Study Guide 2
Study Guide 2 PSYC 225
Popular in Lifespan Development: Child-Adult
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Study Guide 2 Chapter 7 What physical changes are experienced during early childhood children lose baby roundness limbs lengthen head is still large grow 23 in per year amp gain approximately 46 lbs cartilage turns to bone faster amp bones become harder What is enuresis repeated urination in clothing or in bed affects 1015 of 5 year olds more common in boys What are common causes of nightmares staying up too late eating a heavy meal too close to bedtime overexcitement What are gross motor skills Give an example physical skills that involve the large muscles great advancements are made in preschool children jumping and running At What age are most children ready for organized sports children 6 or older What are fine motor skills Give an example physical skills that involve the small muslces and eyehand coordination gains allow for more responsibility in personal care buttoning a shirt drawing pictures Define symbolic function ability to use mental representations words numbers or images to Which a child has attached meaning helps children remember and think about things that are not physically present According to Piaget What is transductiontransductive reasoning tendency to mentally link particular phenomena Whether or not there is logically a causal relationship By What age can children classify by 2 criteria By age 4 What is egocentrism the inability to consider another person s point of view characteristic of young children s thought Define conservation awareness that two objects that are equal according to a certain measure remain equal in the face of perceptual alteration so long as nothing has been added to or taken away from either object not grasped until next stage of cognitive development Explain what irreversibility is and how it and children s inability to decenter relate to conservation preoperational child s failure to understand that an operation can go in two or more directions limits the ability to conserve What type of communication facilitates children s memory Fast mapping because it is a process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversation What is social speech speech intended to be understood by a listener Describe Piaget s beliefs about private speech talking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate with others Piaget believes sign of cognitive immaturity When are children most likely to use private speech increases when children are trying to solve problems or perform difficult tasks Define emergent literacy preschoolers development of skills knowledge and attitudes that underlie reading and writing Children become active media users at what age By age 3 What is a compensatory preschool designed to aid children who would otherwise enter school poorly prepared to learn Describe what kindergarten is like today less time on selfchosen activities more time with worksheets and prereading Chapter 8 Define selfconcept sense of self descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one s abilities and traits What is gender identity awareness developed in early childhood that one is male or female Define and explain gender roles behaviors interests attitudes skills and traits that a culture considers appropriate for each sex women were expected to devote most of their time to caring for the householdamp children men were providers and protectors women were expected to be compliant and nurturing men were to be active aggressive and competitive List different things people environment etc which can in uence gender differences family members friends media stores toys How does the biological approach explain gender development evidence of neurological hormonal and evolutionary explanations for some gender differences boys brains are about 10 larger than girls brains at age 5 fetal testosterone levels may be related to gendertypical play The evolutionary approach gender behavior is biologically based with a purpose gender roles underlie the evolved mating and childrearing strategies of adult males and females What is identification Which approach posits it as an explanation for gender development the process by which a young child adopts characteristics beliefs attitudes values and behaviors of the parent of the same sex Psychoanalytic Approach Explain the cognitive approach to gender development children come to understand gender by actively thinking about and constructing their own gendertyping Define gender constancy Which theory in the cognitive approach is it from awareness that one will always be male or female cognitive approach Describe social learning theory s approach to gender development children acquire gender roles by imitating models and being rewarded for gender appropriate behavior Which gender of child has less freedom in their play and activities For that gender which parent is least likely to be accepting of gender inappropriate behavior boys tend to be more strongly gendersocialized concerning play preferences parents show more discomfort if a boy plays with a doll the father is most likely to be least accepting of the behavior What are inductive techniques definition as well as examples disciplinary techniques designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing to a child s sense of reason and fairness ex Sara stole candy from a store and instead of lecturing her about honestly spanking her or telling her what a bad girl she was her father explained how the owner of the store would be harmed by her failure to pay for the candy asked her how the store owner might feel and then took her back to the store to return the candy Define power assertion disciplinary strategy designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement or parental control Explain withdrawal of love disciplinary strategy that involves ignoring isolating or showing dislike for a child What are the four different parenting styles Explain each Authoritarian Parenting parenting style emphasizing control and obedience Permissive Parenting parenting style emphasizing selfexpression and selfregulation Authoritative Parenting parenting style blending respect for child s individuality with an effort to instill social values Neglectful or Uninvolved Parenting parents who focus on their needs rather than on those of the child What outcomes for children are associated with each of the parenting styles Authoritarian Parenting children tend to be more discontented withdrawn and distrustful Permissive Parenting children tend to be immature the least selfcontrolled and the least exploratory Authoritative Parenting children tend to be selfreliant selfcontrolled selfassertive exploratory and content Neglectful or Uninvolved Parenting linked with a variety of behavioral disorders in childhood and adolescence What is prosocial behavior any voluntary behavior intended to help others Define overt aggression Which gender is more likely to display overt aggression aggression that is openly directed at a target engaged in more by boys Explain relational aggression and specify which gender is more likely to use it aggression aimed at damaging or interfering with another persons relationships reputation or psychological wellbeing more likely to occur in girls What do young children consider to be important features in a friendship doing things together liking and caring for each other sharing and helping one another living nearby or going to the same school Chapter 9 How much sleep does the average 9 year old need 13 year old Is this an increase or decrease from early childhood 9 year old I approximately 10 hours of sleep 13 year old I only 9 hours of sleep this would be a decrease from early childhood Are children today more or less active than they used to be less active this is due to more time spent on schooling and homework in addition to television and computer activities What is roughandtumble play When does it peak vigorous play involving wrestling hitting and chasing often accompanied by laughing and screaming peaks in middle childhood Which stage of Piaget s cognitive development is associated with middle childhood Concrete operational stage ages 12 What cognitive advances are associated with the concrete operational stage yes I did just give you the answer to the question above children develop logical but not abstract thinking Define seriation ability to order items along a dimension weight or color Explain transitive inference understanding the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object What is class inclusion understanding of the relationship between a whole and its parts Ex Bouquet of 10 owers 7 roses and 3 carnations Are there more roses or owers Which type of reasoning did Piaget believe was the only one concrete operational children were capable of inductive reasoning logical reasoning that moves from particular observations about members of a class to a general conclusion about that class Define syntax how words are organized into phrases and sentences In nonEnglishspeaking children what is the most common native language Spanish What is decoding process of phonetic analysis by which a printed word is converted to spoken form before retrieval from longterm memory What factors in uence school achievement and how selfefficacy beliefs I students high in selfefficacy are more likely to succeed than those who do not believe in their abilities Gender I girls tend to do better in school than boys Parenting Practices I parents of highachieving children create an environment for learning Socioeconomic Status I differences in the home environment and learning experiences Peer Acceptance I children who are liked and accepted by peers tend to do better in school Class Size I smaller classes tend to be more social and interactive and enable highr quality instruction and emotional support Define intellectual disability significantly subnormal cognitive functioning also called cognitive disability or mental retardation What is dyslexia developmental disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age Explain attentiondeficithyperactivity disorder syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility impulsivity lower tolerance for frustration and inappropriate over activity Chapter 10 What are representational systems characterized by breadth balance and the integration of the assessment of various aspects of the self Describe behaviors characteristic of a prosocial child act appropriately in social situations are relatively free from negative emotion cope with problems constructively Define internalizing and externalizing behaviors Give an example of each Intemalizing Behaviors behaviors by which emotional problems are turned inward Anxiety or depression Externalizing Behaviors behaviors by which a child acts out emotional difficulties Aggression or hostility What is coregulation transitional stage in the control of behavior in which parents exercise general supervision and children exercise momenttomoment selfregulaiton What are common child reactions to parental divorce anxiety may surface during adulthood when trying to form intimate relationships social emotional or psychological problems lower SES poorer psychological wellbeing a greater chance of giving birth outside of marriage What percentage of children live in singleparent homes more than 50 of all African American children 26 of Hispanic children 19 of nonHispanic white children How can a stepfather increase his chances of being accepted by a stepson stepfather should try to slowly become friends What percentage of legal adoptions are by relatives 60 Define open adoptions both parties share information or have direct contact with the child Name several negative in uences of the peer group cliques reinforce prejudice foster antisocial tendencies pressure to conform What characteristics are common in popular children good cognitive abilities high achievers good at solving social problems help other children assertive without being disruptive or aggressive kind trustworthy cooperative loyal selfdisclosing provide emotional support How do boys and girls differ when it comes to friends girls care less about having many friends than about having a few close friends boys have more friendships but they are less intimate and affectionate Explain the differences between instrumental overt and relational aggression also see Ch 8 Instrumental Aggression aggressive behavior used as a means of achieving a goal Overt Aggression aggression that is openly directed at a target Relational Aggression aggression aimed at damaging or interfering with another person s relationships reputation or psychological well being How does viewing violent media affect aggression in children most studies support a causal relationship between media violence and aggressive behavior observational learning desensitization enactive learning What are some effects bullying has on the victim weak vulnerable defenseless
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