock in a key An overflow of neurotransmitters can be dealt with through reuptake enzyme deactivation or autoreceptors Affects many behaviors and functions Excitatory neurotransmitters Increases the likelihood it will fire an action potential Inhibitory neurotransmitter Decreases the likelihood of an action potential Serotonin Neurotransmitter Involved in sleep and wakefulness mood depression eating and aggression sir rotten depression Dopamine Neurotransmitter Regulates motor behavior motivation pleasure and emotional arousal Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter Involved in muscle action and control memory and attention ace bandage muscle actioncontrol Norepinephrine Neurotransmitter Involved in mood arousal alertness wakefulness Excites heart muscles intestines Glutamate Neurotransmitter Excitatory transmitter widely distributed and implicated in memory function Information transmission in the brain GABA Inhibitory neurotransmitter Endorphines Neurotransmitters The brain39s natural opiates Produces effects of reducing pain promoting pleasure Acts within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain Levels increase during stress or fear response fight or flight Hormones Chemical messengers manufactured in the endocrine glands and released into the blood stream Some may be classified as neurotransmitters depending on how it is operationalized Melatonin Hormone Regulates biological rhythm Adrenal hormones Hormones Involved in emotion and stress Somatic nervous system One primary system of the peripheral nervous system Sensory nerves relate information from the skin and muscles to the CNS about pain and temperature Informs muscles when to act Autonomic nervous system One primary system of the peripheral nervous system Responsible for the fight or flight response Works automatically and involuntary Takes messages to and from the body39s internal organs monitoring breathing heart rate and digestion Two parts sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system Mobilizes body for action in threatening circumstances Stops digestion increases oxygen to the blood for muscle responses increase heart rate dilates pupils dry mouth goose bumps Parasympathetic nervous system Slows actions down and conserves bodily resources Brings body back to its normal resting state Different ways of studying the brain Study the disease process Lesion method damage or remove section of the brain and observe the effects EEG CT scans PET scans MRI fMR electrical stimulation EEG Electrode method Detect electrical activity of neurons Looks at brain waves across events CT scans Multiple Xrays of successive slices of the brain Looks at brain structure PET scans Records biochemical changes in the brain as they occur by detecting radioactive material which has been injected or inhaled Looks at brain function MRI Uses magnetic field and radio frequencies Provides structural view of the brain fMRA Functionalfast MRI Assesses changes in blood oxygen flow to areas of the brain Able to look at both structure and function of the brain Electrical stimulation Promotes particular sensations and emotions Used as treatments for Parkinson39s depression and OCD Brain Broken up into hindbrain midbrain and forebrain Hindbrain Contains medulla pons cerebellum Responsible for lifesustaining functions like respiration and consciousness Midbrain Contains reticular formation tectum tegmentum Helps to orient an organism in the environment Forebrain Divided into the cerebrumcortex and subcortical structural Subcortical structures include the thalamus hypothalamus pituitary gland limbic system amygdala hippocampus basal ganglis Medulla Regulates automatic functioning circulation heart breathing lungs muscle tone reflexes medulla like medals Olympians wear over their hearts and lungs Pons Regulates sleeping relaxing waking and dreaming pons like ponds something relaxing to look at Cerebellum Balance and coordination of movement Analyzes sensory information Problem solving cerebellum like bells used by tight walker for balance Reticular formation Modulates muscle reflexes and pain perception Active in states of arousal and consciousness tic like tickle which would cause your muscles to react Tectum Involved in auditory and visial responses that help orient an organism in the environment Tegmentum Controls some motor function Regulates awareness and attention and some autonomic functions tegmentum attention Thalamus Relays motor impulses out of the brain Directs incoming sensory messages to higher center Hypothalamus Regulates many of the body39s metabolic processes like feeding fighting fleeing mating hunger thirst emotion sex reproduction body temperature and the autonomic nervous system Pituitary gland Master gland governed by the hypothalamus Involve in temperature regulation thyroid activity growth testosterone and estrogen production Limbic system Loosely interconnected structure involved in emotions No clear boundaries Amygdala Evaluates sensory information Linked to fear responses Emotional events myg like a wig worn by a scary monster Hippocampus Formation and storage of new memories campus like compass used by someone39s who39s lost and can39t remember how to get home Basalgang s Subcortical structures that direct intentional movement Striatum is involved in the control of posture and movement ganglis like a gang that moves together Cerebrum Largest and most complex part of the brain Divided into two hemispheres Right hemisphere responsible for left side of body Left hemisphere responsible for right side of body Divided into four lobes frontal temporal parietal and occipital lobe Lobes are connected with fibers called the corpus callosum Frontal lobe Contains motor complex Responsible for making plans initiative creativity complex thinking memory and judgement Broca39s area frontal like front door with Einstein a complex thinker knocking on it Broca39s area Involved in speech production Temporal lobe Involved in memory perception and emotion Contains auditory cortex Wernicke39s area temporal like tempo which is auditory Wernicke39s area Involved in language comprehension Parietal lobe Somatosensory cortex Receives info about pressure pain touch and temperature parietal like a piranha biting you Occipital lobe Contains visual cortex occ like octopus but with eyes on its tentacles Left brain Controls touch and movement of the right side vision in the right half of the visual field production and comprehension of speech reading and mathematical ability Logical half Right brain Controls touch and movement on the left side vision in the left half of the visual field visual and spatial ability map reading art and music appreciation facial recognition analysis of nonverbal sounds Artistic half Splitbrain surgery Severing the corpus callosum to treat severe seizures Brain plasticity Ability of the nervous system to alter its structure and connections thereby reassigning function to other brain areas If the entire right hemisphere is removed the left hemisphere will reconnect its neurons and become able to control both the left and right hemispheres Behavioral genetics The influence of genetic traits on behavior Chromosomes Hereditary material in the nuclei of all cells Each chromosome is made up of genes which contain DNA Sperm and egg each have 23 chromosomes together they form a zygote with 46 individual chromosomes or 23 pairs Homozygous genes Two genes in a pair are the same Heterozygous genes Two genes in a pair are different Dominant genes Expressed when a pair of genes is different Recessive genes Masked when paired genes are different Genetic relatedness Each child has a 50 chance of inheriting a trait from each parent The genetic relatedness of parent to child is therefore 50 Identical twins have a 100 degree of relatedness while fraternal twins or siblings only have 50 Genotype Genetic makeup or structure of the organism Phenotype Observable or expressed characteristics of an organism Polygenic inheritance Many traits determined by a combination of gene pairs Skin color hair color height Multifactorial transmission Environmental factors interact with genetic factors to produce traits Twin studies Allows researchers to assess the relative influence of heredity by comparing similarities and differences between identical and fraternal twins Adoption studies of twins reared apart show the influence of heredity and environment on physical and behavioral traits Twin studies seen in the film Bill amp John both worked on a farm so close they can never be apart think and talk in the same way Robert amp Raymond Raymond could feel when Richard died even though it occurred miles way from him so close they could not tell each other apart in pictures Jerry amp Mark identical twins put up for adoption both became fire chiefs and have identical voicesmannerismsfavorite TV shows both brought up in middle class Jewish families with one other sibling Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception Sensation Stimulus detection process where our sense organs respond to and translate stimuli into nerve impulses sent to the brain Perception Active process of organizing stimulus input and giving it meaning Transduction The process of converting physical energy in the world into neural signals in the CNS All senses rely on transduction light waves for vision and sound waves for audition Stimulus detection How intense does a stimulus need to be for us to recognize its presence Absolute threshold Lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected at least 50 of the time Just noticeable difference JND Minimum change in a stimulus that can be detected Weber39s Law Difference threshold is directly proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus to which the comparison is being made Ex if a heavy backpack has pencils added to it you wouldn39t feel a difference but if a textbook is added you39d notice Fechner39s Law Larger and larger increases in physical energy are required to produce equal increases in perception Signal Detection Theory Various factors influence our sensory judgement Often involves a process of decision in addition to sensation Sensory adaptation Over time neurons decrease activity in response to a constant stimulus Ex listening to a monotone voice will eventually cause you to not pay attention to it you will become immune to a bad small if exposed to it for long enough Vision The normal stimulus for vision is electromagnetic energy or light wave Light waves are measured in nanometers Eye Contains pupil iris lens retina optic disk Pupil Behind the cornea Adjusts to control the amount of light that enters the eye Low levels cause the pupils to dilate allowing more light to enter Retina Contains specialized sensory neurons Iris Muscles in the colored iris control the pupil39s size Surrounds the pupil Lens Behind the pupil Becomes thinner to focus on distant object and thicker to focus on nearby objects Focuses image onto the retina reversing the image from right to left and from top to bottom The brain reconstructs the image we see into the image we perceive Optic chiasm Part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross Located below the hypothalamus Optic disk A hole in the retina Contains two types of light sensitive receptors rods and cones Rods and cones translate light waves into nerve impulses which pass through the retina and the optic disk carrying visual information to the brain Rods Functions best in dim light Primarily blackwhite brightness receptors More sensitive to light than cones No color sensation Cones Functions best in bright light Serves as color receptors Hue Commonly what is meant by color Saturation The coor39s purity How diluted is the color with black and white Trichromatic theory We have three types of color receptors in the retina Individual cones are most sensitive to either red blue or green Doesn39t explain afterimages Coloropponent theory Each type of cone responds to two different wavelengths like redgreen or blueyellow or blackwhite Color vision The eyes has three types of cones each being sensitive to different band of wavelengths supports trichromatic theory Cells have been found that respond in opposite ways to red vs green and blue vs yellow supports coloropponent theory Audition Stimuli for hearing are sound wave Frequency The number of sound wave cycles per second Most common sounds are in lower frequencies Pitch The quality of a tone from low to high Number of times particles oscillate per second Amplitude Heightdepth of a wave Corresponds with loudness The greater the amplitude the louder the sound Complexity The wave purity of mixture of sound Ear drum Moveable membrane which vibrates in response to sound waves Inner earcochlea Fluidfilled tunnel has tiny hairscilia which are the receptors How the ear works Sound waves travel into auditory canal leading to the ear drum Ear drum vibrates setting in motion the hammer anvil and stirrups which all amplify the sound Inner ear receives sound Cilia in inner ear move in different directions triggering the sensory neurons and an action potential Place CodePlace Theory Different areas of the basilar membrane are sensitive to different frequencies Hearing Newborns have been shown to recognize voices and respond differently to familiar voices and music Changes in sensitivity to frequencies occurs as one ages older people are less sensitive to sounds at higher frequencies Smell Humans have about 10 million olfactory receptors Upper portion of the nasal passage detects smells which travel straight to the base of the brain at the olfactory bulb Pheromones Chemical signals found in natural body scents in humans and other species Taste Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami has been identified as a 5th quality of smell described as savory or meaty Taste receptors taste buds Located on the edges and along the back surface of the tongue Can regenerate but are lost over time Newborns prefer sweet to sour or bitter tastes Taste preferences are learned and subject to cultural influences Supertasters and nontasters are based on density of tastebuds Tactile sensation Three primary sensations pressure temperature and pain Pain tolerance is different to the individual Kinesthetics The body39s way of giving feedback about our muscle and joint position Gives us a sense of coordinated movement Vestibular System Located in the inner ear Helps with balance and maintaining our equilibrium in space Synesthesia Physical experience of crossmodal association Examples include a bell ringing which creates a flash of light smell or taste being associated with a particular color each letter or number has a color associated with it Features of synesthesia Involuntary you cannot make a letter appear yellow it just naturally is perceived that way to you Durable lasts for life and cannot be rid of Memorable Emotional emotions can also be triggered in association with things More common in women than men Some genetic links seen Gestalt principles Simplicity Brain selects the simplest or most likely interpretation shaded in arrow Closure Brain fills in missing elements of an image allowing us to perceive edges that are separated by gaps as belonging to complete objects arrow with broken outline Continuity Edges or contours that have the same orientation are grouped together perceptually Similarity Regions that are similar in color lightness shape or texture are grouped together row of circles are grouped together as one image Proximity Objects that are close together tend to be grouped together Common fate Images that move together are perceived as parts of a single moving object Visual illusions Occur because of perceptual constancies which usually help us perceive more accurately Perceptual schemas Mental representations or images for comparison Form perception Organization of sensations into meaningful shapes and patterns Perceptual constancy Objects appear to be relatively stable despite changes in the stimulation of sensory receptors angle perspective lighting etc Size constancy Objects do not appear to change in size when viewed from different distances lnattentional blindness Failure to perceive or detect changes in the details of a scene Retina disparity Objects project images to different locations on the right and left retina which give a different view of the object The closer an object gets the greater the disparity between the images on the eyes Depth perception Retina receives information in two dimensions length and width and the brain translates it to three dimensions Chapter 8 Consciousness Consciousness The awareness of internal and external stimuli Various kinds of consciousness of external events of internal sensations of oneself as unique to experiences and of thoughts about experiences Conscious content includes current concerns daydreams and unwanted thoughts Properties of consciousness Intentional Unified consciousness cannot multitask Selective we select what we are aware of meaning we might not notice a watch39s ticking until it is quiet and that39s the only thing audible to focus on Transient consciousness is constantly changing and evolving Subliminal perception Can we be unaware of things and have them still have an impact Krosnick study Krosnick study Shows that subliminal messages may shape attitudes without conscious awareness Freud and consciousness Three levels Conscious mental events we are aware of like thoughts feelings and emotions Preconscious mental events that can be brought to our awareness like the name of your 5th grade teacher Unconscious mental events unaccessible to our awareness like repressed memories due to traumatic events Circadian cycles Individuals have different internal clocks Most people run on a 24 hour cycle Night time sleepiness is around 2AM6AM Siesta zone nap time is around 1PM4PM Sleep progresses through stages of NREM and RME sleep throughout the night Functions of sleep Memory consolidation Energy conservation Helps restore bodily functions Sleep deprivation Decreases immune functions Leads to hallucinations and perceptual disorders Person becomes less alert and attentive and more irritable Ability to perform simple tasks declines Non REMNREM Four stages Stage 1 light sleep small and irregular brain waves muscles relax Stage 2 high peaking waves sleep spindles form bursts of electrical activity Stage 3 deep sleep delta waves slow with peaks Stage 4 deeper sleep progressively more delta waves Body goes through stage 1 2 3 4 3 2 REM sleep REM sleep REM Rapid Eye Movement Active brainwaves increased heart rate and blood pressure limp muscle state Dreams occur at this stage Alternates on 90 minute cycles Developmental issues with sleep Newborns and infants dream half the time they39re asleep because they have so much to process and learn Adolescents have delayed phase preferences meaning their biological clock changes and they begin to prefer staying up later Teens sleep less but need more sleep which can lead to decreased levels of productivity Middle age people have changes in sleep patterns due to hormonal changes and alterations in the environment Elderly also have changes in sleep patterns Sleep apnea Lack of breathing while sleeping Disrupts sleep patterns Three types but Obstructive Apnea is the most common and severe Muscles at the back of the throat relax obstructing air and waking the person Related to age and obesity More common in men Narcolepsy Falling asleep suddenly Can occur at any time and can last from a few seconds to 30 minutes Symptoms appear between puberty and 25 Cataplexy sudden loss of muscle control is common May experience sleep paralysis and can be accompanied by vivid dreamlike images Insomnia Inability to sleep Transient insomnia lasts only a few nights and is often due to anxiety or excitement Shortterm insomnia poor sleeping for 23 weeks caused by ongoing stressors as well as medical problems Chronic insomnia ongoing poor sleeping due to underlying medical or behavior issues likely runs in families Possible ways to combat insomnia include exercising during the day only using bed for sleep avoiding caffeinated products before bed Sleepwalking Causes people usually children to take nocturnal trips they don39t remember Temporary sleep mechanisms malfunction during deeper stages of sleep Can run in families Often stops by puberty No way to cure but safety measures can be taken to prevent injury to the sleepwalker It is not dangerous to wake a sleepwalker but it can be disorientating for them Sleep talking Can range from one word to a soliloquy Person has no memory of the conversation Usually short term Sometimes caused by stress or illness Sleep terror Sudden awakening with physical behavior associated with intense fear Screaming fighting trying to escape Episodes last about 15 minutes Person returns to sleep and will not remember in the morning More common in children Parental reassurance is the only treatment REM Movement Disorder Paralysis that normally occurs while sleeping does not function properly and a person actually acts out his dream More common in older men May result in violent behavior and may be remembered in the morning Treated with medication Freudian concepts of dream interpretation Manifest content surface level of the dream what we see in the dream Latent content hidden meaning wishes fears or impulses trying to be expressed For example a giant green monster attacking you manifest content could be interpreted as your brother whose favorite color is green bullying you when you were younger latent content Activationsynthesis model Dreams are produced as people try to make sense of the random neutral activity that occurs during sleep Hypnosis Systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened sense of susceptibility Anesthesia sensory distortions disinhibition and posthypnotic amnesia involved in hypnosis Hilgard Believed in altered levels of consciousness and dissociation Spanos Subjects interpret their behavior as caused by something other than self For example arms get heavier when lifted because the hypnotists says there are weights on your arms even though it is really because gravity is acting on them Voluntary actions with a goal directed toward social behaviors Hypnotic subjects are those more likely to show suggestibility and absorption Psychoactive drugs A substance that affects perception mood thinking memory or behavior by changing the body39s chemistry Tolerance can be built up to drug Person can become dependent on drug Tolerance Progressive decrease in a person39s responsiveness to a drug Dependence Psychological dependence Person must continue to take a drug to satisfy emotional cravings Physical dependence person must continue to take to avoid withdrawal illness Stimulants Sped up behavior in the central nervous system Includes caffeine amphetamines MDMAecstasy nicotine cocaine Opiatesnarcotics Mimics endorphins Increases pleasure and decreases pain Includes opium heroine methadone and morphine Depressants Slows down central nervous system activity Induces sleep Decreases activity Includes alcohol barbiturates benziodiazepines and toxic inhalants Hallucinogenspsychedelics Distorts sensory experiences Alters perception Includes LCD PCP and ketamine Marijuana THC is the active ingredient Some hallucinogenic properties Can create problems with learning and memory distorted perception loss of coordination increased heart rate feelings of euphoria and intensity of sensory perception Affects appetite and pain perception Heavy users may have altered information processing in the hippocampus respiratory problems lower achievement and altered brain development Crack and cocaine Powerful addictive CNS stimulant Constricts blood vessels dilates pupils increased heart rate and temperature The faster the absorption the more intense the high and the faster a tolerance develops High doses and prolonged use can trigger paranoia Depression associated with withdrawal LSD Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Major hallucinogen with unpredictable effects Effects dependent on amount taken and the user39s personality mood and expectations Dilates pupils increased heart rate and blood pressure causes loss of appetite sleeplessness dry mouth and flashbacks EcstasyMDMA Psychoactive drug with both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties Causes sharp increases in body temperature muscle breakdown and kidney and cardiovascular system failure Users experience muscle tension teethjaw clenching nausea blurred vision rapid eye movement chills sweating increased feelings of empathy and intensity Ritalin CNS stimulant medication often prescribed for ADHD but now illegally sold as a street drug Causes appetite suppression wakefulness increased focusattentiveness and mild euphoria Alcohol CNS depressant Produces mild euphoria relaxation anxiety reduction and reduced inhibition Can impair coordination mental functioning and emotional fluctuations Long term use can cause liver disease brain damage heart disease birth defects and impaired judgement and decision making Alcohol Myopia Theory alcohol hampers attention leading to simple responses to complex s ua ons Nicotine products Nicotine is a stimulant Stress and anxiety affect nicotine tolerance and dependence Addiction results in withdrawal symptoms like impaired judgement and decrease in psychomotor and cognitive functioning
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