Chapters 5 & 6 Study Guide
Chapters 5 & 6 Study Guide HRTM 340-J10
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sharneece Gary on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HRTM 340-J10 at University of South Carolina taught by Elizabeth K. Morton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Chapter 5 Lipids Lipids A family of compounds that includes Triglycerids fats and oils Phospolipids lecithin Sterols cholesterol 0 Obvious sources of fat are oil butter margarine and shorteing o Other foods contributing fat include meat nuts mayonnaise salad dressings eggs bacon gravy chees ice cream and whole milk Fats lipids that are solid at room temperature Oils Lipids that are liquid at normal room temperature Fats in the body muscles derive fuel from fat cushion the vital organs serve as the body s chief energy reserve nourish skin and hair provide raw materials for body compounds such as bile and vitamin D form the major components of cell membranes insulate the body from extreme temperatures Fats in foods Provide calories carry fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids contribute aroma and avors Primer on Fats After eating the body stores some fat as an energy reserve The body has unlimited potential to store fat Excess carbohydrate and protein can be converted to fat but they cannot be made from fat Satiety The feeling of fullness or satisfaction that people feel after meals Fats slow the rate at which the stomach empties Fatty acids basic units of fat composed of chains of carbon atoms with an acid group at one and hydrogen atoms attached all along their length Triglycerides The major class of dietary lipids including fats and oils A triglyceride is made up of three units known as fatty acids and one unit called glycerol Glycerol An organic compound that serves as the backbone for triglyeride Phospholipid A lipid similar to a triglyceride but containing phosphorus one of the three main classes of lipids Lecithin A major constituent of cell membranes manufactured by the liver and found in many foods Sterols Lipids with structure similar to that of cholesterol one of the three main classes of lipids CholesterolOne of the sterols manufactured in the body for a variety of purposes Saturated fatty acids Filled to capacity with hydrogen Saturated fats are found in animal foods like meat poultry and fullfat dairy products and in tropical oils such as palm and coconut Unsaturated fatty acids hold an empty spot or point of saturation Monounsaturated fatty acid a fatty acid containing one point of unsaturation found mostly in vegetable oils such as olive canola and peanut Polyunsaturated fatty acid a fatty acid in which two or more points of unsaturation occur found in nuts and vegetable oils such as saf ower sun ower and soybean and a fatty sh Essential fatty acid a fatty acid that cannon be synthesized in the body in amounts suf cient to meet hysiological need Omega6 vs Omega3 Fatyy acids Omega3 fatty acids found in sh oils offer a protective effect on health Eating sh at least two times per week as part of a balanced diet can reduce blood clot formation decrease risk of heart arrhythmias Decrease blood triglycerides Decrease atherosclerotic plaque formation Improve health of arteries slightly lower blood pressure Hydrogenation The process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fat to make it more solid and more resistant to chemical change Antioxidants A compound that protects other compounds from oxygen by itself reacting with oxygen Emulsifers A substance that mixes with both fat and water and can break fat globules into small droplets thereby suspending fat in water Phospholipids Important components of cell membranes Can serve as emulsif1ers in the body joining with both water and fat Also used in foods such as margarine chocolate salad dressings and frozen desserts to keep the fats dispersed Widespread in foods Sterols such as cholesterols Incorporated as an integral part of the structure of cell membranes Used to make bile for digestion Used to make sex hormones Made into vitamin d Deposited in the artery walls leading to plaque buildup and heart disease How the body handles fat The products of fat digestion are fatty acids Glycerol and monoglycerides Bile A mixture of compounds including cholesterol made by the liver stored in the gallbladder and secreted into the small intestine Bile emulsif1es lipids to ready them for enzymatic digestion and helps transport them into the intestinal wall cells Lymph The body uid that transports the products of fat digestion toward the heart and eventually drains back into the bloodstream Lymph consists of the same components as blood with the exception of red blood cells Lipoproteins Clusters of lipids associated with protein that serve as transport vehicles for lipids in blood and lymph Phytochemicals Physiologically active compounds found in plants that appear to help promote health and reduce risk for cancer heart disease and other conditions Trans fatty acid A type of fatty acid created when an unsaturated fat is hydrogenated Found primarily in margarines shortenings commercial frying fats and baked good Trans fatty acids have been implicated in research as culprits in heart disease Characteristics of fats in foods The more unsaturated a fat the more liquid it is at room temperature The more polyunsaturated the fat is the sooner it melts Unsaturated fats are more likely to react with oxygen and become rancid Food manufacturers may alter fats and oils by hydrogenation antioxidants emulsifiers Chapter 6 Proteins Things that describe proteins 0 Links of amino acids A polypeptide A compound containing carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen The amino group of amino acids contains 0 Nitrogen Amino acids each have a 0 Unique side group Denaturation o Is the rst step in protein digestion Proteins assist in growth and maintenance by 0 Building new tissue such as skin Enzymes o Are protein catalysts that assist in chemical reactions 0 Are always proteins Antibodies o Are formed in response to antigens that invade the body Protein sparing is best described as o the fact that dietary protein is not used for energy when carbohydrate and fat intake are adequate Protein de ciency occurs whenever there is energy de ciency 0 Someone with a protein de ciency will have poor resistance to infection and disease Dietary protein 0 Must provide the body with essential amino acids Incomplete proteins 0 Are low in one or more essential amino acids Complete protein foods 0 Contain all the essential amino acids needed by humans Complementary proteins 0 Supply limiting or missing essential amino acids 0 Two or more food proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a that the essential amino acids limited in or missing form each are supplied by the others The recommended intake of dietary protein for a healthy adult is 0 103 5 of total caloric intake 20 of our total body weight is protein Function of protein 0 Acidbase balance uid balance transportation of fatty acids Proteinenergy malnutrition o Is the world s main form of malnutrition Maramus o Occurs after chronic deprivation of calories and protein Kwashiorkor o Is typically seen in children after they are weaned from breastfeeding When protein intake is insuf cient to provide uid balance 0 Edema occurs Excess dietary protein intake 0 Allows storage of protein as body fat after energy needs are met The healthy way to achieve the appropriate intake of dietary protein is to 0 Use less meat and more vegetables when making chili stew and soup Lactovegetarians 0 Include milk and milk products in their diet along with plant foods A vegan o Avoids any animalderived food or drink Lactoovovegetarians are usually at risk for a de ciency of 0 Iron 0 Milk and milk products are included in this diet but meat poultry sh and seafood are excluded Vegetarians have been found to have than people who consume a typical US diet 0 Lower rates of heart disease Food intolerance o Is more common than food allergy Food allergies o Occur in 12 of the adult population in the US 0 Fish is most likely to cause an allergic reaction in adult 0 In infants the most common allergens are cow s milk and soy 0 To try to avoid allergies infants should be breastfed for their first 12 months Soybeans are highquality complete proteins 0 Legumes 0 Soy provides all the essential amino acids The food group with the least amount of protein per serving is 0 Fruit 0 protein The shape of a protein helps determine its function The digestive system breaks down protein into amino acids dipeptides and tripeptides If the body needs a nonessential amino acid it makes it Limiting amino acids a term given to the essential amino acid in shortest supply relative to the body s need in a food Protein quality a measure of the essential amino acid content of a protein relative to the essential amino acid needs PDCAA A measuring tool for determining protein quality Biological Value A measure of protein quality assessed by determining how well a given food or food mixture supports nitrogen retention Reference protein Egg white protein the standard with which other proteins are compared to determine protein quality Legumes Plants of the bean and pea family having roots with nodules that contain bacteria that can trap nitrogen from the air in the soil and make it into compounds that become part of the seed Nutritional yeast A forti ed food supplement containing B vitamins iron and protein that can be used to improve the quality of a vegetarian diets Meat replacements Textured vegetable protein products formulated to look and taste like meat sh or poultry Semivegetarian Some but not all groups of animalderived products such as meat poultry sh seafood eggs and milk and milk products are included in this diet Ovovegetarian Eggs are included in this diet but milk and milk products meat poultry sh and seafood are excluded Macrobiotic diet Extremely restrictive diet based on metaphysical beliefs and consisting mostly of legumes whole grains and certain vegetables
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