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CPO2001 Exam #2 Review

by: Anna Cappelli

CPO2001 Exam #2 Review CPO2001

Anna Cappelli
GPA 3.85

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this study guide has a review for all the cases, chapters, and essential readings for Exam #2
Comparative Politics
Dr. Sebastian Elischer
Study Guide
Politics, political science, Comparative Politics
50 ?




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This 46 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Cappelli on Friday March 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CPO2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Sebastian Elischer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 03/18/16
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theoraise taxes — can only control so much without  This Review Guide continstitutiosome have social democratic regimes ­ emphasize welfthat ability                            Iran, France, & Germany as well as chapter re(personal rule by authoritarian  head of state ­ supreme leader          in the essentiaLiberal democracy derives from ancient Greece and Rome (direct vs representative) chapters 5­8 PM can be removed with a motion of censure­  Greecerequires a majority of lower house                           nty  president can call national referenda  Legislature Rome­ republicanism­emphasizes separation of powers & rep of public parliament= lower house: assemblee’ nationale  parliament = lower house ­ bunestag (federal diet) both fell — 13th C England arose with Magna Carta­ liberty; no one above lawle (can remove president and  power   — blocked vote ­ limits legislature’s ability  more powerful   upper house ­ bunesrat (federal  to amend legislation which forces the legislature to council) represents state; veto power but not  Direct Democracy ­ public participates directly in gov. & policy making (Athens) accept bills in their entirety & allows amendment  when the law doesn’t directly affect the state JuiciaryIndirect Democracy ­public participates indirectly through its elected representatives;  the prevalent form of democracy in the modern age federal constitutional court and federal court of  single member or single district majority —  justice ­ judiciary uses both common and code  electoral system                                       law electoral system of emmajoritarian rather than proportional —two rounds  many saw a correlation between democratization and modernization with a central  importance on console consitutioneel ­ judicial system based on  LITERALLY mixed SMD and PR electoral system  continental european code law ­ laws derived from (two column on german ballot ­ one uses SMD  others believ deedaitdllegail odeerorlt ofthaon eoin prowe drnt  and one PR) party system ­can only interpret the code AND 5th republic  overall poverty is a problem for democracy ­ people who have little, have little to fight for constitutional disputes another view­ importance of the political power of society itself society 4 party­2 bloc   —rally for the republic (RPR),  strong parties ­ strong ideology and well  Union for a popular movement (UMP) ­ right           disciplined — green party values: gay  civil french communist party (PCF), French socialist ueville­rights/women rights ­ post modern and post  parcreated by people to help define their own interestsmaterial  indifferent toward politics due to “nazi experience” their interest groups and associations remain ion is mobecause of Hitler, they don’t identify w/ their  weaker than many in advanced democracies          nation ­ proud of economic systems & region BUT powerful labor unions  — mostly ethnically and  NOT nationalism  — post modern values ­  political economy religiously homogenous ­ although not historically  homogenous ­ aging population ( importance in  social welfare) neocorpitism­ business labor &  true great separation of church and state            state collaborate to make economic policies  aging population 1 (strong influence of business in gov) international community providing foreign investment, globalization,& trade ultimately  pushing democratization forward. this pressure causes elites to favor democracy. civil  society is strengthened by shared ideas across borders Institutions of the democratic state executive branch ­ most important office in any country; carries out laws of a state divides into 2: head of state­ represents the people, articulating goals of the  regimes & foreign policy; head of gov­ everyday tasks of running state legislature ­ body where national politics is considered and debated ~ lawmaking bicameral (2) ­ upper chamber serves as check for lower chamber, and usually  serves longer terms AND unicameral (1) ­ smaller countries constitutional power is key to maintaining what we call rule of law ­ sovereignty of law  over the people & elected officials  most have some form of constitutional court ­ charges w/ ensuring that legislation is  compatible with the constitution as constitutions define more rights ­ higher need for judiciaries to rule on them Judicial review forms:  concrete review ­ courts can consider the constitutionality of  legislation when a specific court cases triggers this question AND abstract review ­ a  constitutional court may rule on legislation without a specific  court case parliamentary systems ­ prime ministers & their cabinets come from legislature & the  legislature is the instrument that elects/removes the prime minister from office ­ divided  head of state and gov. (majority of power in head of gov) their is a tight relationship  between executive & legislature so they don’t check & balance each other’s power vote of no confidence­ parliaments can dismiss PM but it brings down gov. presidential system­ president elected directly by public for fixed term and has control  over the cabinet and legislative process ­ head of gov & state are fused to president. main diff: president and legislature serves for fixed terms separation of powers ­ checks and balances ­ divided gov. 2 semi­presidential system­ hybrid. tends to reflect the old distinction between “reign”  and “rule” that existed under monarchies. most of the power in the president while the  PM plays a supporting role (France) . directly elected president & indirectly elected PM  share power. president manages foreign policy & sets policy & PM executes it. parliamentary benefits: PM has confidence that he/she can get legislation passes. PM more  easily removed by legislature through vote of no confidence drawbacks: public doesn’t directly select PM and may feel that it has less control  over the executive and the passing of legislation.  presidential benefits: president is directly elected and can draw on national mandate to create and enact legislation drawbacks: president and legislature may be controlled by diff parties, leading to  divided gov. office does not allow for power sharing, and president may  not be  easily removed from office except through elections. semi­presidential  benefits: directly elected president and indirectly elected PM share power and  responsibilities, creating both a public mandate and an indirectly elected  office  that may be supported by a coalition of parties drawbacks: conflict possible between PM and president over powers political parties are inevitable all democracies divide their populations geographically into a # of electoral district or  constituencies ­ each a geographic area that an elected official represents PR­ voters cast ballots for a party not a candidate and the percentage of votes a party  receives in a district determines how many of that district’s seats the party will gain SMD­ most votes wins mixed electoral system ­ combines the 2 ­both have their advantages/disadvantages MMDs ­ multimember district, more than 1 legislative seat is contested in each district 3 referendum ­ giving public the option of voting directly on particular policy issues  initiative ­ citizens may collect signatures to put a question to a national vote civil rights refers to the promotion of equality whereas civil liberties refer to the  promotion of freedom  essential readings What Democracy is… and is not by Schmitter & Karl one major theme of essay: democracy does not consist of a single unique set of  institutions. there are many types and their diverse practices produce a similarly varied  set of effects a regime  is the various patterns which need to be known/practiced by all to work  properly — preferred mechanism of institution is written body of laws democracies depend of presence of rulers public realm encompasses the making of collective norma and choices that are  binding on the society an backed by state coercion  liberal democracy advocates circumscribing the public realm as narrowly  as possible  all regimes have rulers and a public realm, but only to the extent that they are  democratic do they have citizens  criteria for citizenship: used to be very difficult, now fairly standard competition has not always been essential ­ since The Federalist Papers it has  become widely accepted that comp among factions is a necessary evil in  democracies that operate on a more than local scale most popular definition of democracy equates it with regular elections  electoralism ­ the fallacy in thinking the mere presence of elections= democracy another image of democracy ­ majority rule cooperation has always been central; must cooperate in order to compete representatives do most of the real work in modern democracies   4 making a democracy possible: (by Robert Dahl) control over gov decision about policy is vested in elected officials  elected officials are chosen in frequent elections where coercion is uncommon most adults have right to vote in election of officials most adults have right to run for elective offices citizens can express themselves without punishment on political matters citizens can seek alternative sources of info  citizens can form independent associations (political parties and interest groups) authors agree with this list but propose 2 additional reasons: popularly elected officials must be able to exercise their constitutional powers  without being subjected to overriding opposition from unelected officials  the polity must be self­governing ­ act independently of constraints imposed by  some other overarching political system democracies differ in consensus, participation, access, responsiveness, majority rule,  parliamentary sovereignty, party government, pluralism, federalism, presidentialism, and checks & balances WHAT THEY ARE NOT: not necessarily more efficient (economically or politically) not necessarily more orderly, consensual, stable, or governable (again often less  because of inclusion) need not bring economic development (modernization theory) Constitutional choices for new democracies  by Lijphart people moving towards democratization should adopt PR­parliamentary focuses on choices between plurality elections & PR and between parliamentary &  presidential forms of gov. author believes electoral system is a vital element in democratic constitutional design  5 the type of electoral system used is related to development of country’s party system,  type of executive, and relationship between executive and legislature plurality ­ likely 2 party system, 1 party gov., and executives dominant to  legislature PR ­ likely multi­party, coalition gov., and more = executive­legislature power  relations the relationships are mutual if democratic political engineers desire too promote either the majoritarian  cluster of characteristics or consensus cluster, the most practical  way to  do so is by choosing the appropriate electoral system variations among PR systems ­ extreme and moderate 4 basic types of democracy Presidential                             Parliamentary   Plurality United States UK, India, Jamaica, Malaysia                           Philippines                               Old Commonwealth   PR                        Latin America                            Western Europe   latin american proves the combo pf presidential and PR an unattractive option Europe adopted PR for 2 reasons: there was a problem of ethnic and religious  minorities AND the dynamic of the democratization process main purpose of PR is to facilitate minority representation ­ so it outperforms plurality another democratic goal is political equality­ more likely to prevail in economic equality parliamentary­PR is better for accommodating ethnic differences and has a slight edge  in economic policy making The rise of state­nations By Stepan, Linz, & Yadav nation­state­ has only one cultural nation or its various nations are not politically  articulates — encourages assimilation  state­nation­ has multiple nations  6 3 categories of states: states that have strong cultural diversity (Canada, Spain, and Belgium) states that are culturally quite diverse but whose diversity is nowhere organized  by territorially based (US & Switzerland) states that are more culturally homogenous (Japan, Portugal, and Scandinavia) “nation­state” policies stand for a political­institutional approach that tries to make the  political boundaries of the state and the presumes cultural boundaries of the nation  match “state­nation” policies stand for a political­institutional approach that respects and  protects multiple by complementary sociocultural identities  in democratic societies,  “state­nation” often take form of federalism (and often  asymmetrical federalism) can be asymmetrical federal or unitary state both individual rights and collective recognition needed parliamentary polity­wide and “centric­regional” parties and careers politically integrates but not culturally assimilated populations cultural nationalists in power mobilizing against secessionist nationalists a pattern of multiple but complementary identities  they argue that some state­nation policies can be of use in unitary states that are not  notion­states  Ch. 6 Nondemocratic Regimes essentials (black book) nondemocratic regimes ­ those in which a political regime is controlled by a small  group of individuals who exercise power over the state w/o being constitutionally  responsible to the public 7 public has little or no role in selecting leaders individual freedom is restricted Totalitarian Regimes seek to control all aspects of the state, society, and economy.  use violence as a tool for remaking institutions have a strong ideological  goal “no middle class, no democracy” modernization can occasionally lead to nondemocratic rule  elites are less willing to share power when they fear losing their economic opportunities  in the process longevity of non democracy may be due to the fact that rivals for power seek control  specifically so that they can enrich themselves resource trap ­ when natural resources are abundant and might be a great source of  wealth, but the country is underdeveloped or nondemocratic the existence of natural resources is a barrier to modernization and democracy recourses in the ground give leaders the wealth necessary to run the state without taxation — they can effectively ignore their political demands natural resources tend to stunt development of a modern economy and  middle class, since neither is of concern to those in power many authoritarian systems are characterized by the absence of civil society  populism carries the view that elites & institutions don’t fully represent the will of the  people & a new movement, free from ideology & often led by a charismatic leader, can  usher in a new order international influence can contribute to nondemocratic rule, mostly through occupation nondemocratic means of control: coercion: public obedience is enforced through violence and surveillance co­optation: members of the public are brought into a beneficial relationship with the state and gov, often through corporatism or clientelism  8 most structured form ­ neocorporatism where business ,  labor, and the  state bargain over economic policy personality cult: the public is encourages to obey the leader based on his or her extraordinary qualities and compelling ideas ­ attempt to generate a  charismatic form of authority  corporatism ­ emerges as a method by which nondemocratic regimes  attempted to solidify their control over the public by creating or  sanctioning  a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the  public  and restricting those not set up or approved by the state — gives  public a  limited influence in policy­making process clientelism ­ the state co­opts members of the public by providing specific  benefits to a person in return for public support kleptocracy ­ (rule by theft) where this in power seek only to drain the state of assets and resources. patrimonialism ­ supporters within the state benefit directly from their alliance with the  ruler monarchies and personal rule ­ rule by a single leader with no clear regime or rules  constraining that leadership monarchies are decreasing but reman powerful in parts of the middle east personal rule remains common in Africa and is typically coupled to patrimonial regimes  that are enriched through control over natural resources or trade military rule ­ armed forces seize control of state promising to return it to gov once  stability is restores. political parties and civil liberties are restricted and use of coercion  is common.  bureaucratic authoritarianism ­ a regimes where state bureaucracy and military  share a belief that a technocratic leadership, focused on rational,  objective, and  technical expertise, can solve the problems of the country 9 one party rule ­ rule by one political party that bans or excludes the other groups from  power. large party membership help mobilize support and maintain public control, often  in return for political or economic benefit theocracy­ “rule by God”; holy texts serve as foundation for regime and politics illiberal regimes (hybrid) ­ rule by an elected leadership through procedures of  questionable democratic legitimacy  essential readings Modern nondemocratic  by Linz & Stephan  need to move beyond simple two part dichotomy (totalitarian and authoritarian) specific polities vary in the paths available for transition & the finished tasks the new  democracy must face before it is consolidated — this is to show how and why much of  such variation can be explained by prior regimes type analysts often interested in finding distinction between democratic, authoritarian and  toleration regimes  Linz argues that although authoritarian regime is nondemocratic, it is fundamentally  different from totalitarian regime on pluralism (extent to which allowed  ­politically/economically/socially), ideology (extent which it is an important or central  component of the regime), leadership (extent to which it is centralized, unitary,  predictable, and/or  constrained), and mobilization (extent to which regime needs to or  decides to engage in activist and/or citizen mobilization) defines authoritarian: limited political pluralism, without elaborate ideology, but  distinctive mentalities, without extensive political mobilization except at  some  points in their development, and in which a leader or occasionally a small  group  exercises power within formally ill­defines limits but actually quite  predictable  ones sultanism ­ extreme form of patrimonialism ­ highly personalistic (cult of personality) ­  generally weakly institutionalized importance of authoritarian regime most knowledge of opinion come from article on Spain by Linz 10 research shows more than 90% of nondemocratic regimes are authoritarian  REVISED TYPOLOGY ­ democratic, authoritarian, totalitarian, post­totalitarian, and  sultayistic  (see table 6.1 for descriptions on each) The rule of law vs the big man by Diamond governance in Africa is in a state of transition author believed democratization is starting to lose momentum in Africa of the largest 6 countries, only south Africa is liberal democracy one positive trend: growth of civil society — “building from the bottom up” problem is african leaders are not generally to be found among these coalitions for  reform because they calculate that their own interests lie not in reform, but in building or reinforcing monopolies or power and wealth principles pressure is needed from international actors, trying substantial flows of  developments in governance The rise of competitive authoritarianism By Levisky & Way stop thinking of cases ­ such as Africa and former soviet union ­ in terms of transitions  to democracy and to begin thinking about the specific types of regimes they actually are importance in hybrid regimes ­ they have proliferated in recent decades ­ may not be  simply transitional stage, but rather an end point (new types of regimes) multiple different types of hybrid regimes — semi­democracy, virtual democracy,  electoral democracy, pseudo democracy, illiberal democracy partly free systems (freedom house) focus on “competitive authoritarianism” four arenas of democratic contestation electoral arena­ election with contestation occur, but with tampering, bias, undue  pressure, obstructions, etc. legislative arena­ executive conflicts w/ legislature, tries to intimidate, but cannot  easily simply shit it down or ignore it 11 judicial arena­ formal independence and incomplete control by executive can  lead to effective constraints on executive power the media­ availability of opposition outlets, oppressed, but not eradicated, can  be influential intimidating executive repression paths to competitive authoritarianism decay of previous full authoritarian regime­ gradual emergence of competitive  elements within authoritarian regime collapse of previous authoritarian regime­ emergence of competitive authoritarian in its place decay of previous democratic regime­ gradual emergence of nondemocratic  constraints on democratic practices Ch. 7 Political Violence essentials (black book) why political violence? institutional explanations ­ existing institutions may encourage violence or constrain  human action, creating a violent backlash  ( explain impact of fixed organizations and  patterns) — presidentialism  ideational explanations­ focuses more of the rationale behind the violence; ideas may  justify or promote the use of violence, not only the content of ideas matters but also their relation to the domestic political status quo — fundamentalism  individual explanations ­ centers on those who carry the violence; personal motivations  that lead people to contemplate and carry out violence towards political ends ­ 2 paths  of study: 1) emphasizes psychological factors­ conditions that draw individuals toward  violence & 2)sees political violence as a rational act, carried out by those who believe it  to be an effective political tool.  — humiliation Comparing how they approach free will universal vs. particularistic explanations  12 institutional tend to be particularistic and see people shaped by larger  structures, individual centers of psychological attributes and focus  solely  on people, ideational explanations lie in the middle of both Forms revolution ­ a public seizure of the state in order to overturn the existing government and regime. involves pubic participation ­ the PUBLIC plays a role in seizing power people want to gain control of state ­ not simply removing those in power not all violent, but hard to avoid­ dramatic change, mostly positive connotations  phases/views of revolution  1) pre­world war II ­ studies of revolutionary events argued unsystematic and descriptive 2) post­world war II behavioral revolution ­ studies of disruptive change, such as  modernization, as driving revolutionary action argued not clear why change or rising discontent leads to revolution in some  cases and not others 3) 1970s­present­ studies of domestic and international state power as providing the  opening for revolution too focuses on institutions, to the neglect of ideas and individual actors relative deprivation model ­ revolutions are less function of specific  conditions than of the gap between actual conditions and public  expectations terrorism ­ use of violence by non state actors against civilians to achieve a political goal emphasizes that targets of violence are civilians contrary ­ guerrilla war involves non state combatants who largely accept  traditional rules of war and target the state rather than civilians 13 state­sponsored terrorism ­ states do sometimes sponsor non state terrorist  groups as a state non state means to extend their power by proxy, using Actor terrorism as an  instrument of foreign policy. nihilism ­ a belief that all institutions and values are essentially meaningless  state war guerrilla  war target human rights  violations civilian (domestic) terrorism s war crimes (international)  terrorism and revolution were initially linked together as a single process (origin: French revolution) some leaders (Maximilian de Robespierre) needed terror for revolution  guerrilla war typically accepts their opponents are legitimate actors and want to  be seen the same religious violence ­ as ideology has waned, religion has reemerges in the public realm. conditions that religion becomes a source of political violence? hostility to modernity modern world not only actively marginalizes, humiliates and denigrates the views of the believers but also seeks to exterminate the believers outright religion as a source of political violence is often connected to messianic,  apocalyptic, and utopian beliefs. authoritarian may foster terrorism, but the state can repress domestic terrorists; the state is  unhindered by civil liberties 14 result: limits terrorism but may be redirected outside of the country toward more  vulnerable targets lower risk of terrorism democratic participatory institutions and civil liberties are likely to undercut public support for  terrorism  result: domestic terrorism less likely, but country may be a target of international  terrorism generates in nondemocratic regimes moderate risk of terrorism illiberal/ transitional weak state capacity instability, and limited democratic institutions may generate  both opportunities and motivation fro terrorism result: terrorism more likely due to domestic and/or international support higher risk of terrorism  essential readings France, Russia, China: a structural analysis of social revolutions          by Skocpol Focus on social revolutions revolution from below ­ bases largely on peasant/worker revolts revolution as distinct from rebellions and insurrections ­ revolutions result in  regime change (paradigm shift) structural approach to social revolutions desire to develop a generalizable explanation for when they happen agrarian bureaucracy as a system 15 “agricultural society in which social control rests on a division of labor and a  coordination of effort between a semi bureaucratic state and a landed  upper  class” key economic importance of peasants­ while still seeing as the potential source  of revolution segmented leadership with distance between central administration and landed  elite (State reliance on landed elite) it is through the combination of structural transformation and massive class upheavals  that sets social revolutions apart from other revolutions/movements.  A theoretical subject ­ set of phenomena which one can develop testable  generalizations that hold for all instances of the subject and some can apply to those  instances alone social revolutions can be treated a s a “theoretical subject” to test such hypotheses about social revolutions, one can use the comparative method Skocpol uses the following contrasting cases for her study: 1)instances of nonsocial revolutionary modernization (Japan, Germany, & Russia up to 1904) 2) instances of abortive social revolutions (Russia in 1905 and Prussia/Germany  in 1848) these help in understanding what rendered French, Chinese and Russian revolutions  successful social revolutions all these social revolutions happened during earlier world­historical phases of  modernization and in a grain bureaucratic societies situated within international field  dominated by more economically modern nations abroad was a conjuncture of 3 developments 1)collapse or incapacitation of central administrative and military machineries 2) widespread peasant rebellions 3) marginal elite political movements 16 each social revolution “accomplished” the extreme rationalization and centralization of  state institutions and removal of a traditional landed upper class from intermediate  quasi­political supervision of the peasantry and the elimination of the economic power of a landed upper class understand the revolutions of 2011: weakness & residence in middle easter  autocracies by goldstone the wave of revolutions in middle east mimics that of Europe in 1848 with rising food  prices and high unemployment rate which fuel protests on the contrary, the author argues the right analogy lied in the revolutions of 2011 which fought for somethings different: “sultanistic” dictatorships highly vulnerable because strategies to stay in power made them not resilient  the only revolution to succeed so far in middle east have been against modern sultans  for a revolution to succeed: government must appear extremely unjust ­ viewed as threat to country’s future elites (military)must be alienated from the state and non longer willing to defend it a broad based social mobilization  international powers must refuse to step it  sultanistic regimes arise when a national leader expands his personal power at the  expense of formal institutions, these dictators appeal to no ideology an have no purpose other than maintaining their personal authority these dictators are generally wealthy which helps buy loyalty they seek resources — economic development relationships with foreign countries ­ stability in exchange for aid and investment new sultans control military elites by keeping them divided ­ he monopolizes contact  between the commands/civilians/military/ and foreign countries they use a combination of controlling elections, surveillance , media control, and  intimidation to keep citizens disconnected and passive 17 but such power that is too concentrated can be difficult to hold on to Ch.8 Developed Countries essentials (black book) true definition: countries that have institutionalized democracy and a high level of  economic development and prosperity. we often use “first world” “second world” etc to refer to economically developed  countries more developed countries tend to have a higher HDI rank and less GDP contributed by  agriculture, economic development is based on industry and services. developed countries differ in reconciling freedom and equality­ particularly political  economy  liberal economic systems ­ individual freedom over collective equality, limiting  role of the state in regulating the market and providing public goods social democratic systems do the opposite mercantilist systems focus on development than either freedom or equality all united by common democratic and economic institutions role of freedom: all developed democracies are institutionalized liberal democracies ­  sharing a belief in participation, competition, and liberty they differ in their view on things like abortions, prostitution, drugs, etc. judicial systems sometimes rely on vigorous constitutional courts that give them a lot of power or courts that play a conservative role, restricted by the existing  forms of abstract and concrete review political participation varies: more developed countries use referenda and  initiative to some degree, some only at local level, and some not at all politics are shaped by electoral systems used: most developed countries use  some form of PR but some (like us) use some form of SMD plurality or  majority.  18 role of executive differs freedom is the only basic guarantee in developed countries similar approach to freedom that emphasized capitalism ­private property and  free markets — basic standard of living are higher differ in distribution of wealth participation competition liberties standards of voter eligibility difdifferent methods & levels of  distictions exist in the regulation,  funding are used for political  allowance, or prohibition of  parties and campaigns  actives like abortion, etc. referendsa and initiatives are  separation of powers varies  different degrees of individual  used in varying degrees greatly & is based on the relativeprivacy are protected from state  strength of different branches of and corporate intrusion  government some states automatically  register all eligible voters voting is compulsory in some  nations but voluntary in most many argue developed countries are currently undergoing significant social,political and economic changes which would mean existing modern institutions may give way to new ones as these countries transform from modernity to something else — postmodern integration ­ process where states pool their sovereignty, surrendering some individual  powers in exchange for political, economic, or societal benefits best example = European Union these leaders believed that if their countries were bound together through  economic, societal, and political institutions they would reject war  against  one another as irrational devolution­ process of devolving/ “sending down”­ political power=lower levels of gov.  19 as these state like institutions have gained power over time, many people no longer say  EU is an intergovernmental system like UN, whose member countries cooperate on  issues by may not be bound by the organization’s resolutions EU is called a supranational system ­ sovereignty is share between the member states  and the EU for most europeans the challenge of reconciling freedom and equality has  become as much an international task as a domestic one  the second long­term project for the EU has been its ongoing expansion.  with this addition of members, some of them are poorer and bring up the concern about whether richer an poorer states will cooperate and share resources when  times are tough the possibility of Turkish membership brought many questions ­ where exactly does  Europe end? and what would it mean to have a state with an overwhelmingly Muslim  population alongside a community of states with mostly Christian population? means of devolution ­ transfer of policy­making responsibility to lower levels of  government, creation of new political institutions at lower levels of gov., transfer of funds and powers to tax to lower levels of government affording g them more control over how resources are distributed.  postmodern values center on what have been called “quality of life” or “post materialist”  issues, which usually involve concerns other than material gain like environment, health, and leisure and well as personal equality and diversity. also a shift towards postindustrial economies most profits are made & most of the people are employed in the service sector development of social expenditures to reduce inequality & provide public goods they are becoming increasingly expensive essential readings Income & Democracy By Acemoglu 20 one of the most notable empirical regularities in political economy is the relationship  between income per capita and democracy Barro says “increases in various measures of the standard of living forecast a gradual  rise in democracy” “on contrary, democracies that arise without prior economic development tend  not to last” stat association between democracy & income — influential in modernization theory Lipset suggested democracy was created by process of modernization which involved  changes in the factors of industrialization, urbanization, wealth, and education existing work, based on cross­country relationship, does not establish causation 1) issue of reverse causality­ maybe democracy causes income rather than other way around 2) potential for omitted variable bias the major course of potential bias is a regression of democracy on income per capita is  country specific , historical factors influencing both political and economic development their 1st result — once fixed effects are introduced, the positive relationship between  income and democracy disappear use fixed effect regressions for relationship  HYPOTHESIS: the positive cross­sectional relationship and the 500 year correlation  between changes in income and democracy are caused by the fact that countries have  embarked on divergent development paths at some critical junctures during the past  500 years conquered or granted? a history of suffrage extensions by Prezworski when first established, representative governments were not what we would call a  democracy today political rights were restricted to wealthy males suffrage was subsequently extended to poorer males and women newly emerging countries tended to immediately grant rights more broadly 21 classical explanation of extensions — “reform to preserve” Coney and Temini argued 1) being excluded is a source of deprivation of some kind 2) at some time, the excluded threaten to revolt  3) even if sharing political rights may have consequences that are costly for the  incumbent elite, the elite prefers to bear these costs rather than risk a  revolution  4)once admitted, the new citizens use their rights within the system, abandoning  the insurrectionary strategy — they become integrated Acemoglu and Robinson add that ­ when the elite is confronted by a revolutionary  threat, they would be better off making economic concessions than ricking that  revolution would damage their property what precipitates extensions are exogenous changes in the evaluation of public goos by the incumbent elite extending suffrage changes political equilibrium to a redistribution is curtailed in  favor of providing public goods the number of parties by Duverger only individual investigation of the circumstance in each country can determine the real  origins of the 2 party system one important factor — electoral system simple­majority single­ballot system favors the two­party system dualist countries use the simple­majority vote American procedure corresponds to simple majority single ballot; the absence of a  second ballot constitutes in face one of the historical reasons for the emergence of the 2 party system elimination of 3rd parties is a result of 2 factors working together: the mechanical factor ­ “under representation” of the third (weakest party) 22 the psychological factor ­ the electors realize that their votes are wasted if they  continue to give them to the 3rd party: whence their natural tendency to  transfer  their vote to the less evil of its two adversaries in order to prevent  the success of  the greater evil 23 Nigeria Iran Historical first contact w/ muslim long history of empire-accounts for Development & British demolished slavery in pride in origins - a lot of political and important facts 1807 which started ethnic religious tolerance conflict because it helped econ 1906 first constitution in 1960, gained independence very affected by world wars - 1/4 creating now know first republic pop killed- UK controlled area & oil 1979 second republic and now reserves so animosity towards brits presidential system & west zoning - a PDP system of white revolution, pivotal event that presidential rotation; the partymodernized state , e would alternate every 2 terms in tension between republicanism & a t , i - nominating the candidate from theocracy - even in constitution i w 5 Nigeria’s north and south former persia - they are persian e i r NOT arab and speak farsi not arabic i v t N r a Political Regime & most prominent form of theocracy — paris with o e h institutions governance - patrimonialism fundamentalism f p r (personal rule by authoritarian head of state - supreme leader e h f leaders shored up by economic head of government - president a c s privileges) (directly elected but little power - c a n presidential system technically in charge of foreign n l d a e e federal division of power policy but not military so like??) n w l single executive - president - Qur’an institution c a i very powerful e y n i a s Legislature Nation Assembly unicameral u m s lower - house of representatives guardian council (12 individuals, 6 G e e upper- senate year phases) - power to review all e G & legislation passed by mails, v & a appointed by SL upper house e e t Majilis - directly elected, limited s n e h r ss power, dominated by clerics T F e traditionally Juiciary supreme court is main chief God is sovereign judicial body chief justice and supreme court and revolutionary courts electoral system SMD plurality some element of democratic participation guardian council oversees mix of MMD & SMD for legislative election (MMD unique to Iran) presidential vote = 2 round runoff party system 2 main political parties — all progressive congress - opposition political party people’s democratic party - dominant party society north vs south = muslim vs local government highly centralized - christian unitary- little local power lots of interest groups - not jusevere restrictions to the press ethnically motivated revolutionary guard controlled by SL ethnically heterogenous increasingly independent high fertility rates - young popBasij - morality force , increasingly most unpatriotic people - don’t militarized believe in the state heterogenous - 60% Persian young population 1 political economy resource curse (oil is main resource trap — mercantilistic export) autarky - desire for economic independence from other countries France Germany Historical absolute monarchy - between feudal monarchies 1618- 30 years war between protestants and Development & and constitutional governments of the modern ear Catholics Napoleon comes in &invades important facts french revolution (1789-1799) - establishing 1871- Germany unified - second reich nationalism and patriotism went broke after world war I - 1914 — Weimar republic 1933- Hitler (elected) rises to power establishing third reich — enabling act passed - nazi party can makes their own laws even if they violate the constitution holds referenda (democratic)-passed 1961- Berlin wall (east/west) — cold war Political Regime & 5th Republic - codifies in the constitution of 1958 parliamentary system — head of government - institutions semi-presidential — head of state - president chancellor (head of largest party usually) and (directly elected and doesn’t directly govern, they head of state - president (generally ceremonial) federal division of power appoint PM) — head of government- PM states have relatively little power - no power to the 1958 constitution creates potential conflict raise taxes — can only control so much without between a directly elected president & a that ability legislature dominated by the opposition PM can be removed with a motion of censure- requires a majority of lower house president can call national referenda Legislature parliament= lower house: assemblee’ nationale parliament = lower house - bunestag (federal and upper house: se’nat — unitary division of diet) represents people (can remove president power — blocked vote - limits legislature’s ability and more powerful upper house - bunesrat to amend legislation which forces the legislature to (federal council) represents state; veto power but accept bills in their entirety & allows amendment not when the law doesn’t directly affect the state only if they are approved by gov. Juiciary single member or single district majority — federal constitutional court and federal court of electoral system justice - judiciary uses both common and code majoritarian rather than proportional —two rounds law of voting for presidential and lower house elections electoral system console consitutioneel - judicial system based on LITERALLY mixed SMD and PR electoral system continental european code law - laws derived from (two column on german ballot - one uses SMD detailed legal codes rather than from precedent - and one PR) can only interpret the code AND 5th republic created a constitution council (9) to settle constitutional disputes party system 4 party-2 bloc —rally for the republic (RPR), strong parties - strong ideology and well Union for a popular movement (UMP) - right disciplined — green party values: gay rights/ french communist party (PCF), French socialist women rights - post modern and post material party (PS)- left— PS dominant of french left society their interest groups and associations remain indifferent toward politics due to “nazi experience” weaker than many in advanced democracies because of Hitler, they don’t identify w/ their powerful labor unions — mostly ethnically and nation - proud of economic systems & region BUT NOT nationalism — post modern values - religiously homogenous - although not historically homogenous - aging population ( importance in true great separation of church and state social welfare) neocorpitism- business labor & aging population state collaborate to make economic policies (strong influence of business in gov) political economy social democracy - strong state involvement social democracy 2 codetermination - 50% of seat on their board have to go to members of union - unions are very powerful, & have to pay more for their labor because they want to have benefits; can’t be as Ch. 5 Democratic Regimes essentials (black book) Democracy - political power exercised either directly or indirectly through participation (i.e. voting), competition (i.e. parties), and liberty (i.e. freedom of speech) Liberal democracy specifically references a political system promoting those 3 liberalism (ideology) emphasizes individual rights and freedoms some have social democratic regimes - emphasize welfare/equality Liberal democracy derives from ancient Greece and Rome (direct vs representative) Greece - founded concept of public participation & popular sovereignty Rome- republicanism-emphasizes separation of powers & rep of public both fell — 13th C England arose with Magna Carta- liberty; no one above law Direct Democracy - public participates directly in gov. & policy making (Athens) Indirect Democracy -public participates indirectly through its elected representatives; the prevalent form of democracy in the modern age theories of emergence of democracy many saw a correlation between democratization and modernization with a central importance on the middle class but this was proven false others believed it lies in the role of those in power overall poverty is a problem for democracy - people who have little, have little to fight for another view- importance of the political power of society itself civil society- organized life outside the state (Tocqueville- “art of association”) created by people


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