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PSY 1: Psychology - Study Guide

by: Allison Yi

PSY 1: Psychology - Study Guide PSY 1

Marketplace > Psychlogy > PSY 1 > PSY 1 Psychology Study Guide
Allison Yi

Fridlund, A J

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Fridlund, A J
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison Yi on Wednesday October 15, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1 at a university taught by Fridlund, A J in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views.


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Date Created: 10/15/14
HISTORY AND RESEARCH MODELS Mind Body or mindbrain problem Is the brain also the mind Dualism Monism Monism physical and mental are one Idealism all is thought Materialism all is physical Most scientists are materialists Dualism physical and mental are different mind is seperate from the brain but somehow controls the brain and therefore the rest of the body Interactionism Psychophysical parallelism Free will vs Determinism Determinism the idea that everything that happens has a cause or determinant that one could observe or measure out of your control Free will the belief that behavior is caused by a person39s independent decisions Nature vs Nurture heredity environment issue How do differences in behavior relate to differences in heredity and environment Why do most little boys spend more time than little girls with toy guns and trucks and less time with dolls Is it because of biological differences or because of the way parents rear their sons and daughters Is it your genetics that maes you who you are or is it your envoronment Deductive vs Inductive Methods The inductive method usually called the scientific method is the deductive method quotturned upside downquot The deductive method starts with a few true statements axioms with the goal of proving many true statements theorems that logically follow from them The inductive method starts with many observations of nature with the goal of finding a few powerful statements about how nature works his and theories In the deductive method logic is the authority If a statement follows logically from the axioms of the system it must be true In the scientific method observation of nature is the authority If an idea conflicts with what happens in nature the idea must be changed or abandoned Burden of Proof the obligation to present evidence to support one39s claim the burden of proof is on anyone who makes a claim that should be demonstrable if it is true A claim that some objects fall or some people have psychic powers should be demonstrable if true A claim that every object fas cannot be demonstrated so the burden of proof is on someone who doubts it Falsifiability of Hypotheses A well formed theory is falsifiable Stated in such clear recise tems tha we can see what evidence would count against it Replicability of Findings Replicable results are those that anyone can obtain at least approximately by following the same procedures and scientists insist on replicable results Parsimonious Explanation When given a choice among explanations that seem to fit the facts we prefer the one whose asusmptions are fewer simpler or more consistent with other we estabished theories If someone shows you what appears to be a perpetual motion machine look carefully for a hidden battery or other power source that is a simple parsimonious explanation Even if you don39t find a hidden power source it is vastly more likely that you overlooked Devaluation of Anecdotal Evidence People also exaggerate the coincidences that occur and sometimes misremember them We could evaluate anecdotal evidence only if people recorded their hunches and dreams before the predicted events and then determined how many unlikely predictions actually came to pass Experimenter bias the tendency of an experimenter unintentionally in most cases to distort or misperceive the results of an experiment based on the expected outcome Demand Characteristics cues that tell participants what is expected of them and what the experimenter hopes to find To minimize demand characteristics many experimenters take steps to conceal the purpose of the experiment A double blind study also serves the purpose If two groups share the same expectations but behave differently because of a treatment then the differences are not due to their expectations quotBlindsquot on observers and participants blind observer an observer who records data without knowing the researcher39s predictions In a singe bind study either the observer or the participants are unaware of which participants received which treatment In a double blind study both the observer and the participants are unaware Of course the experimenter who organized the study would need to keep records of which participants received which procedure A study in which everyone loses track of the procedure is known jokingly as triple blind Placebos a pill with no known pharmacological effects Naturalistic Observations definition A careful examination of what happens under more or less natural conditions Case histories definition A thorough description of the person including abilities and disabilities medical condition life history unusual experiences and whatever else seems relevant Correlational studies a procedure in which investigators measure the correlation between two variables without controlling either of them For example investigators have observed correlations between people39s height and weight Similarly one can find a correlation between scores on personality tests and how many friends someone has Correlation vs Causation a correlation tells us how strongly two variables are related to each other Causation means that one variable causes a change in another variable Experiment definition Studies in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable An experiment is an attempt to measure how changes in one variable affect one or more other variables Experimental and Control Conditions Experimental condition group that recieves the treatment that an experiment is designed to test Control condition the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluation the effect of the treatment Dependent Variables the item that an experimenter measures to determine how it was affected for example how many questions people answer correctly or how rapidly they respond to signals If the procedure causes different groups to behave differently you can think of the independent variable as the cause and the dependent variable as the effect Independent Variables In an experiment the item that the experimenter manipulates to determine how it affects the dependent variable Purpose of Descriptive vs Inferential Statistics inferential statistics which are statements about a large population based on an inference from a small sample are attempts to deduce the properties of a large population based on the results from a small sample of that population descriptive statistics which are mathematical summaries of results INTRODUCTORY LESSON Types of Psychology Cognitive Psychology Thinking principles of how we problem solve Physiological Psychology Psychophysics Sensation and Perception Quantitative Math Psychology Math models for predicting behavior Animal Experimental Psychology Human Experimental Psychology Neuropsychology Relationship of brain injury to behavior thinking personality Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Different kinds of traits we exhibit in life Genetics Culture Social Psychology Evolutionary Psychology Industrial Psychology Productivity and efficiency in an operation why is the error rate so high in the assembly line How do we improve teamwork Consumer Psychology Study what makes consumer buy things Psychology of advertisements and sales Clinical Psychology Counseling Psychology Educational and School Psychology Braininthevat problem Keep someone alive while working the brain outside of the body 101514 611 PM


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