Geology 101: Gelogy - Study Guide
Geology 101: Gelogy - Study Guide Geology 101
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samuel Oppong on Wednesday October 15, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to Geology 101 at Washington State University taught by Wilkie in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 471 views. For similar materials see Gelogy in Geology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/14
Notes Q What is sediment and where does it come from Sediment is weathered pieces of rock They comes from rocks on the surface Q What are the 3 classescategories of sedimentary rock and under what conditions do they form Clastic chemical and biogenic Biogenic is made in life Chemical comes from fluids Clastic comes from sediment rocks Q What is the most abundant sedimentary rock type group clastic E For clastic rocks be able to recognize sorting and rounding differences What do these textures indicate about the sediment transport distance Sorting is well sorted intermediate sorting and poorly sorting Sediment are the same size for well sorted Poorly is different sizes Intermediate sorted is in between The further it transported the more rounded and better sorted The more poorly something the less something is If intermediate it is half fast and hale slow Q How is the sorting rounding and size of particles affected by the agent of transport wind water ice Water round faster Wind transports little rocks far away Ice can move bigger pieces but can39t sort pretty far Q What does the energy level of a river indicate about the maximum particle size that can be transported Higher energy higher particle size Q What are sedimentary structures What information do they provide Be familiar with the different types of sedimentary structures and what method of transport they are associated with wind water ice Structure in the rock that show ancient features They can tell which direction the sediment is being transported Some of them are bidding planes and mudcracks Q Be familiar with the different kinds of sedimentary environments What environment would limestone form in Coal Sandstone with large scale cross bedding What are evaporates and what environment would they form in Limestone form in shallow marine and cabins Coal form from swamps Sandstone form from sand dunes Evaporates comes from dry bodies of water Q How does sediment become a sedimentary rock What is lithification and diagenesis Sediments compacts together cements and it altered Q You find an outcrop of sandstone that is composed of very well sorted and well rounded grains of quartz sand with symmetrical ripples What can you tell me about the environment of deposition Being transported far and at a beach gt Q Why is weathering important Weather is important because they make sediments gt Q What is weathering and erosion how do they differ Weather is break down break of rocks Erosion is the act in which earth is worn away often by water wind or ice gt E Be familiar with the different types of chemical hydrolysis oxidation dissolution weathering and physical exfoliation frost wedging etc many more weathering Water dissolves it Oxidation is rusty Hydrolysis is break water apart Frost wedging is getting water to freeze inside of a crack and expand the crack Exofoliation is break apart stuff Dissolution dissolve gt Q What factors control the rate of weathering Ex Question Would a climate which has high rainfall and hot temperatures be more susceptible to slow moderate or fast weathering rates Fast with high rainfall and extreme temperature Low rainfall it would move slow gt Q How does the composition of the rock the minerals it is composed of affect weathering What type of chemical weather would affect granite think feldspar or basalt mafic minerals pyroxene and amphibole or limestone A limestone dissolve in acidic rain Different minerals composed of different things and speed gt Q How does the climate affect the development of the soil profile Where would you find the least developed soils Which one would you find the thickest accumulation of organic matter Some of them exist on some climate Least development soil would exist without rain at constant temperature Temperate climate gt What are the controlling factors of metamorphism Rock properties climate soil length of exposure gt What are the main types of metamorphism where do they occur geologically and what type of plate boundary are they associated with them if any Regional and contact Contact metamorphism anywhere there is an intrusion of plutons on the convergent plate boundary regional metamorphism mountains gt What is foliation What pressure condition is needed for its development What other factor determines if a rock will develop a foliation Will a limestone or sandstone parent rock develop foliation under directed pressure and a high temperature Why or why not How are these rocks classified texturally What is recrystallization Foliation is planar arrangement of structural or textural features in any rock type but particularly that resulting from the alignment of constituent mineral grains of a metamorphic rock of the regional variety along straight or wavy planes Directed and high pressure is needed Yes intermediatehigh schist coarse grained Recrystallization is when crystals grown larger or change shapes gt Describe the changes a parent rock such as mudstone will undergo as the metamorphic grade is increased in terms of texture and rock name Do any new minerals form How does the new mineral size change with grade How does this relate to how the metamorphic rock is named Contact metamorphism takes place locally near igneous intrusions It is caused by low to moderate pressure intense heat and reactions to magma that is being metamorphosed When contact metamorphism takes place with mudstone or shale slate is formed The mudstone or shale is the parent rock or protolith gt What are index minerals How can they be used to constrain the temperature and pressure conditions of metamorphism Index minerals are characteristic minerals that define metamorphic zones formed under restricted range of temperatures and pressures EX garnet Geologists use index minerals to determine the temp and pressure conditions of which metamorphic rocks formed gt What is the difference between highgrade and lowgrade metamorphism see Figure78 High grade metamorphic rocks are formed at higher pressures and higher temperatures High grade metamorphism occurs at temperatures greater than 320 degrees C and relatively high pressures Low grade metamorphic rocks are formed at lower pressures and lower temperatures Low grade metamorphism occurs at relatively low pressures where temperatures range from roughly 200320 degrees C
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