ARS 300: Intro to Art - Study Guide
ARS 300: Intro to Art - Study Guide ARS 300
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marina Farro on Wednesday October 15, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to ARS 300 at Arizona State University taught by Engle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 1373 views. For similar materials see Intro to Art in Art at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/14
O9162013 Exam 2 Focus of Study KEY TERMSCONCEPTS Support a surface on which a two dimensional work of art is made Gesso Plaster of Paris that is applied to a wooden or canvas support and used as a surface for painting or as the material for sculpture from Italian for gypsum Print in printmaking a picture or design made by pressing or hitting a surface with a plate or block In photography a photograph especially one made from a negative Bistre brown pigment made from boiling the soot of wood Because bistre is transparent and has no body it is frequently used in conjunction with pen and ink drawings as a wash a liquid spread evenly to suggest shadows and is especially associated with the appearance of the typical old master drawing Mezzotint a nonlinear engraving process in which the matrix is pitted with a hatcher Cartone Italian word for cartoon meaning paper Matrix in printmaking the working surface of the block slab or screen Heliography a photographic process in which a bitumen is placed on a pewter plate to create a photosensitive surface that is exposed to the sun Wash a thin watery film of paint especially watercolor applied with even sweeping movements of a brush Diluted ink Vehice a liquid such as water or oil with which pigments are mixed for painting Planographic any method of printing from a plat surface such as lithography Negative in photography en exposed and developed film or plate on which vaues that is light and dark are the reverse of what they are in the actual scene and in the print or positive Gaze in painting a semitransparent coating on a painted surface that provides a glassy or glossy finish Gouache watercolor paint that is made opaque by mixing pigments with a particular gum binder Serigraphy a printmaking process in which stencils are applied to a scree of silk or similar material stretched on a frame Paint or ink is forced through the open areas of the stencil onto paper beneath Also termed silkscreen printing Aquarelle or watercolor refers to a specific technique in which transparent films of paint are applied to a white or absorbent surface Photojournaism photography revolutionized the capacity of news media to bring realistic representations of important events before the eyes of the public Drawing Definition of drawing the result of an implement running over a surface and leaving some trace of the gesture Know most basic form of 2D art drawing Know two major drawing groups dry media amp fluid media Dry Media 1 Silver point one of the oldest drawing media Created by dragging a siver tipped implement over a surface that has been coated with a ground of bone dust of chalk mixed with gum water and pigment This medium allows for little or no correction 2 Pencil largely replaced silver point A pencil is composed of graphite encased within wood or paper Pencil is capable of producing a wide range of effects 3 Charcoal has a long history as a drawing implement Used by our primitive ancestors to create images on cave walls these initially crumbly pieces of burnt wood or bone now take the form of prepared sticks Can be expressive or descriptive 4 Chalk and Pastel the effects of charcoal chalk and pastel as they are drawn against the paper surface are very similar though the compositions of the medial differ Chalk came before pastels 5 Crayon strictly defined the crayon includes any drawing material in stick form One of the most popular commercially manufactured crayons for artists is the conte crayon Its effects on paper are similar to those of chalk and pastel although its harder texture makes greater clarity possible Fluid Media 1 Pen and Ink used to create drawings that are essentially linear although the nature of the line can vary considerable according to the type of instrument employed First pens were made of quills plucked from live birds these were replaced by the mass produced metal nib which is slipped into a wooden stylus 2 Pen and Wash fine clear lines of pure ink are often combined in drawings with wash diluted ink that is applied with a brush Was provides a tonal emphasis absent in pen and ink drawings 3 Brush and Ink an extremely versatile media Brushes are available in a wide variety of textures materials and shapes that afford many different effects 4 Brush and Wash the medium of brush and wash is even more versatile than that of brush and ink Although it can duplicate the linearity of brushandink drawings it van also be used to create images solely through tonal contrasts The ink can be diluted to varying degrees to provide a wide tonal range Cartoons The word cartoon derives from the Italian cartone meaning paper Originally cartoons were fullscale preliminary drawings done on paper for projects such as fresco paintings stained glass or tapestries The meaning has expanded to include humorous and satirical drawings Regardless of their targets all modern cartoons rely on caricature the gross exaggeration and distortion of natural features to ridicule a social or political target Cartoons have a long history of social commentary consciousness raising and political activism Categories of Drawing 1 Sketches that record an idea or provide information about something the artist has seen 2 Plans or preparatory studies for other projects such as buildings sculptures crafts paintings plays and films preliminary 3 Fully developed and autonomous works of art Painting Types of Paint Fresco is the art of painting on plaster Buon fresco or true fresco is executed on damp lime plaster fresco secco is painting on dry plaster In buon fresco the pigments are mixed only with water and the lime of the plaster wall acts as a binder In fresco secco a less popular and less permanent method pigments are combined with a vehicle of glue that affixes the color to the dry wall Encaustic is one of the earliest methods of applying color to a surface It consists of a pigment in wax vehicle that has been heated to a liquid state The ancient Egyptians and Greeks tinted their sculptures with encaustic to grant them a lifelike appearance Encaustic is an extremely durable medium whose colors remain vibrant and whose surface maintains a hard luster Tempura like encaustic was popular for centuries but its traditional composition ground pigments mixed with a vehicle of egg yolk or whole eggs thinned with water is rarely used today Now made with milk different types of glues or gums and even juices and saps from plants Was an exclusive paint in the middle ages and offered many advantages It was durable colors were pure and also allowed for precision Although unlike oil paints dries quickly and is difficult to rework Q consist of ground pigments combined with a linseed oil vehicle and turpentine medium or thinner Oil paint is naturally slow drying and it s broad range of capabilities make it a favorite among artists Can be applied with a number of brushes and knives colors blend easily offering a large palette able to rework paint and when finely applied can capture the most intricate detail Acrylic offers many of the advantages of oil paint but without the mess Acrylic paint is a mixture of pigment and a plastic vehicle that can be thinned with water Unlike oil paint brilliance of colors are not gradually compromised and it can be used on a variety of surfaces that need no special preparation Acrylic is flexible fast drying and water soluble but does not create as many colors as oil But like oil it can be applied thinly or thickly Watercolor refers to a specific technique called aquarelle in which transparent films of paint are applied to a white or absorbent surface Contemporary watercolors are composed of pigments and gum Arabic vehicle thinned of course with a medium of water Transparent water color however did not appear until the 15 century It s a difficult medium to manipulate Gouache type of water color mixed with a high concentration vehicle and an opaque ingredient such as chalk Printing i matrix carved with knife or gouge Ink is applied to raised surfaces often using roller Woodcut oldest form of printmaking Made by cutting along the grain of the flat surface of a wooden board with a knife Wood engraving differs from woodcut in that it uses many thin layers of laminated wood where as woodcut uses the flat surface of the board Lines can be extremely fine and close in alignment because they are engraved using tools like a burin or graver Create illusion of tonal gradation lntaglio prints are created by using metal plats into which lines have been incised The plates are covered with ink which is forced into linear depressions and then the surface is carefully wiped The cut depressions retain the ink whereas the flat surfaces are clean Paper is laid on to and passed through a printing press forcing paper into the incised lines to pick up in Engraving artists creates cleancut lines on a plate of metal forcing the sharpened point of a burin across the surface with the heel of the hand Drypoint needle is dragged across the surface and a metal burr or rough edge is left in its wake to one side of the furrow The burr retains particles of ink creating a softened rather than a crisp line when printed Etching differs from engraving in the way that lines are cut into the surface The depth of the line corresponds to the amount of force used to push or draw an implement over the surface With etching minimal pressure is exerted to determine the depth of line A chemical process does the work Mezzotint a technique in which broad tonal areas can be achieved with non inear engraving that is engraving that does not depend on line Mezzotint is from an Italian word meaning haftint Entire metal plate is worked over with a hatcher The more persistent scraping the shallower pits and the lighter the tone Aquatint metal plate is evenly covered with a fine powder of acidresistant resin The plate is then heated causing the resin to meld and adhere to the surface As in line etching the matrix is placed in an acid bath where its uncovered surfaces are eaten away by solution Depth of tone is controlled by removing plate from acid and covering the pits that have sufficiently etched Lithography matrix is flat lithography is a surface or planography printing process Artist draws image with crayon Use stone to create grainy look Serigraphy also known as silkscreen printing stencis are used to create the design or image Unlike the case with other graphic processes these images can be rendered in paint as well as in Imaging Photography is a science and an art Derived from Greek routs meaning to write with light Camera Obscura literally the covered over or darkened room was used by the renaissance artists to help them accurately portray depth or perspective on two dimensional surfaces Normally a box or an actual room with a small hole that admits light through on wall Light projects the scene upside down on a surface within the box and artist simply traces it Heliography in 1826 Frenchman JosephNicephore Niepce invented heliography Bitumen or asphalt residue was placed on a pewter plate to create a photosensitive surface The bitumen was soluble in lavender oil if kept in the dark but insoluble if struck by light The Daguerreotype resulted from a partner ship formed in 1829 by Niepce and Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre Used thin sheet of silver plated copper that was chemically treated placed in a camera obscura and exposed to a narrow beam of light Images were remarkably clear but it had to be exposed from 540 minutes requiring long sittings and image was reversed left to right Also was very delicate so it had to remain sealed behind glass The Negative invented by British scientist Henry Fox Talbot Pg 155 Photojournalism pg 156 Supplemental Reading Thomas Buser A Composite Art What is film and art Difference between photographic elements in film and photography What animated films incorporate Simon Jennings Pigments in History Know what the Greeks added to the artist s palette Renaissance colors Earth colors Major pigment types Wherewho did the Romans obtain their selection of paints from Major important organic pigment of the nineteenth century Images Alberto Giacometti Head Pencil is an expression of energy or perhaps anxiety The highly abstracted head seems bound up in a frozen psychological state one of inner turmoil created by the artists agitated scribbling and reworking of bold pencil strokes PENCIL Fig 55 pg 109 Kathe Kollwitz SelfPortrait reveals one aspect of the character of charcoal medium Delicate lines of sharpened charcoal drawn over broader areas of subtle shading enunciate the two main points of interest the artist s face and her hand Between theses two points that of intellect and that of skill runs a surge of energy described by aggressive jagged strokes overlaying the lightly sketched contour of forearm CHARCOAL Fig 57 pg 110 Claudio Bravo Package is a finely rendered trompe oei drawing that bears almost no trace of the artist s gesture and almost no indication of the dusty quality of the mediaprimarily charcoal and pastel Drawing looks almost real and the viewer is enticed to touch the forbidden surfaces just to test whether they are real CHARCOAL Fig 58 pg 110 Michelangelo Libyan Sibyl Quick sketchy notations of the model s profile feet and toes lead to a detailed torso rendered with confident lines and precisely defined tonal areas built up from hatching The exactness of muscle detail and emphasis on the edges of the body provide insight into the concerns of an artist whose forte was sculpture CHALKPASTEL Fig 59 pg 111 Edgar Degas Woman at Her Toilette is a veritable explosion of glowing color The pastels are manipulated in countless ways to create a host of different effects The contours of the figure are boldly sketched whereas the flesh is composed of more erratic lines that create a sense of roundness through a spectrum of color CHALKPASTEL Fig 511 pg 112 Giovanni Battista Tiepolo Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness The contours of the biblical figures are described in pen and ink but their volume derives from a clever use of wash An illusion of threedimensionality is created by pulling the white of the untouched paper forward to function as form and enhancing it with contrasting areas of light and dark wash The art has dynamic movement PEN amp WASH Fig 518 pg 115 Claude Lorrain Tiber above Home the shape of the landscape in the piece relies on tonal variations rather than line Lorrain s work is suggestive a quick rendition of the artist s visual impression of the landscape Lorrain worked on damp paper BRUSH amp WASH Fig 521 pg 117 Honore Daumier Counsel for the Defense is a taunting illustration of the theatrics employed by a defense attorney to win sympathy for his client CARTOON Fig 522 pg 118 Rembrandt Van Rijn Head of St Matthew uses oil paint that has been applied in thick impasto that physically constructs the image OIL Fig 66 pg 126 David Hockney Punchinello with Black used gouache watercolor to create modern art Fig 612 pg 130 Emil Nolde Still Life Tulips used transparency of tinted washes to create a delicate fusion of colors The edges of the forms are softened they seem to diffuse into one another or the surrounding field Nolde created his explosions of blossoms through delicately balanced patches of bold color and diaphanous washes Fig 614 pg 131 Henry Matisse Loulou Distracted painter used a few dozen uniformly etched lines to describe the essential features of a woman The simple yet complete image attests to the delicacy that can be achieved with etching Fig 79 pg 141 Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo A Negro picture of young black boy exists because of textural and tonal contrasts The artist used a varitety of wavy and curving lines to differentiate skin from cloth from hair Lines are spaced to provide a range of tones from the sharp of the white paper to the rich black of the man s clothing The overall texture creates a hazy atmosphere that caresses a pensive figure Fig 710 pg 141 Alexander Gardner Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter Gettysburg photo of dead soldier is a good example of photojournalism Not many copies sold though because they were high priced methods for reproducing newsprint hadn t been invented and lastly people did not want to see the reality of war Fig 89 pg 157 Lynn Hershman Digital Venus uses renaissance painting Venus of Urbino and substitutes digital imagery for the sumptuous glazes that defined the body Also addresses feminist issues pertaining to the male gaze and the exploitation of women Fig 842 pg 177 O9162013 O9162013
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