Man's Food Exam 3 Study Guide
Man's Food Exam 3 Study Guide FOS 2001
Popular in Man's Food
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Friday March 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Agata Kowalewska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.
Reviews for Man's Food Exam 3 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/18/16
FOS2001 MAN'S FOOD EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE LESSON 9 FATS PART 1: Introduction To The Fat Nutrient • Types of fats ◦ 3 types od lipids (fats) in the human body: • Triglycerides most common; consists of the backbone molecule glycerol and three individual fatty acids; primarily made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen • Phospholipids primarily in call membranes; have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail; important because of their affinity to water inside the plasm and fluids around the cell • Sterols have four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen; best known is cholesterol (which is essential for making steroid hormones) • Properties of fats ◦ Saturated fats a fat molecule that is completely saturated by hydrogen atoms; predominantly in animal tissue and solid at room temperature ◦ Monounsaturated fat not completely saturated by hydrogen, has a gap where hydrogen atoms are missing (one double bond/area of unsaturation); may be solid or liquid at room temperature ◦ Polyunsaturated fats have two or more areas of unsaturation/double bonds; mostly liquid and the basis of many vegetable oils • Hydrogenating fats ◦ Stability of fats is based on saturation levels ◦ Saturated fats = most stable ◦ Hydrogenation process to stabilize fats of change properties • Increases shelf life and prevents it from becoming rancid; can improve texture • Trans fats ◦ Ex/ Crisco and margarine ◦ One concern about the hydrogenation process is the formation of trans fats • Trans fats are of increasing interest ▪ Consequences associated with health risks like cancer and heart disease • Essential Fatty Acids ◦ Must come from diet • Humans cannot make doublebond systems ◦ Contributes to sensory experience of eating food • Adds to taste and palatability of food ◦ Act as a protecting agent to absorb shock • Fat in tissue that helps absorb and dissipate shock, protects calls and cell membranes • Helps maintain cell integrity Part 2: Sources of Fats in Our Diets • Functions of Fats ◦ Satisfies our energy requirements • 1 gram of fat = 9 calories ◦ Contributes to sensory experience of eating food • Adds to taste and palatability ◦ Acts as protecting agent to absorb shock • Fat in tissue that helps absorb and dissipate shock, protects calls and cell membranes • Helps maintain cell integrity • Fats in our Bodies ◦ 1st group of fats found in our body = lipoprotein • Four types of lipoproteins • Chylomicron delivers fat from the intestine to the liver via lymphatic system high in triglyceride • VLDL carries fat made in the liver and delivers it to others • LDL carries cholesterol to he cells/LDL receptors enable clearing of cholesterol from the circulatory system • HDL carries fats from the cells back to the liver for elimination/recycling • Lecithin, Adipose Tissue, and Cellulite ◦ Lecithin attracts water and lipids and contributes to keeping the cell membranes healthy ◦ Adipose Tissue used primarily for fat storage ◦ Cellulite is hardened fat deposits that look like dimples on the body Part 3: Diseases Associated with the Fat Nutrient • Factors for heart disease that you can control ◦ Have a regular exercise program ◦ Maintain healthy weight ◦ Quit smoking ◦ Keep HDL Cholesterol high ◦ Keep LDL cholesterol low ◦ Prevent/manage diabetes ◦ Lower high blood pressure • Reducing high blood pressure ◦ Major risk for development of heart disease ◦ Most effective means to reduce high blood pressure: weight loss and sodium restriction • The prudent diet ◦ Diligence is required to maintain optimal health and wellbeing ◦ Limit/monitor the amount of high cholesterol foods like eggs and shrimp KEY TERMS FOR LESSON 9 • Alphalinolenic acid A polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; part of the omega3 fatty acid family. • Bile A secretion that emulsifies fat into smaller globules, which allows enzymes to break the fat down. • Chylomicron A type of lipoprotein that carries digested fat and other lipids through the lymph system into the blood. • Diglyceride A glycerol with only two attached fatty acids. • Emulsifier A compound that keeps two incompatible substances, such as oil and water, mixed together. • Essential fatty acids The polyunsaturated fatty acids that the body cannot make, so they must be obtained from foods. • Fatty acid The most basic unit of triglycerides and phospholipids. • Glycerol The threecarbon backbone of a triglyceride. • Linoleic acid A polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; part of the omega6 fatty acid family. • Lipid A category of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen compounds that are insoluble in water. • Lipoproteins Capsuleshaped transport carriers that enable fat and cholesterol to travel through the lymph and blood. • Lymph Watery fluid that circulates through the body in lymph vessels and eventually enters the blood. • Micelles Small transport carriers in the intestine that enable fatty acids and other compounds to be absorbed. • Monoglyceride A glycerol with only one attached fatty acid. • Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) A fatty acid that has one double bond. • Phospholipids Lipids made up of two fatty acids and a phosphoruscontaining group attached to a glycerol backbone. • Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) A fatty acid with two or more double bonds. • Saturated fatty acid A fatty acid that has all of its carbons bound with hydrogen. • Sterol A lipid that contains four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen. • Triglyceride Three fatty acids that are attached to a glycerol backbone, also known as fat. • Unsaturated fatty acid A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons. LESSON 10 VITAMINS What Are Vitamins? Vitamin Forms • Three forms: ◦ Vitamin precursor • Nutrient that has vitamin activity but only becomes a vitamin upon digestion ◦ The vitamin itself • Found in foods and rich in the specific vitamin • Does not have to be converted through the digestion process ◦ Vitamin antagonist • Molecules that hinder the utilization of a vitamin Multivitamins and Megavitamins • Multivitamin ◦ Many vitamins in one pill ◦ Not discouraged by nutritionists ◦ Can be a good dietary supplement ◦ Measured in milligrams or micrograms • Megavitamin ◦ Large dose of single nutrient in one pill ◦ Discouraged by many nutritionists unless under supervision of a health care professional FatSoluble Vitamins Vitamin A • Fat soluble vitamins in the body are A, D, E, K • Performed Vitamin A ◦ Family of substances called retinoids that the body readily uses ◦ Found in food from animal sources • Provitamin A carotenoids ◦ From plant sources which can be converted to retinol in body ◦ Ex/ carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach • Benefits of Vitamin A ◦ Helps eyes, cell differentiation, skin, and the mucous membranes of your lungs, intestinal tract, and kidneys ◦ Works with immune system to create white blood cells that fight foreign invaders in the bloodstream • Consequences of Excessive Vitamin A ◦ Excessive amounts can accumulate to toxic levels ◦ Overconsumption of performed Vitamin A is usually due to taking supplements and is less likely to result from overeating Vitamin A in foods ◦ For adult male: >900 mg is toxic ◦ For adult female: >700 mg is toxic • Effects/Symptoms of Vitamin A toxicity ◦ Hair loss, joint pain, rashes, muscle soreness, liver damage Vitamin D • Called "sunshine vitamin" because it is made in the body with the help of ultraviolet rays from the sun • Benefits of Vitamin D ◦ Helps build and maintain your bones by stimulating the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in intestinal tract ◦ Helps maintain blood calcium and works with calcium to promote healthy teeth • Consequences of Excessive Vitamin D ◦ Not likely to get Vitamin D from food (except fish oils) ◦ Ingesting four or more times the RDA of Vitamin D is considered toxic ◦ Symptoms: headaches, nausea, diarrhea, and serious health problems caused by calcium spilling into blood and entering soft tissue • Vitamin D Deficiencies ◦ Lack of Vitamin D can result in abnormal bone development ◦ Ex/ Rickets disease characterized by defective bone growth ◦ Ex/ osteoporosis disease where bones become porous leading to curvature of spine Vitamin E and K • Vitamin E ◦ Powerful antioxidant ◦ Protects cell membranes and prevents oxidation of the "bad" LDL cholesterol carrier ◦ Also an anticoagulant • Inhibits blood clotting ◦ Ex/ vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, spinach, avocados • Vitamin K ◦ Plays major role in blood coagulation (clotting) ◦ Important to bone health ◦ Natural forms are not toxic WaterSoluble Vitamins Vitamin C • Aka ascorbic acid • Acts as a coenzyme that is needed to synthesize certain amino acids • Considered a watersoluble antioxidant ◦ Involved in formation of hormone adrenaline • Keeps immune system healthy by enabling your body to make white blood cells • Excessive amounts not known to be toxic ◦ Excess leads to formation of kidney stones in individuals with a history of kidney stones ◦ Symptoms: bleeding gums and teeth, wounds that are slow to heal, scurvy The B Vitamins • Coenzymes which helps enzymes produce reactions in your cells • Also need many B vitamins to metabolize carbs, proteins, and fats • Vitamin B1 (thiamin) ◦ Needed for nerve function and energy metabolism • Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) ◦ Important for energy metabolism ◦ Deficiency is called ariboflavinosis • Vitamin B3 (niacin) ◦ Coenzyme that helps break down carbs, fats, proteins, and alcohol ◦ Found in meat, fish, poultry, whole grains, etc. ◦ No danger to too much too little can cause pellagra • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) ◦ Helps body produce energy from glucose and fats ◦ Widespread in food supply ◦ Deficiency is very rare • Vitamin B6 ◦ Found in 3 forms: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine • Each represents different biological activities of the nutrient ◦ Megadose toxicity can lead to nerve damage and impaired mobility • Vitamin B7 (biotin) ◦ Helps in activating enzymes to metabolize carbon dioxide (essentially moving carbon dioxide for energy, protein, and fat metabolism) ◦ Widespread in food supply ◦ Deficiency is rare and no diseases are directly associated wit it • Vitamin B9 (folic acid/folate) ◦ Vital to making DNA in your cells ◦ Helps maintain healthy blood cells ◦ Reduces the risk of certain types of birth defects and can reduce risk of heart disease ◦ No danger in consuming too much • Vitamin B12 ◦ The only watersoluble vitamin that can be stored in the body ◦ Needed to use certain fatty acids and for healthy nerves and red blood cells ◦ Deficiency can cause anemia • People at risk include those on a strict vegan diet KEY TERMS: • Carnitine a vitaminlike substance needed to properly utilize fat • Coenzymes substances needed by enzymes to perform many chemical reactions in your body • Free radicals unstable oxygencontaining molecules that can damage the cells of the body and possible contribute to the increased risk of chronic diseases • Lipoic acid a vitaminlike substance in your body needed in energy production; may also act as an antioxidant • Oxidation the process during which oxygen combines with other molecules • Oxidative stress a condition whereby the production of harmful free radicals overwhelms the ability of the body's natural defense system to keep them at bay • Toxicity the accumulation of a substance to a level that is poisonous Lesson 11 Minerals What are Minerals? Minerals In The Body • Amount of minerals in the body vary from person to person Function of Minerals • Minerals play important role in the structural growth of the body ◦ Aid in healthy development/maintenance of bones, teeth, and tissue • Provide calcium needed to regulate muscle contractions/nerve impulses • Primarily grow from the Earth ◦ Found in plant and animal foods • Best sources: vegetables, legumes, milk, meat • Absorption of minerals depends on their bioavailability Importance of Sodium • Chief role is regulation of fluid balance • Promotes water retention in the body and is a component of the extracellular fluid/extracellular water of the body • It is involved in osmotic pressure balance, acidbase balance, and membrane pumping ◦ Membrane pumping and osmotic pressure work together to transport substances across cell membranes • Recommended sodium intake: for adults up to 51 y/o = 1,500 milligrams daily • As a person's sodium increases, blood pressure does too Sodium Deficiency • Sodium deficiency/depletion caused by: vomiting, overexertion (sweating), excessive urination • Drink water and maintain water balance to treat Minerals Continued Calcium In The Diet • One of the most abundant minerals in nature and the most abundant in the body ◦ 99% of calcium in the body goes toward creating the structural components of bones and teeth • Calcium utilization requires vitamin D • Good sources of calcium: milk, yogurt, cheese, broccoli • Adults need 10001200 milligrams of calcium daily • Calcium deficiency can lead to tetany, poor development, or osteoporosis The SecondMost Abundant Mineral Phosphorus • Majority of phosphorus is in the bones ◦ Component of cells ◦ Needed during metabolism ◦ Acts as a buffer to help return blood pH to normal if too acidic • Adults need 700 milligrams daily ◦ Average American has 1000 milligrams daily • Lack of phosphorus can lead to weakened bone structure similar to calcium deficiency Magnesium, Chloride, and Sulfur • Magnesium ◦ Needed for metabolism and maintain healthy muscles, nerves, bones, and heart ◦ About half of magnesium in the body is in bones (the rest are in cells) ◦ Benefits of magnesium are: helping to lower high blood pressure and reducing risk of diabetes • Chloride ◦ Part of hydrochloric acid (a strong acid in stomach that enhances protein digestion and kills harmful bacteria) ◦ Adults should have 1300 milligrams a day ◦ Sodium chloride is main source of chloride in diet • Sulfur ◦ Found in the body as part of compounds thiamin, biotin, and pantothenic acid ◦ Helps some amino acids perform effectively as enzymes and hormones ◦ Food manufacturers often used sulfurbased substances (sulfites) as a preservative ◦ No known toxicity or deficiency symptoms The Most Abundant Trace Mineral Iron • Most abundant mineral on the Earth and the most abundant trace mineral in the body • Needed to transport oxygen for tissues, muscles, and brain functioning • Two forms: heme (animal sources) and nonheme (plant sources) • 818 milligrams are needed daily, depending on age/gender (higher needs for vegetarians) • Too much supplemental irons can cause intestinal problems Iodine and the Thyroid • Essential mineral for the thyroid gland • Problem: not found everywhere in the environment • Adults need 150 micrograms daily • Deficiency can result in mental impairment, retardation, or in a goiter (enlarged thyroid gland) Fluoride • Bestknown function is keeping teeth healthy • Absorbed by the body via topical treatments • Too much fluoride can cause fluorosis (condition that causes teeth to become pitted and develop white patches) Copper Zinc, and Selenium • Copper ◦ Important for iron absorption and transfer, as well as the synthesis of hemoglobin and red blood cells ◦ Plays important role in blood clotting and maintaining healthy immune system ◦ Adults need 900 micrograms daily • Zinc ◦ Needed for DNA synthesis, growth, and development from infancy through adolescence; to strengthen immune system, helps strengthen immune system, helps wounds heal ◦ Adult males need 11 milligrams daily; adult females need 8 milligrams daily ◦ Too much can cause intestinal problems, suppress the immune system, and lower HDL cholesterol ◦ Deficiency can cause hair loss, loss of appetite, impaired taste of foods, diarrhea, delayed sexual maturation, impotence, and skin rashes • Selenium ◦ Needed to regulate thyroid hormones and functions as an antioxidant ◦ Adults need 55 micrograms daily Chromium, Manganese, Molybdenum • Chromium ◦ Main function is to increase effectiveness of insulin in cells ◦ Adults need 2035 micrograms daily • Manganese ◦ Needed for metabolism and bone formation ◦ Adult women need 2.3 milligrams; adult men need 1.8 milligrams • Molybdenum ◦ Part of several enzymes involved in the breakdown of certain amino acids and other compounds ◦ Adults need 45 micrograms daily KEY TERMS • Bioavailability The degree to which a nutrient from foods is available for absorption by the body • Bone mineral density (BMD) The amount of minerals, in particular calcium, per volume in an individual’s bones. The more dense the bones, the stronger they are • Diastolic pressure The force of your blood against the artery walls when the heart is at rest between beats • Electrolytes Ions such as potassium, sodium, or chloride that are required to help cells regulate the electric charge and flow of water molecules across cell membranes • Hypertension high blood pressure • Hyponatremia A condition of too little sodium in the blood • Inorganic Compounds that do not contain carbon and are not formed by living things • Osteopenia low bone mass • Osteoporosis A condition whereby the bones are porous and less dense, increasing the risk of fractures • Peak bone mass The genetically determined maximum amount of bone mass an individual can build up • Salt A mineral complex made up of equivalent ions like sodium and chloride • Systolic pressure The force of your blood against the artery walls when your heart beats Lesson 12 Phytonutrients and Nutraceuticals What Are Phytonutrients and Nutraceuticals Sources of Phytonutrients in Our Diet • Found in plants • US Department of Agricultural has food pyramid with five food groups ◦ Dark green vegetables ◦ Orange vegetables ◦ Dry beans and peas ◦ Starchy vegetables ◦ Other vegetables • Recommended amount of vegetables and amount of phytonutrients varies Benefits of Phytonutrients for Health and WellBeing • Spinach: Rich in vitamins and minerals that can help improve your cardiovascular system, it keeps your brain sharp as you age, and lessens the severity of migraine headaches. • Pumpkin: Assists in maintaining a healthy immune system, aids vision, and includes fiber for digestion. • Tofu: Can lead to lower cholesterol, and it promotes hormone balance in women and prostate health in men. • Carrots: May help improve vision, relieve constipation, and reduce dandruff. • Apples: Reputed to lower the risk of heart attack, help keep the digestive system “regular,” and enhance bone health. • Berries: Blueberries have been shown to lessen the effects of aging on the brain; strawberries provide antioxidants to cells and organs in the body; cranberries help prevent urinary tract infections. Chemical Interactions in the Body • Foods that contain the phytonutrient sulforaphane promote healthy cells by blocking carcinogenic, cancercausing molecules that try to invade cells ◦ Sulforaphane is present in the bloodstream • Part of its function is to improve the body's antioxidant defense system • Other phytonutrients work to remove conditions that are favorable to the growth of cancer instead of protecting the cell Sources and Benefits Of Nutraceuticals Nutraceuticals and Disease Prevention • Most common usages: relieving pain or the symptoms of an existing disease ◦ Some are advertised as beneficial to disease prevention • Foods containing the detoxification enzyme Dglucarate are thought to lower risk for all cancer Regulations Governing Nutraceuticals • Nutraceitucals are regulated by federal agencies and legislation • Federal agencies that monitor them: ◦ The FDA: agency responsible for monitoring claims made by nutraceutical companies after a product is on the market ◦ The USDA: maintains a database on the estimated levels of nutrients in dietary supplements, as well as fact sheets on a variety of plants in conjunction with other government agencies ◦ The FTC: the media "watchdog" agency; responsible for monitoring statements made in advertising • Key legislation: ◦ The National Labeling and Education Act of 1994 (NLEA): requires nutrition labeling on all products regulated by the FDA, and mandates that health claims made on labels must adhere to FDA guidelines ◦ Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA): focused on dietary supplements, and is the primary legislation governing the labeling and product information that can be used by nutraceutical companies. KEY TERMS • Designer foods a synonym for "nutraceuticals." • Functional foods a synonym for “nutraceuticals.” • Nutraceuticals Compounds (such as fish oil) that are derived from foods and are believed to promote good health and aid in diseaseprevention. • Phytochemicals or Phytonutrients Naturallyoccurring substances in plants that may enhance health and/or protect the body from certain diseases.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'