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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leah Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 121 at Missouri State University taught by Manley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Sensation and Perception o Sensation a process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energy 0 Perception a process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Sensann Absolute threshold smallest amount of energy needed for conscious detection of a stimulus at least half the time lust noticeable difference the point at which a stimulus is detectable half the time it is present Weber39s Law ofjust noticeable differences states that the just noticeable difference between 2 stimuli is always a constant Habituation and Sensory Adaption Habituation brain stops attending to constant unchanging stimuli cognitive Sensorv adaption sensory receptors less responsive to constant stimuli biological Structure of the eye Cornea bends the light waves so the image can be focused on the retina lrii muscles that control the size of the pupil Pupil iris opening that changes size depending on light Lens changes shape to bring object into focus Retina contains photoreceptor cells Optic nerve sends visual information to the brain Blind spot point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye no receptor cells Cones are countable for day vision color Rods are countable for night vision black and white Trichromatic Theory 0 Theory of color perception assumes 3 different types of cones 0 Red green blue 0 All colors would be perceived as combinations of these 0 Color blindness Opponentprocess Theory Afterimages Theory of color perception assumes 4 primary colors 0 Red green blue yellow 0 Arranged in pairs Red and green Blue and yellow 0 When one member of a pair is activated the other isn39t Structure of the ear 0 Sound enters the ear through the visible outer structure the pinna Travels to the eardrum Then to the small bones of the middle ear 0 Anvil hammer stirrup Causes the cochlea and basilar membrane to vibrate with sound Gustation sense of taste 0 5 basic tastes o Salty sour bitter sweet umami brothy Smell olfaction Smells the only sense that doesn39t travel through the thalamus Cilia tiny hairlike structures in the nose 0 these are the receptors for the sense of smell Kinesthetic and Vestibular senses kinesthetic allows the brain to know the position and movement of the body through the activity of special receptors responsive to movement of the joints and limbs vestibular contributes to the body s sense of spatial orientation and movement through the activity of the otolith organs and the semicircular canals Perception method by which sensations are organized and interpreted Sensann bottomuo processino analysis begins with the sense receptors and works to the brains integration of sensory information topdown processing information guided by higherlevel mental processes as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations The Gestalt Principles 0 Figure and ground 0 organization of the visual eld into objects that stand out from their surroundings Proximity 0 the tendency to perceive objects that are close to one another as part of the same grouping Similarity o the tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of the same group Closure o the tendency to complete gures that are incomplete Depth perception ability to perceive the world in 3D monocular cues depth cues that can perceived by one eye only 0 interposition the assumption that an object appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer 0 linear perspective the tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge on each other 0 relative size perception that occurs when object that a person expects to be of a certain size appear to be small and are therefore assumed to be much farther away 0 texture gradient the tendency for textured surfaces to appear to become smaller and ner as distance from the viewer increases 0 aerial perspective the haziness that surrounds objects that are farther away from the viewer causing the distance to be perceived as greater 0 motion parallax the perception of motion of objects in which close objects appear to move more quickly than objects that are farther away binocular cues cues for perceiving depth based on two eyes 0 converge involves the muscle of the eye when objects are far away the eye muscles are more relaxed when objects are close the eye muscles move together 0 binocular disparity your eyes are separated by several centimeters each eye sees a slightly different image of the object in front of you Learning Classical conditioning lvan Pavlov The phenomenon in which one stimulus can through pairing with another stimulus come to produce a similar stimulus Elements of classical conditioning NS becomes the CS UCS gt UCR NS UCS gt UCR cs gt CR The NS and UCS must be paired several times 0 The NSCS must come before the UCS The UCS must come on a few seconds after the NSCS Discrimination the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that39s similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Emotional Responses 0 Watson Emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli Conditioned taste aversion Development of nauseaaversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction Skinner o Called it quotoperant conditioningquot because voluntary responses are what we use to operate in the world around us Reinforcement Any consequence that makes a response more likely o Thorndike s law of effect Responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated 0 Primary Reinforcer o Reinforcer meeting a basic biological needdrive Secondary reinforce o Reinforcing via pairing with a primary reinforcer Positive 0 Addition of a pleasurable stimulus 0 Negative 0 Removable escape or avoidance of aversive stimulus Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed ratio based on a certain number of responses 0 Variable ratio based on number of responses number varies Fixed interval based on a certain xed amount of time Variable interval based on a variable amount of time Continuous reinforcement occurs when each and every correct response is followed by a reinforcer Partial reinforcement in which some correct responses are followed by reinforcement is much more resistant to extinction 0 Ratio number 0 lnterval time o Fixed consistent 0 Variable changes Punishment Any consequence that makes a response less likely It s about decreasing the behavior Positive adding reinforcement something valueddesirable Positive punishment something unpleasant Negative removing reinforcement something unpleasant Negative punishment something valueddesirable Types Application addition of unpleasant stimulus Removal removal of pleasurable stimulus o In punishment by application a response is followed by the application of experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus such as spanking o In punishment by removal a response is followed by the removal of some pleasurable stimulus such as taking a child s toy for misbehavior Negative Reinforcement vs Punishment by Removal Negative reinforcement reinforcement is about increasing behavior occurs when a response is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus Punishment by removal punishment is about decreasing behavior occurs when a pleasant thing is removed Punishment Problems Fear and anxiety Lying Avoidance Modeling of aggression 0 Modeling of aggression Punishment should be 0 Immediate Consistent o paired with reinforcement for correct behavior Skinner box chamber with a barkey that an animal manipulates to obtain foodwater reinforce contains devices to record responses Behavior Modi cation 0 the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about the desired changes in behavior 0 includes the use of reinforcement and shaping to alter behavior Techniques token economy type of behavior modi cation in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens applied behavior analysis modern term for a form of functional analysis and behavior modi cation that uses a variety of behavioral techniques to mold a desired behavior or response Cognitive Learning Theory 0 early days of learning 0 focus on behavior 0 1950 s and 1960 s 0 Increased focus on mental events cognition Edward Tolman 0 Early cognitive scientist Tolman s Rates and Latent Learning 0 Tolman found that rats were allowed to wander in a maze but were not reinforced still showed evidence of having learned the maze once reinforcement became possible 0 He termed this hidden learning latent learning lnsight Learning 0 Kohler found evidence of insight in chimpanzees Learned helplessness Seligman Tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures Observational Learning 0 Acquired by watching other perform or model certain actions Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment 0 Two Conditions 0 Aggressive and nonaggressive model 0 This experiment demonstrated that young children will imitate the aggressive actions of a model even when there s no reinforcement for doing so The 4 elements of observational learning 1 Attention 2 Memory 3 Imitation 4 Desire Remember AMID Consciousness Awareness of everything going on inside and outside of you Waking 0 Thoughts feelings sensations are clear 0 Altered State 0 shift in quality or pattern of mental activity sleeping drugs mediation hypnosis automatic processing Altered States sleep circadian rhythm o lasts 24 hour Suprachiasmatic nucleus 0 Sensitive to changes in light As the daylight fades the SCN tells the pineal gland to secrete melatonin As light coming into the eyes increases SCN tells pineal gland to stop secreting melatonin 0 Internal clock that tells people when to wake up or fall asleep Why we sleep 0 Adaptive theory 0 Animals evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active Restorative theory 0 Sleep replenishes chemicals and repairs cellular damage Stages of sleep Changes in BrainWave activity 0 Beta waves 0 1330hz smallerfaster waves 0 Person is wide awake and mentally active 0 Alpha waves 0 812hz largerslower waves 0 Person is relaxed or drowsy Theta waves 0 47hz largerslower waves 0 Person is entering light sleep 0 Delta waves 0 535hz largestslowest waves 0 Person is in deepest stage of sleep Stages of sleep NonREM Stage 1 o Theta waves light sleep hypnic jerk hypnagogic images 0 Stage 2 0 Temperature decreases breathing and heart rate decreases sleep spindles Stage 3 and 4 0 Delta waves growth hormones released hard to wake up difference in 3 and 4 stage 3 has some theta waves and delta waves as 4 has strictly delta waves Stages of sleep REM rapid eye movement 0 Eyes moving under eyelids rest of body is still 0 90 of dreaming occurs in this stage 0 Person is asleep but EEG is similar to that of an awake individual 0 REM sleep is sometimes referred to as paradoxical sleep EEG during sleep 0 The average length of stage 1 sleep cycle is 90 minutes 0 From the 2nCI stage to the 4th stage is 100120 minutes Sleep Disorders 0 Bad dreams arousing feelings of horror helplessness extreme sorrow etc Occur during REM REM behavior disorder is a rare disorder in which the mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares 0 REM behavior disorder is a rare disorder in which the mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares Sleepwalking Moving or walking around during deep sleep Occur in stage 3 and 4 Night Terrors Attacks of extreme fear that the victim has while sound asleep 0 More common in children 0 Often sit up run scream thrash around 0 Usually during stage 3 or 4 0 Hard to wake person up and they typically do not remember Sleep disorders 0 Insomnia o Inability to get to sleep stay asleep or get good quality sleep Narcolepsy 0 Person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning 0 Sleep apnea 0 Person stops breathing for half a minute or more Dreams Freud dreams as wish ful llment manifest content and latent content 0 manifest actual dream and its events 0 atent symbolic content Dreams 0 another king of thinking that occurs when people sleep 0 higher centers of the cortex create a quotstoryquot to explain the cortical activation coming from the brain stem during REM o activationsynthesis hypothesis without outside sensory information to explain the activation of the brain cells in the cortex by the pons area the association areas of the cortex synthesize a story or dream to explain that activation 0 activationinformation mode model AIM states that information experienced during waking hours can in uence the synthesis of dreams The in uence of psychoactive drugs Psychoactive drugs 0 drugs that alter thinking perception and memory Negative reinforcement Psychological dependence 0 Feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological wellbeing Positive reinforcement Major Drug Categories Stimulants 0 Drugs that increase the activity of the nervous system 0 Include Amphetamines Cocaine Nicotine caffeine Depressants o Decrease the functioning of the nervous system 0 Include Barbiturates major tranquilizers Sleeping pills Benzodiazepines minor tranquilizers Xanax Alcohol 0 Depressant Narcotics Class of opiumrelated drugs that suppress pain and mimic endorphins Include Opium Morphine Heroine methadone Hallucinogens 0 Cause false sensory message altering the perception of reality 0 Include LSD PCP MDMA ecstasy Marijuana
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