HIST 102 Study Guide
HIST 102 Study Guide 102
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Date Created: 03/18/16
FORUM #2 Mesopotamia was the starting point for the prehistoric ages in both Greece and Egypt and was involved in the development in both the culture and the society that formed throughout Western civilization. A part of this development included artwork. The artwork these people created was able to show clear detail about the type of person and society they were around depending on what part of land the population lived in. With the continuing development, agriculture started taking place which led to different societies to rise and and to start gathering the resources they needed, that were either around rivers, lakes, or land. Water was the main resource these people needed so many went to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers since they were more vulnerable to floods that could produce healthy crops therefore leading to a more sustainable community. As the sharing of resources increased so did the population of people. With this, roles started being assigned to each person in order to withhold a stable economy and keep everything going under control while still continuing to build resources. With the economy becoming more stable, there was communities being formed and ranks started playing a role in the amount of power people withheld. It was clear that the beauty of artwork varied depending on the social class each region held and depending on where the region was located. People who were said to be in a higher social class if their art was more intricate and delicate while people in a lower social class had artwork that was shadier and simple. Even with communities being formed, the societies were still not stable due to the limited amount of resources they had and because of the irregularity of their resources. Because they were constantly being faced with these obstacles they were forced to move around and look for other potential resources, leading to the threat of being attacked by invaders. However, they knew this was a possibility so they started creating weapons that could protect them. As this was going on Ancient Egypt was prospering in a more stable and positive manner. The Niles was stable allowing them to not worry about their resources and having to move around. There were maintained social ranks that kept order within the community. In addition to their valuable jewelry and art was the very spiritual rituals they had for their dead. All of this, was keeping them in a very stable position that allowed to prosper easily. In Jaques Benigne Bossuet: On the Nature and the Properties of Royal Authority it is clearly stating that having a position of authority is leading to people to come to reason. He compares it to a God due to the similarity of authority, guidance, and protection they hold. In Ancient Greece there was a person who held the role of authority and because of that, the community looked up to this person. If a person held the power to do either a good or bad thing, there was more stability bound to occur and things were also bound to move more smoothly. However, in Greece things were not going as smoothly. Greece was surround by philosophy, superstition, and democracy. Violence and militarism was playing a big role in Athenian Greece due to the amount of people “stepping out of place”. People were questioning things that would normally occur and were looking at things differently than before and because of this, people became anxious leading to them being violent. Athenian Greece was stricter of the roles of social ranks and classes which led to the community being more stable, but also led to people to become bound to that social class. In Crete they were a lot more relaxed that allowed them to hold trade easily and keep themselves prospering. Because they were so laid back, it led to them being taken over by the Mycenaean. Different regions had a different story but after the Golden Age and the death of the Alexander the Fleming, the Hellenistic Age began. People were scared after the Athenian empire was overthrown by both the Persians and Spartans. The once beautiful art they had became more detailed with the emotions they were going through. Many of the artwork included people in either pain, agony, or reaching their end with one another somehow. They were in a mourning period which led to their culture being affected negatively with emotion. It is interesting to see how different ways of authority can lead to a different form of stability and the chance you have of prospering. Throughout this lecture I found it even more fascinating how the artwork developed throughout the time period and society. Not many people today appreciate the artwork people do today and it is saddening to see that they are not capable of appreciating such beauty. The artwork we have today is developing as well and I think it is important that others see that. There should be a greater emphasis on the importance of the artwork, for it can tell a story or it can make you realize the grand development this civilization has gone though. Artwork differs significantly but sometimes they share some similarities even though they may not be as noticeable. Between Greece and Egypt were there similarities that were shared throughout their artwork? Was there ever a time of conflict when they wanted to trade their artwork with each other but were not able to? How were the people who made the artwork seen? Were they usually in the high or social class? FORUM #3 Ancient Rome to the Renaissance was covered throughout this section and Rome's people were described as people who didn’t think themselves as refined. They are known as the first small-city state through Italy and held the first political organization. Roman culture would get many beautiful things from other people and would find ways to accommodate from each other. Rome shared similarities with Greek such as their religion and philosophy. Romans focused on a practical humanistic trend that allowed them to manage their city in a much more practical way. Because of their organization they were able to easily prosper and able to take advantage of the technology they withheld such as the Colosseum. Much of their characteristics took place during the building of their environment such as the rise of the aqua ox that allowed them to get water from one place to another and get their resources in a smoother manner. Their sculptures and form of art were very clear to express this and were very similar to Greek culture as well. The only difference they held was that they portrayed their art with more power. Rome was able to construct their city with the population of 2 million people and although the majority of Rome was known for their high organization and progressing improvement, Rome was pushed to either have a form of republicanism or imperialism. From Rome comes Christianity that holds an impact on today’s Western civilization. There was Roman culture that emphasized the warrior, fighting mentality that lead them to have a master morality, but once the Christianity took place it led them to “turn the cheek” and become much more spiritual. Christianity had a great impact to the people who were of a lower social class because it gave them a sense of meaning. However, as Christianity started becoming more known it started moving up to the higher social classes. Since Christianity started playing such a big role to the people of Rome, it began to impact their art. Their art became more magical like and less humanistic. The change of Roman art was considered the fall of Roman high culture and with that the Dark Ages took place. The Dark Age was known for the images and art they brought along. The artwork was growing more beautiful and becoming more successful. The churches that were built during this time were mixed with both Roman and Germanic traditions that came with jewels. Their art also focused on a disappearing point and the geometric structures that would allow the artwork to look more realistic. This came around 1000 CE. and around this time period their culture was taking a turn towards monasteries. Stone structures were built and the use of arches were used throughout, which indicated the use of Roman culture. In the Gothic Period, more materialistic things started being built and it was being said that the “church was corrupt”. People were having their community pay for the rise of the church. The cathedrals they built during this time were very symbolic and majority of the Christians were still not able to read the Bible. The Cathedrals that were built during this time served as a tourist attraction and people were attracted due to the amount of beauty it held. Because of the attention the Cathedrals got during the Gothic Period many other structures started being built as competition leading to the Nobles to purchase parts for the Cathedrals shifting the focus of church as an investment rather than faith. Reflection: You see Christianity today and think that it is just a religion that came into play due to other people’s beliefs, but it is much more than that. It was the collapse of Rome’s high-culture and it began giving us structures such as the Cathedrals. People’s religions and view points shifted and there were some disagreements along the way. You would believe that since Christianity was seen as something pure many people would not question it and would want to explore it, but actually there were people who did not like the fact that there was a “God” and thought it was absurd to see a person with such power. Today, there is people like this as well. Even though we already have established cultures and religions that people hold, there are still people that disagree with them. I believe it is important to be open-minded about others beliefs and give an opportunity to those of other religions. By doing so, you’ll allow yourself to become more understanding of people who hold certain religions and also allow yourself to see the growth and impact religions have taken on. I found it interesting how people developed their beliefs during this time period and found it great that along with the emphasis of religion came the beauty of art! Questions: Why were people so surprised by the artwork that seemed to “pop out of the page”? Did they see this as a threat or were they amazed? How were people inspired to build Cathedrals at such extent during the Gothic Period? Were there people who disagreed with the building of these structures? If so, who? With the rise of Christianity there were people who shifted their views from their Roman culture. Were people insulted by this? FORUM #4 Renaissance and Reformation was explained throughout this section and it began by explaining the two major events took place and ended the Medieval Era. The events include the Plague and the Renaissance. The Plague ran all the way through England and whole regions of Europeans were wiped out. Four fifths of the people thought that they were going to be condemned to hell and considered the Plague as a punishment. While the Plague was wiping out populations, Italian politics were taking place. People were moving towards France and had at least five popes sitting in the Church. From this crisis comes the Renaissance. An artist called Dante came with the form of art that seemed to magical and also portrayed forms of “hell”. Other forms of art took place and included shape and 3D figures. People overreacted by seeing this art and were stunned to see that artists were capable of creating such art. The Renaissance was very high in the development of art and because of this people started noticing that the church was showing two worlds that included the natural world and the underworld As time progressed, the Gothic style went from how it originally was to having arches, domes, and columns that originally came from Greece and Rome. People wanted to create a dome with a complex structure, but were struggling. Eventually they were able to come up with a design by studying the Pantheon dome and its structure. With the continuous observations they were able to realizes that religion was being represented with both a linear and aerial perspective, that allowed them to see that the farther away things were the harder it is to look at in the form of art. DaVinci came during this period of time and was studying autopsy and was an artist that was known for his great artwork. Another artist Michel Angelo had artwork that was beautiful but was un-proportional. Michel Angelo painted God and many people didn’t agree with this because they thought it was a sign of disrespect and indicated that God was like us. If he painted God, he indicated that he was a person and had gone through sin in order to be created. With the Adam and Eve story, people believed it wouldn’t make sense for God to be a man. Much of the art that was portrayed created a sense of hope for the people and strengthened their belief in their religion. Although Michel Angelo’s art was mostly beautiful, there were time where his art involved people killing each other and indicated that power comes from manipulation. Mannerism was the word used in order to describe this type of art and it was seen as “derogatory”. With harsher times coming into place, it led their art to be transformed. It became more violent and illustrated people going through pain. The transformation of art occurred due to people killing each other over which religion they were following. Reformation took place and Luther was the main person who was involved during this time. Prostitution and gambling took place, bodies were being thrown in rivers, and popes were having sons throughout the Reformation. People were outraged and scared for the outcome and were looking for salvation by giving money to the church. Luther did not agree with this since it took advantage of the poor. He believed that the pope didn’t have power to remove sin. Rebran, in the other hand, was considered a Dutch master and was simplifying things and not identifying Christian identity. He was able to capture love and Dutch cities with the emphasis of noble simplicity. He kept his artwork simple and realistic and gave it a “source of light that was earthly”. The “true” meaning of authority was revealed during this time and was revealed as always listening and respecting the word of Christ. They indicated that Jesus Christ’s spirit is the world of Christ and that they must accept the authority of the churches. With this being said, people began rebelling and questioning the type of authority people were revealing. Counter Reformation took place as people started learning more about the word of Christ and along with that came Absolutism. During the time of Absolutism, “David” looked like he was about to slap Goliath while in the Renaissance, David looked more balanced and peaceful. With the form of artwork transforming came the indication that authority and power were becoming more important. Other forms of artwork were shared throughout this time that clearly indicated power and authority as a main characteristic. Reflection: This lesson mainly focused on the transformation of art throughout time. I find interesting how at different times of history came different types of art. I also find it quite odd how people were so astounded by the forms of art that were revealed. I don’t quite understand why people were so surprised by a new type of art and why they were so judgmental about it. I would think that they would be happy that there is such beauty being discovered, but instead were surprised and even angry to see these forms of art. I really liked the fact that Luther realized that the Church should not be asking people to be giving so much money for “salvation”. He realized that the poor were the most vulnerable in this situation and should not be taken advantage of. If there were more people like this, I believe there would be more stability and more fairness that would have occurred throughout this time. Questions: Why were people so astonished by the different forms of art that took place? With the Plague taking place were there other countries trying to take over? The Renaissance was mostly known for the art that was developed. Was there anything in particular that occurred in the Renaissance that affected people in a negative manner during this time? FORUM #5 The European world was caught in chaos throughout the 16 and 17th th century. There was a lot of violence taking place by both the 30 Years War and the St. Bartholomew Massacre. The Treaty of Westphalia that took place in 1648 is what finally brought an end to all the violence that was occurring in Europe. However, with the violence coming to a halt came the Absolutism age. The role of power was highly debated during this time and monarchial authority was encouraged to take place which eventually led to territory being ruled. Before this mentality came into play, there was a system that allowed a variety of groups to consult with one another in order to reach an agreement. Because of the Treaty of Westphalia, this no longer took place. Instead, all the power was given to an individual and the rest of the people were expected to follow behind this person and do the things that ONLY he/she saw right. If people didn’t agree with this, they were told to move somewhere else which eventually led to people creating an absolute government. People were socially satisfied by seeing monarchs with power due to their “invocation of the divine” and their role with authority. In The Leviathan, Hobbes clearly emphasized the importance of having an individual hold all authority and the downfall that would occur if people decided to go against this. With this mentality taking hold of everybody, people were told that whatever the faith of the ruler was, that was the faith they had to follow as well. Times were worrisome and some of the things that were emphasized during this time were the desire for order, threat of hierarchy, fear of a socially stratified world, and cultural dogmatism. People feared that without a strong leader, things would fall apart and will lead to territory not being stable. Not only that, but people questioned why others would use religious imagery or the bible to testify. The use of social stratification led to the revival of the military, clergy, and the rest of the population. The three orders were created due to this and it included the first estate which were the clergy, the second estate that included the aristocracy, and the third estate that included the rest of the population. Clergy were able to enjoy certain benefits due to their position in their society and if they were able to trace their background that related them to lords they would be capable of becoming a Noble depending if they were born into it or not. People who took part in court were also able to participate but only if they were born into it or went through a selective process as a Noble. Because of the separation society had on each group of people there was a basis of inequality and people feared that the social system would overturn and become bad. The age of Absolutism highly emphasized the role of power in an individual and Louis XIV was an example of this form of power. Bossuet was a church official that served as a tutor for Louis XIV and he justified him as a being appointed by God though four elements. He claims that royal authority is paternal which allows authoritative rule to take place and doesn’t allow people to question their God. He also states that royal authority is sacred and determined by God, it is absolute, and is subject to reason. Authority was justified with religion and people didn’t see anything wrong with this because it was God. Hobbes continued to justify authority with religion by emphasizing the role of Kings and Princes and saying that royal authority was invincible and brought stability. With the continuous emphasis of authority, paintings began portraying God as a majestic figure and while this was happening the Bourbon family was spreading throughout France since it was drawn from the Bible. In the other hand, Hobbes continued to state the importance of Absolutism by illustrating a negative view towards human nature. He stated that if two men desired the same thing, which clearly the both can’t enjoy, they will become enemies. Because humans had constant controversy with one another and carried flaws, he believed that it will lead to the destruction of society and culture. With this being said, people believed hierarchy was needed in order to create stability. During the time of Reformation people mainly emphasized the role of salvation and self drive but in the time of Absolutism people were not as confident and believed that superior forces were the solution to their problems. With somebody holding the role of authority society was believed to prosper and bring better things. Reflection: Seeing that religion held a very strong role during the Absolutism age it was very astonishing to see at what extent people reached in order for people to follow certain beliefs. With the scene from Tudors it was indicated that somebody decided to challenge the idea of religion one had and because of that the person was punished. I found it absurd that people would do such thing and thought that people should have reacted and perhaps even protested when these type of actions were taken. I was surprised that people would let this type of violence occur at such extent. People emphasized the importance of authority during this age, but if a person is going to hold authority they also need to know how to lead others in a non-violent and respectful manner. I believe these type of actions were taken because of the lack of a good leader. If the person who had the hold of authority would have been against this, I am pretty sure these type of actions would have come to halt. Although it is important to have somebody to rely on and have the power to bring good things to our society, it is almost important to note that the person who holds such authority will be the person who may possibly overthrow it. A group of people should share power equally because having one person hold that MUCH power is dangerous. Religion played a big role during the Absolutism age, but seeing how they acted towards each other made it seem that “God” was not all loving and that violence should be forcefully taken in order for them to follow behind “God”. Questions: What were people’s reactions with the use of violence towards religion? Why did people to use such acts of violence? Did having a role of authority allow them to prosper gradually and create a sense of community within once another? If not, what conflicts occurred? There was a separation of people due to the importance they played in society. How did this affect their growth in economy? Were people of different classes allowed to associate with one another? If so, would it be looked down upon? FORUM #6 The Absolutism age was a time of authority and due to this, authority was portrayed in their art. As time progressed the works of art that were present during this time began to feature components of Counter-Reformation Baroque. These forms of art portrayed strength, stability, bold colors, and light and dark forms. Some of the art illustrated people conquering one another or their enemies. An artist named Ruben appeared during this time and his artwork was illustrating all the elements of Baroque. Due to him working with the Catholic Church and French monarchy, his artwork involved adding majesty to religious figures. An example of this is when he portrayed Mary as the British queen and crossed over aspects of Catholicism and the aristocratic world. The portrait of Louis XIV was the most famous portrait Ruben made and he was able to illustrate power and classiness with this portrait. The fabric that he included in his portrait was very fancy and did not include “normal” looking clothing. French laces, furs, velvets, and clothing with the color purple were included and demonstrated great luxury. The clothing Louis XIV wore was impractical for a reason and it demonstrated that he was different and unique from the rest of the population. To add even more impracticality, the portrait of Louis XIV included him wearing heeled shoes and a wig. The oversized sword Louis XIV held symbolized strength along with the Roman pillars that emphasized importance and stability. He was not only portrayed as wealthy, but also as powerful. Louis XIV was a choreographer for royal events such as plays and operas and had love for artwork and fine arts. He was in the stance of “Legs of Louis”, which was the dance position that was used in modern-day ballet. Louis XIV being portrayed as powerful and was respected by many, so he took advantage of that and he had the palace of Versailles built just outside of Paris. He built his palace as an extravagant, luxurious home and with characteristics of Counter Reformation Baroque. The reason they decided to do this is so they can construct separate chateaus for court officials and keep an eye on them while still being able to run the government behind their back. Many of the structures inside Versailles were statues of King Louis XIV, serving as a reminder of his authority. Some of of the other structures included him being surrounded by golden and intricate patterns. Versailles demonstrated Neo-Classicism by having arches and stone pillars that influenced and reminded them of the early Counter Reformation time. Just outside Versailles, was an extravagant garden which was worked on steadily and included geometrics patterns and fountains that demonstrated order. The heart of the palace was King Louis’s XIV bedroom since that was where the sun rose every morning and was known as a sacred place. As Versailles was being admired so was the rise of music. A soon to be famous music writer, Bach, was a supreme Baroque composer in Germany and worked for the courts in the Northern Germany and the Protestant Church. Bach wrote year-round music for the Church and wrote especially intricate music on Easter and Good Friday. Bach’s music helped increase the growth of music in the Protestant Church, making the experience for the people in the church more majestic and worthy. Along with the popularity of music came operas. Operas were very popular with the elite classes and provided people with a magical experience. They were mostly attended by people who were in the higher class due to the richness of culture it provided. People were awe-stricken by how great these operas were. Beautiful singing, intricate costumes, and well written plots were part of the operas. The lyrics written for the opera had references to the “Sun King” as a holy figure. Authority was still portrayed in even the slightest things and it was clear that Absolutism was still playing a role in every aspect of society of culture. Artwork was still being made during these times and the artist Anthony Van Dyck was the main artist of the monarch and aristocracy. His artwork made the aristocrats look good and the Monarch look like he was powerful in a less intimating way than the Counter Reformation-Baroque illustrated in the Louis painting. The paintings still included rich materials that added elegance, such a linens and fine silks. His paintings were usually put in a setting of nature that was most likely British and was surrounded by ships of the Royal Navy. Since the British had the most powerful Navy in the world, it was seen in almost every painting. Reflection: Music played a big role during this time and I did not think people would be so surprised to see how beautiful it was back in the day. Today we hear music in the radio and think nothing of it. We simply appreciate it by turning up the volume but don’t go to the extent of appreciating the music as much compared to before. In Farinelli there was an opera occurring but a woman was not paying attention to the show and instead was reading a book and drinking tea. The opera singer seemed very insulted and stopped his show until she began paying attention again. From there on, he gives his best performance and causes women to faint and even cry due to how beautifully he performed. Today, we do see these type of reactions happening in concerts, but since music has been so present in our lives we usually don’t praise it that much. I think it is important to realize that music has had a great impact in todays society and has allowed us to appreciate others talents without even noticing it. Another thing that surprised me is the building of Versailles. I do not think that Versailles necessarily showed stability and power. Yes, it was a beautiful structure and it was very high- class, but this structure could easily be destroyed with just a fire. You’re destroying the majority of the land around you and much of the art focused in Versailles was focused on the king. The emphasis of power should not have been that great and I believe they should have allowed some leeway for other forms of art and authority. Questions: 1) Operas were very popular during the time and only high-class people were able to attend these events. Were people of lower class allowed to attend operas. If so, would they be discriminated for having gone? 2) How did people choose the opera singers and how did it come into play? Do you think people protested the rise of music since it was so new? 3) Versailles as powerful and majestic. Was there anybody who ever tried destroying Versailles? What were their reasons to destroy it? FORUM #7A The Absolutism Baroque period portrayed power and magnificence while the Rococo movement was lighthearted and focused more on pleasure. In 1715, Louis XIV died which led to a political break in French history and also led to an unclear culture development. Louis XV, Louis XIV’s son, would have been next in line to rule but he wasn’t old enough to do so. The death of Louis XIV essentially led to the aristocrats that were imprisoned to gain freedom and move back to their old homes in Paris, which created a solid structure of politics that was in Versailles and in Paris. With this occurring, the aristocrats were able to become steadily involved. They were still focused on the Absolutism age, so most of the art that was portrayed during this time held the same theme of justification The aristocracy made sure to illustrate their art in a refined and subtle way. With the death of Louis XIV, the art also began to portray each social class as a whole. Not only that, the Rococo culture was constantly being advertised within this art and was soon seen as propaganda instead. The message that was delivered with this “propaganda” was that the aristocracy should be able to enjoy the pleasurable life they once had even with changes in the political structure that led to a change in class motility. Because of this, it was believed that courts were in control of the lower social classes. The people in the lower class were thought to never truly be accepted until they were able to obtain such luxury and free time from the aristocracy due to this assumption. People raised the bar for social acceptance as a defensive measure to keep themselves separate which led people to be non-accepting of one another. The Rococo style was an extension of the Baroque period, so it was still delivering the message of superiority. Some of the things that the Rococo period included was the shift of colors from strong primarily colors to light cheerful colors. The shift in composition follows Late Renaissance structure that is horizontal. Not only that, the Rococo also included structures in an open circle or with the form of a “C”, that was essentially spread all around the artwork during this time Aristocratic people in the art of Rococo were usually seen as pleasurable compared to others. The Rococo art portrayed nature in a much more desirable way to people and included classical references such as cherubs, Cupid, and Venus. The aristocrats were also part of the artwork in situations that involved attractions that were sometimes portrayed as sexual. An example of this is a portrait where a woman was on a swing and a man was behind her demonstrating attraction and desire. Venus was also used to depict sexual desires. The size of the Rococo painting tended to be smaller than the paintings found at Versailles that probably had to do with the size of the aristocratic palaces. Theatre and romanticism was a major theme during the Rococo period and usually took place in everyday activities as well. In the paintings during this time woman and men were portrayed in a sexual manner that involved them showing a lot of skin. The reason they portrayed them this way was in order to show a sign of desire and seduction. Along with romanticism, pilgrimage began taking place. Pilgrimage was believed to be a trip that was done for punishment. However, in one of the paintings, during the Rococo period, there was a pilgrimage to the Island of Venus that was illustrated sexually. Churches also began portraying Rococo patterns in their structure. Chapels were constructed for the aristocrats and there was Baroque architecture that was combined with Rococo designs. Angels and clouds served as symbols for the elegance that the aristocrats held. Rococo art was slowly overcoming the culture and was playing a big role on the architecture and designs during this time. Reflection: With Louis XIV passing away a lot of things went downfall but it also allowed the people to explore other things that didn’t overly involve the King. I believe that much of the culture that was exposed during this time was due to the death of the King. The art during this time included a lot of sexual portraits that portrayed love and lust. I think it is important to realize that once this type of art started becoming more present, people started becoming more comfortable in exposing their feelings. I would have thought that people of the Church or others that were overly religious would have seen this as extremely disrespectful and incorrect but it didn’t’ seem to cause them a discomfort. Instead people praised it and admired the form of art that took place. During that time, I feel like I would have felt uncomfortable with seeing that type of art and probably would have questioned the people who were part of these portraits. Much of the art was beautiful but I don’t think it was okay to publically display people in a sexual manner. If the person gave their consent to be drawn like this I believe it is okay, but if not then it is not okay. Questions: Why did people not react negatively with the sexual portraits that were made? Were people amazed by these portraits? If so, why? Was there any point of disagreement with the new style that started taking place during this time? What did Rococo really symbolize? Did it involve the change of culture within people or was it something more than that? FORUM #7B Mozart was a very popular musician during the Rococo period. At a very young age, he was able to display great musical abilities with just his memory. Not only that, but he was also able to write and speak backwards, which emphasized how smart Mozart was. Leopold, Mozart’s father, introduced him to music at a young age and because of this Mozart was able to efficiently play the piano at the age of three and a half and was also able to write his own music when he was just four. Mozart portrayed understanding of other instruments in his writing and people were amazed at how much talent he had. His father noticed his gift for music so he started to find ways to move him up in social class and expose his talent. Due to his great gift with music, he became a performer in the aristocracy. People saw Mozart as a miracle. His talent was so great, that at the age of ten he had a grand tour around Europe and was performing for the leaders in the musical capital. He amazed them by demonstrating musical tricks and improvising at such a great extent. Mozart surprised people even more with his talent when he was able to play a forbidden piece of music by just plain memory. When he went to the European tour, he was exposed to European aristocratic court culture as the Rococo period was also taking place. His attitude changed due to the Rococo. He became more comfortable in talking about his feelings with other women and also shared a dirty sense of humor, which again, was the cause of the environment that he was surrounded by during the Rococo period. As a teenager and as an adult he started building tension with the music authorities of the places he visited around Europe. Even though he was looking for a job, he was not going to see the musicians he was supposed to meet with. Mozart’s father became too pushy and needy throughout Mozart’s career which led to a lot of his hosts not wanting him around. Mozart and his mother traveled together but his mother caught a disease that led her to pass away. Mozart didn’t tell his father until months later and the relationship between them changed. He became insane and died of poisoning years later. Mozart was no longer comfortable in Salzburg and he became a free musician that wrote his own music and operas. The pieces he wrote featured himself and provided music for all of the other instruments, which he did by simple improvisation. Mozart eventually got married to his second cousin and began making money to have a good lifestyle. Because of his change in lifestyle, he was drinking and partying which led people to see him as irresponsible. Mozart began acting this way because of the Rococo culture, and if he didn’t take part of the Rococo culture, he would have seen as disrespectful and as an outsider. Mozart eventually passed away at the age of 35. Even though he passed away, his music was still played and respected. One of the things Mozart had trouble with was balancing his music to please his audience. His music was very diverse and shifted from complex to easy and from easy to complicated. A lot of his works were in the Rococo or Baroque style. The Marriage of Figaro was one of the most popular operas Mozart wrote. It was written during the transition from the Rococo periods to the Enlightenment period. The play demonstrated tensions between Figaro, the barber of Seville and the Count he served. Figaro was originally portrayed as cleverer as the Count but Mozart downplayed his character in order to portray him as a simple man. His play was concentrated in femininity and the ability for woman to overcome prejudice of men. The story was taking place in Figaro’s wedding day and it detailed interactions between his bride Susanna, the Count, and the Countess. The Count wanted to sleep with Susanna and because of this Susanna and the Countess came together and exposed him. The play was able to portray very simple characters and illustrate them as if they were grand. It focused on the sensual relationship between lovers and Mozart’s music was able to portray this feeling throughout the opera. He wrote in a more Absolutism Baroque way for his males and in a Rococo style for the female leads. The play was mainly about the power of a forgiving woman, which was one of the main themes during the Rococo period. Much of the art and music during this time was seen as beautiful and it allowed others to freely explore the environment around while still enjoying themselves. Reflection: The music that Mozart created was amazing and his talent was extremely great. He didn’t have to struggle to learn music, it came to him naturally. What I don’t understand is why his father wanted to kill him if Mozart was so good at what he did and was bringing fame to his life. I think the fact that this happened can serve as an example towards the young talented people today in our society. If a son/daughter of someone is good at something, they are usually pressured to do things THEIR way and are pushed to their limits. These parents take away the childhood their child need and focus on making them successful instead. This is similar to what happened to Mozart. It is good that he was discovered and was able to prosper so much but I believe if that a CHILD should not be pushed to do so many things at such a young age, unless they’re okay with it. Questions: How many offers did Mozart get throughout his career? Were other musicians threatened by his great talent? The Rococo period took over Mozart’s behavior. Do you think this happened to other people as well? Did Mozart ever feel pressured and overwhelmed due to the amount of talent he carried? If so, how you believe he dealt with it? FORUM #8 The aristocracy was occupied with the Baroque and Rococo styles and while that was happening, the Enlightenment was becoming popular throughout the lower social orders. Mozart was a great example that demonstrated how both the Baroque and Enlightenment can take an effect on a person’s character. This type of character change was emphasized with the creation of his opera The Magic Flute. With that happening also came the birth of Enlightenment which then led the rebirth of Ancient Athenian rationalism. Spiritual beliefs were opposed and questioned during this time. People were now using logical arguments to explain the great things that were occurring in the world rather than believing it was the creation of God. This continued through the 17 and 18 century, but it mostly stayed very conserved until later years. As time progressed, Enlightenment became more emphasized. The Enlightenment focused on facing and questioning humanity in a much more reasonable way by using methods that included Sociology and Science. People found this method very logical and found it helpful that research came along with this method. Very smart and respected people like Descartes, Newton and Bacon were present during this time. Newton was known for his logical and scientific way of thinking and he soon became more recognized and respected as the Enlightenment age progressed. Another key aspect that took place during the Enlightenment period was rationalism. People believed and emphasized the importance of being rational and also emphasized how important it was in order to discover the true reality and function of the world. The empirical method was presented during this time and it was believed that it created a set line with specific evidence that would allow a theory to be proved. The arguments that were placed during this time came from observations they collected which eventually led to them to create hypotheses on the theories they had. Since Science and a different thought process was taking place, it led people to question religion. Although there were many people who continued to be religious they started seeing God in another way. People believed God had put the world in “clock” mode and that the world would follow the rules God had set forth. This viewpoint led scientists to become unsure of what was truly true or not. They started questioning if the church was really the place of God or simply an institution. Practicality was another thing that was emphasized during the Enlightenment age. Enlightenment thinkers wanted to find laws of nature that would allow them to manipulate them or work along with them in a more efficient manner. People who were able to work with these laws of nature were highly respected and were seen as great regardless of their social class. Businessmen and craftsmen even began to have more respect than the aristocrats. The aristocrats were not doing anything meaningful due to the Rococo culture and they were still able to obtain a sustainable life. Along with the idea of practicality came the idea of inevitable change in the universe. The thinkers of the Enlightenment realized that there was no way of stopping change but realized that wouldn’t necessarily lead to chaos and disaster. Change could be embraced and certain techniques could be used in order to have a positive progress throughout the universe. A humanistic perspective was touched during the Enlightenment Age as well. The Enlightenment thinkers reasoned with human nature and believed that humans were neutral at their worst but cooperative at their best. This idea gave the perspective of humans being involved in a communistic society where men could live together in peace and make progress if there were conditions to be followed. Jean Jacques-Rousseau was a famous Enlightenment thinker and he wrote about the inequality among men. He was seen as very radical for his time and most of the time he was seen wearing crazy costumes that made him look out of the ordinary. His essay, “On the Origin of Inequality” focused on the logic that he was surrounded by. To support his argument that all men are unequal, he had to contradict the assumption that inequality existed because of God. While he said that humans were biologically different, he said that inequality came in a way that was man-made. Although, it was said that humans were naturally good, he said that humans were not able to become morally fully good or bad without social interaction. However, humans became more violent when they started having their own private property. Men were now filled with ambition and a state of war which led them to turn against each other. In the state of war, the wealthy would be affected so in order to be protected they created a government authority. Rousseau, argued that people were naturally imperfect and were selfish when things would affect them. All of his ideas are reflected upon the Declaration of Independence, where Thomas Jefferson stated the “human events” and the right to stand up for your rights. Reflections: I find it interesting how people would question God when at one point they solely depended and believed in him. Although, it is reasonable to question him after Science came into place, I still think people should hold on to their beliefs regardless if things change. Especially if you have originally believed in him before. I realize now, that the Enlightenment brought a lot of change in today’s society. It gave us a lot to think about the human race such as in the ways we would affect one another and how we could keep the world/country great. Humans are the population of the world and we would think that we would treat each other fairly, but there are still people who still treat each other unfairly as if they weren’t the same kind. I think it is important to treat each other equally. Rousseau says that not all men are perfect but we should hold ourselves responsible in the amount of change we bring upon this world. It is great to see how our society has developed in a positive way throughout time but it is also scary to see how much CHANGE can occur because of us. Change is inevitable and we hold great power to either make the world we live in good or bad. Questions: What did people think of God when people started exploring the natural laws? Were people angry about this or amazed? Was Rousseau attacked for having written about humans in such a manner? Were people reflective on what he wrote or was there an outburst of rage? What inspired people to explore the natural laws of the world? Was it because they wanted more respected or because of simple curiosity? FORUM 9A During the Enlightenment period the culture would shift back to themes from the Baroque period. The artwork focused on primary colors between dark and light, illustrating a hint of Baroque theme. All of the features in the Enlightenment paintings usually had separate identities, making it clear to distinguish one from another. During this time, you saw the turn of art that included columns and arches rather than the type of art of the Rococo period. Men were usually portrayed in a very elegant and Athenian way in artwork during this time. Some of the paintings still continued to show grids in order to show viewers what the artist had to go through in order to create great art. The people who created this art were usually very respected. An artist named Jacques Louis-David portrayed the death of Socrates as he was about to drink a glass of Hemlock in one of his paintings. The reason he was in this painting is because Socrates was seen as very important during the Enlightenment period. He created a sense of philosophy and rationalism during this time. When they depicted his death they also portrayed Socrates as a martyr, which meant that he replaced Christ, since it was being presented in majority of the European art. Jacques Louis-David also inspired the early stages of the political structure. He blamed the Catholic Church for the Absolutism system taking place, supporting attacks on the Church as a form of protest. He suggested replacing the church with a temple of reason that portrayed Ancient Greek style. The Enlightenment also focuses on Ancient Rome, they used art in order to glorify the Roman Republic. To the Enlightenment thinkers, the Roman sense of militarism was needed for a revolution of society against Absolutism. An Enlightenment painting showed three brothers fighting each other with swords on behalf of Rome. According to myth, these brothers were chosen to be heroes to fight their enemy instead of the whole Roman Army. The sword was held by their father and the brothers while three sisters were crying because of how involved they were in the situation. This was an aggressive indication that commitment and responsibility was important during this time. Especially for the people who supported the Enlightenment and ideals. To further understand the Enlightenment period, Enlightenment artists would go to Italy and Greece as part of their education in order to understand the classical influence. Modern archeology was explored during these travels since they would look at actual ruins from the Ancient era. Classical references were now seen as more scientific and was used to uncover historical truth. Enlightenment painters used what they saw in the places they saw in Greek ruins and Italy in order to illustrate it in their artwork, which they usually made seem grand. Women were portrayed very differently that in the Rococo period. Women were portrayed in powerful ways and were sometimes sexualized. They were illustrated as confident and were usually surrounded in very exotic environments. Their portraits had a lot of reference to the ancient world, such as them wearing a toga or having vines around them. Since they started becoming more popular and exposed, they started playing a bigger role in the Enlightenment period. Women started taking more practical roles in society and this was the starting point for them to be more respectable and to actually fulfill roles in the Enlightenment period. Reflection: People were very open to seeing new artwork but why were woman portrayed in a sexual manner? I would think after what Rousseau said that there would be more thought into treating people equally and just being more respectful to one another, but apparently that is not exactly sure. I think it is important to realize that humans were very open to change but were there at a certain extent. Woman were always seen as less for some reason. Today in our society we see this as well and we see that people take advantage of us and we usually don’t have as many benefits. Many of the people who did this art were respected and I don’t see why not since the artwork was so great and intricate. I think it is important to realize that the reason women are portrayed as less is because of THE PAST. We woman allowed them to portray us like this and now we have struggled to come back and have some authority. If we would have stepped up earlier on. I think we would have been able to be more respected rather than men. There is effort being done in order to gain power and respect but it seems like it is impossible to change people’s mentality on women. It is now up to us to make ourselves respected. Questions: Were women offended by the type of pictures that were drawn of them? If so, was there ever a form of protests occurring? What did people think of the form of artwork that was portrayed during this time? Why did artwork involve some of the Rococo themes even if it already has passed? Did people feel the need to do this or were they just doing it because they wanted to? FORUM 9B Classical music was meant to tell a story and for the audience to understand the intricacy of it. The people who were familiar with this music during the Rococo and Baroque period saw it more of a game, when the whole point was to follow the composer while following certain patterns throughout the piece. The composer was in charge of making certain patterns but he was also in charge in making the piece unique by engaging the audience with the patterns he has set up. It was said that if humans decide to learn these patterns they would actually be able to connect with the classical music in a much deeper level. Each piece of composed music comes with a lot of movements and has its own unique pattern and form. However, they are usually fixed in order to have different forms. One of the forms of music is Fugue, which was a manipulation of a single theme and staggered in time. It is often vocal but it can also be instrumental and it can be done backward or forward. Another form of classical music is Theme and Variations which has a single theme and shows the audience the many ways the composer may vary the theme. This can take many forms as well. The composer is able to use preexisting work as a base and then display his talent in variations. The story that is represent in the music demonstrates a gradual change than in the beginning theme. A Minuet was also a form of classical music that was based on dance of the Baroque. The theme is prepared and creates a certain way of dancing. The music usually switches to a new theme that is different than the last one but then goes back to the original one. By doing this, the form of dance is created while a pattern is also created. There was also Rondo, which was another dance theme. For this, the original theme was replaying and a new theme was introduced in the same time. This pattern allowed audiences to become more engaged and have high expectations for how the music was being delivered. The final form of music was Sonata. Sonata evolved throughout time because of the development in Science of Sound. Musicians would tune their instruments to a single note in order to have composers determine the interval set by tuning. The music was sometimes static and would lead the music to sound plain and simple rather than adventurous and filled with different notes. With the Science of Sound taking place, a new technique arose and it involved tempered tuning. Musicians were able to tell the difference of a variety of tunes with this technique. Musicians like Mozart, Bach, and Haydn were happy with this development and pushed others to explore this technique as well. Majority of the music in the 18 and 19 th century were Sonatas and they soon allowed classical music to spread around and become even more popular. The form of Sonata introduced a theme in a certain key and then transitioned to a second theme in a second key. From there, the composer is able to experiment on the music use temperate tuning. The story this music delivers is shared between these two themes. This type of music was very complex and usually lasted a good 15 to 20 minutes. This music was very upbeat and allowed people to come in contact with their emotions when listening to them. In the music examples, Mozart’s Sonata was very short and portrayed a lot of quick and short beats that changed tune throughout but will continue to share the same pattern as well. People were amazed of how good he was able to play and how Sonata was able to keep the same theme and pattern throughout. Reflection: The music that was showed in this lecture was very interesting. I didn’t know that there were different forms of playing and I thought that everybody would just play however they wanted. It is important to learn how music is developed. Today classical music is not as appreciated as before and it is hard to get todays generations interested in this type of music. I think in order for people to be aware of what type of music there is, they should open themselves up to exploring and listening to the music. From what I’ve seen, many young people start becoming involved with music at a young age. If this is emphasized EVEN more we can make others greater appreciate the art of music. The different types of music are able to impact how people feel as well. It can illustrate people’s feelings. It’s so amazing how people are able to portray this type of feeling in this music and that is why I think people should try to find a way to actually appreciate and understand classical music. It would be great if we continue praising classical music but I believe that the popularity of classical music is dying. However, if we continue to praise how good classical music is, it will be able to prosper. Questions: Were people amazed by the type of music that was present during this time? Did people want to become more involved with music now since it started becoming more popular? How did people find out the certain patterns one had to take in order to portray the best type of music? FORUM 10A: Europe entered a whole new reform and transition after the Enlightenment. Transformation was occurring with France which led to an eventual political change in their system. France was struggling in the 1700s due to the investment they had put in the American Revolution. They were suffering financially and in order to solve their financial problems, the King decided to start taxing the nobility of the nation. The King wanted support for the decision he wanted to take regarding the taxing he was going to imply. All the representatives from the three states of French society came together in order to come to a consensus. They called an Estates-General and by doing so they met at Versailles. With discussions, they realized that the estates were unequal. They especially realized they were unequal, when the third estate was forced to stand at the fringes of the assembly. The third estate suggested that the they get twice the representation than the first and second estates, due to the fact that they represented 96% of the French population. Also, they believed a new method for voting should be introduced, where an individual could vote rather than with a whole estate. The King rejected the suggestions of the third estate which led to the representatives to leave the Estates-General and create their own parliament. The King was held responsible for the following effects due to not meeting the demands of his people. The Transitional period was expected to reform the French political system but, unfortunately, it did the complete opposite. The tensions between the military and the third estates grew and on July 14 , 1789, and the King’s standing army moved into Paris and Versailles. The Parisian people assumed they were under attack due to rumors they have heard about this current situation, so they stormed into the Bastille prison to gather weapons that were supposedly there. To their disbelief, they found no weapons in Bastille, but they still formed an armed mob that would go against any military intervention. With this continuous violence, the woman of Paris marched into Versailles and took the King and Marie Antoinette hostage. They carted them back to Paris and protected them from soldiers. However, the King was trying to escape by disguising himself and using a carriage to leave, but he was recognized and captured once again. Radicals believed that the King was a threat to the political reform and the new republic, and in order to avoid further conflict they decided to execute him. With the King being executed, other nations around Europe were now worried that the new form of government would harm their citizens. They prepared themselves to invade France, and with this, France also prepared themselves in order to defend their new republic. However, the French gathered their people and rejected the traditional way of gathering up trained professionals for fighting. The believed that it was time for their French people to serve their duties. With all the chaos occurring, a new leader called Napoleon Bonaparte rose. He was a military leader that was unique and clever in his fighting ways. With his impressive leadership skills, he was elected to be leader of France. Unfortunately, Bonaparte soon started emphasized authority, became arrogant and crowned himself emperor of France. He invaded Russia multiple times even with the losses he has had and because of this he was eventually exiled and possibly poisoned due to the ridiculous decisions and actions he took. The Enlightenment was not leading to a practical reform, but instead was leading to the rise of the third Estate which eventually led to turmoil. Countless amounts of violence were occurring, but while this was happening the Romanticism period started taking place. The Romanticism period involved demonstrating how important spirituality and emotion was in order to overcome negative emotions. With the Romanticism period starting to take place, Beethoven was introduced. He grew up during the Revolutionary period and represented the transition of old Rococo thinking to the Enlightenment ways. Beethoven’s father was a musician but was a heavy drinker that forced him to use his talent to become popular. Beethoven was soon recognized and awarded by aristocrats, but his father still expected more from him. As Beethoven grew older, he was sent to Vienna to study music under Mozart. Unfortunately, as he was about to arrive he found out his mother had passed away and he had to return in order to take care of his brothers. When he was finally able to return to Vienna, Mozart had passed away. Nothing was going his way. He continued being a pianist but he was not being recognized as a composer. As time passes, he began to lose his hearing. He became very suicidal and kept this secret to himself because he did not want anyone to know or pity him. Even with this happening, he reworked a symphony about how great Bonaparte used to be in order to keep his memory alive. As time passed, Beethoven’s brother had passed away as well, which led Beethoven to fight custody for his nephew. However, when he got custody of his nephew he later committed suicide. Even though Beethoven was faced with a lot of bad things in his life he was still able to work around this and portray his feelings in his music. He manipulated classical music that allowed him to show what emotions he was going through. He was able to use his music to entertain others and was able to portray his music as powerful. He began his pieces by playing very loudly which would surprise the audience but also engage them. He manipulated his music in order to make it sound beautiful and because of this he was very successful and was able to amaze people greatly. Reflection: Beethoven’s Sonata begins very loudly but then begins to play softly and then continues to alternate between these two keys. I believe this method is great. It engages the audience and allows the music to evolve slowly while the audience is enjoying it. I highly admire Beethoven, due to the great music he was able to play. He went through many unfortunate things in his life but he was still able to bring happiness to other people with the type of music he brought. It was super unfortunate for him to go deaf in his musical career, but I believe that just made him stronger and made him appreciate the type of music he was able to create. Today, we see a lot of young musicians who are pressured to do well in their career. By doing this, I think their childhood is being taken away. Not only that, but young musicians will not be able to progress to their full potential due to the amount of stress they’re going through. Beethoven was able to become popular with the type of music HE played personally. His father pressured him to do well but I believe Beethoven was able to fulfill his full potential when he was older and had more flexibility and freedom. In the other hand Schumann 20 was a piece that began very softly and had the same rhythms being played
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