CCJ3024 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
CCJ3024 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE CCJ3024
Popular in Advanced Principles of Criminology Justice
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
verified elite notetaker
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Friday March 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CCJ3024 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Marvin Krohn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 199 views. For similar materials see Advanced Principles of Criminology Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Florida.
Reviews for CCJ3024 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/18/16
CCJ3024 Advanced Principles of Criminal Justice EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE THEORIES (focus on lecture material more than book) • The nature of theory ◦ What a theory is • The purpose is to understand/explain something ◦ Identify a definition of theory • Ron Akers "Theory Is not the antonym of fact…it is not irrelevant musings that should be ignored in the pursuit of knowledge. It is necessary in producing knowledge." • Distinction between discovery and explanation ◦ Discovery determining that two phenomena are related ◦ Explanation demonstrating that the relationship can be deduced from a set of general statement • What a theory does (functions of a theory) ◦ Explains ◦ Focuses attention on what is important (within context) ◦ Guides research ◦ Suggests applied functions of the explanation • What deduction is ◦ Know example ◦ General, testable propositions from more abstract statements or propositions ◦ Ex/ Durkheim on suicide (1. people that are protestant have a higher suicide rate that Catholics or Jews because Catholics/Jews are more integrated into their church/synagogue) • Components of a theory ◦ Concepts ◦ Assertions or propositions linking concepts ◦ Assumptions ◦ Scope conditions ◦ Operational definitions • Identify criteria used to evaluate a theory ◦ Definitions of concepts ◦ Structure or logical consistency ◦ Scope or applicability ◦ Testability ◦ Empirical validity probability ◦ Practical application • How theory directs research ◦ Identifies research questions (hypothesis) • Also eliminates extraneous questions ◦ Identifies target population ◦ Identifies concepts to be measured ◦ Identifies causal model that needs to be examined (if applicable) ◦ Suggests variable that should be controlled ◦ Helps interpret findings ◦ Suggests ways research can be modified • Social structural theories ◦ Know social structural vs. social psychological ◦ Social structural • Examining issues ▪ Notion of social facts (Durkheim) ▪ Accounting for differences in rates of crime across groups • Important note: although we categorize theories into social structural, often theories deal with issues at both levels of at least have implications for both levels • Social control theories (assumptions) ◦ Deviance is attractive ◦ We would if we could ◦ We need to explain why we don’t not why we do ◦ Look for something that constrains us • Social disorganization theory ◦ A social control theory, so the question it asks is why doesn't everyone commit crime most of the time ◦ What constrains us from doing so? • The answer lies at the neighborhood level ◦ Popularity waned in the 60s • Self report studies • Relationship between social class and crime • Social psychological approaches become dominant • Chicago school ◦ First 'chair' of sociology established as the University of Chicago 1890's • Growth 18304000 people living in Chicago • By 1890 1 million people • 1910 2 million people • The zone of transition (what does it refer to) ◦ Invasion of business out of central business zone ◦ Impaction on land values multiple family housing ◦ Attract new arrivals ◦ High mobility in and out of this zone ◦ Low income population ◦ This area had highest crime rate and many other social problems** ◦ Sean McKay's research showed that regardless of the ethnic majority living in the zone of transition, the crime rate remained how with all • Strain perspective ◦ Something in the social structure creates a strain that causes people to need to adapt • Adaptive response can be criminal • Social strain theories • Robert Merton social structure and anomie ◦ American society generates cultural condition of anomie ◦ Democratization of values ◦ Social structural reality structured inequality ◦ American society places more emphasis on goals (monetary success) and less on the right way to obtain goals (norms) ◦ Combination of an anomic societal culture (overemphasis on goals compared to means) and structured inequality leads to strain/need to adapt ◦ From Merton you could proceed toward a more social psychological or social structural road ◦ Most work went the social psychological route but kept emphasis on structural disadvantage (social class) ◦ Know adaptations • Based on the acceptance of rejection of the goals/norms of society Adaptation Goals Means Conformity + + Innovation + • Ritualism • + Retreatism • Rebellion + + • Albert Cohen's revision of Merton's theory ◦ Places emphasis on attaining social status ◦ "Delinquent Boys" background of lower class boys lower class boys difficulty in acquiring social status in school • Differential opportunity theory (Cloward and Ohlin) ◦ Combined the two strains of thought into a theory of why youth join gangs ◦ Legitimate Opportunity Structure • Continuum of opportunities that everyone has a position on • If opportunities are blocked the need for adaptation arises (similar to Merton) • What process of alienation refers to ◦ Blaming society for lack of opportunities • Economic disadvantage • Educational system • Racial or ethnic bias ◦ Know the different types of gangs • Criminal gangs gangs that exist mainly to engage in illegitimate behavior to acquire economic goals; come from neighborhoods where criminal behavior is available to be learned • Second type of gang comes from neighborhoods that are not organized around delinquency, but block legitimate opportunities; frustration leads to violence • Retreatist gang you who had opportunities in the legitimate and illigitimate opportunity structures but failed at both (similar to Merton's retreatism category) • Anomie theory (Messner and Rosenfeld) ◦ Know the basic fact they argue is that because of overemphasis on economic system, other institutions (family etc.) have been set aside • General strain theory ◦ General Strain Theory is a perspective based on the assumption that an economic condition in the social structure paired with a cultural condition of anomie creates strain that leads to some kind of adaptation ◦ Emphasis on economic condition • Social class is a key component ◦ Also measures that included aspirations and expectations often found that youth with high aspirations were less likely to commit crime regardless of expectations ◦ Some aspects in some situations are supported by research ◦ Main argument is expanding the types of strain that people suffer ◦ Know three types of strain • Failure to achieve goal • Removal of positive stimulus or losing something that is valued • Presentation of negative stimulus ◦ Conditions under which strain is more likely to lead to crime • Strain that is: ▪ Seen is unjust (ex/ discrimination) ▪ High in magnitude ▪ Low in social control (ex/ dysfunctional parenting) ▪ Creating pressure or incentive for crime • Social process theories ◦ Social learning theories • Behavior is learned ◦ Differential association theory (Edwin Sutherland) • Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others • Learns definitions favorable and unfavorable to the violation of law • Ratio of definitions and also learns techniques • Know the modalities ▪ Frequency, duration, priority, intensity • Based off of symbolic interactionist theories • Differential social organization ◦ Communities are organized around values not disorganized which explains why crime rates vary among neighborhoods • Integration of values and age integration ◦ Research • A lot of it looks at the relationship between delinquent peers and delinquency normally find strong relationship • Most research does not include measure of definitions unfavorable to crime but few do • The issue of causal order still has a lot of doubt • Aker's social learning theory ◦ Addressing two problems with differential association theory: • Specifying the process by which patterns of behavior are learned • Difficulty in measuring the principle of differential association ◦ Akers and Burgess associated by suggesting that the learning process is based on operant conditioning ◦ Know what reinforcement and punishment are • Reinforcement tries to increase the probability of a specific behavior (positive adds something and negative takes something away) • Punishment tries to decrease the probability of a specific behavior (positive adds something and negative takes something away) ◦ Based on basic tautology and know how someone gets around that tautology to research ◦ Basis of many inprison programs and but often does not work out once the person is out of prison • Social control theories ◦ Be able to explain age crime curve through this ◦ Hershey's social bonding theory • Four elements of a social bond • We can deviate only when put in a position to do so • Know prevention and treatment programs ◦ Self control theory (Hirschi) • Deviant behavior is attractive • Do not have to explain motivation for deviance • When wondering why we don't commit deviant behavior, the answers lie in what controls and constrains us • Know controversy that came from statements made by the guy ▪ Parenting triggers low selfcontrol ◦ Labeling theory • Historical roots • Dramatization of evil (based on symbolic interactionism) ▪ Notion that often times in terms of police, they skew the fact that you have done something extremely wrong (ex/ scene at a police station that can scare a kid getting arrested) ▪ unintended effect that person is convinced they are a bad person may change how they act crimewise) • Label is dependent/independent variable ▪ Distinction: dependent trying to examine factors that lead to application of variable (racial profiling: looking at racial characteristics to see if those labels are attached to a person) ▪ Independent: once a label is put on a person, how does that effect a person with ex/ likelihood of crime • Genetic approach ◦ All about the interaction between genes and the environment POLICE • Tom Smith's lecture ◦ Lambroso • Who he is ◦ Biosocial theory • Combo of social, environment, biological risks History of police • English heritage ◦ English Common Law (13th Century) ◦ Individual Rights, court systems, punishments (used to be extremely important) ◦ 3 features that brought it to America • limited police authority (Bill of Rights) • local agencies instead of a national police force • decentralized system • Robert Peel ◦ Created the London Metropolitan Police in 1829 • Mission: crime prevention better to be proactive than respond too late • Strategy: preventative patrol fixed beats/visibility • Organizational structure: paramilitary rank, hierarchical, command and discipline • Police in America ◦ Sheriff: broad role LE, tax collection, maintenance of roadways/bridges ◦ Constable: initially an elected position, became an appointed position, law enforcement duties ◦ Watch: patrol duties • Know how informal social control mechanisms did what they could to control crime and why they didn't work ◦ Reactive only so they had little ability to prevent crime; too few a number; difficult for victims to report; fees paid for "particular" services (rich people) • NYPD formed in 1845 ◦ Riots and lots of problems ◦ A lot of political issues and corruption • Robert Plunkett • Taminey hall • August Vollmer critical piece of modern policing ◦ Chief of Police in Berkeley (19051932) ◦ Advocated higher education ◦ UC Berkeley had first police science courses ◦ Berkeley started requiring training for policing • Whickersham commission ◦ "The Third Degree" • Use of pain to extract confessions • Holding a person by the ankles over a balcony railing • Taking suspects to the morgue ◦ New generation of professional practice as a result • Understand professional movement ◦ Policing defined as a profession ◦ Eliminate political corruption/influence ◦ Appoint qualified Chiefs ◦ Modern management principles (use modern communication) ◦ Specialized units (traffic, juveniles, vice) • Early 20th centuries ◦ Modern inventions that changed the way the police operated (like 2 way radios) • In the 60s Miranda v. Arizona ◦ Ernesto Miranda arrested for sexual battery in Phoenix in 1963 ◦ Conviction overturned by SCOTUS ◦ Officers must advise suspects of the right to remain silent and right to attorney before interrogation • Kansas City preventative control experiment ◦ Chief Clarence Kelley took a chance on this experiment but the flaw was that there was no control group that receive NO police presence and no one looked into what officers actually do ◦ Outcome showed that increased patrolling did not decrease crime and reduced patrol did not increase crime Policing Issues • Define discretion ◦ An official action by a criminal justice official acting on their official capacity, based on that individual's judgment about the best course of action • Understand legal considerations when police make discretionary decisions ◦ Considerations include: • Seriousness of the offense • Known record/priors • evidence ◦ What are extra legal criteria • SES, race, gender, age, P.O.P, demeanor (or who the person is), what the person or victim wants to happen • Understand what David Clinger brought to neighborhood characteristics and policing ◦ Officers in highcrime neighborhoods are overworked, leading to less response and cynical behavior toward crime victims resulting in less enforcement of the law in those neighborhoods • Wayne LaFave ◦ "It is helpful to look at the total criminal justice system as a series of interrelated discretionary choices." • James Q. Wilson ◦ "discretion increases as one moves down the organizational hierarchy" • James Fife did study with NYPD about police shooting and deadly force ◦ Outcomes: • Police are most likely to shoot suspects when involved in a violent confrontation and suspects were armed • Study found that African Americans were more likely to be armed and to confront officers. When data were controlled for these factors, the race police shooting relationship became insignificant • Know how departments make police accountable for their actions ◦ Review boards: police and citizenbased ◦ COMPSTAT (regular meetings, hold administration accountable, focus on mission control, use resources and task forces, geographic forces, problemsolving instead of reactive policing) ◦ Supervision by sergeants, lieutenants ◦ Formal and informal actions • Suspensions, pay withholding ◦ Performance evaluations ◦ Internal affairs Chapters in the book (67) IF THERE ARE CHARTS, KNOW THEM
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'