Theatre 2100 Study Guide Midterm 1
Theatre 2100 Study Guide Midterm 1 THEATRE 2100 – 0010
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sean Bhatnagar on Friday October 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to THEATRE 2100 – 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Melissa Lee in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Theatre in Theatre at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Theatre 2100 Study Guide 1 Practice questions are at the bottom with answers Theatre is about creating a space where we can share ideas Aristotle 384 BCE 3223CE Greek Philosopher and Scientist He has contributed a lot toward theatre The Poetics 3358CE was the earliest extant work of dramatic criticism He laid out a lot of interesting ideas of what makes up a Play He put up a theory of the origins of Theatres He said tragedy in dramatic theatre evolved from the performance of Dithyramb A dithyramb is a religious fertility ritual Consisting of Song and Dance and was performed by a large chorus of men under the in uence of wine celebrated the birth of Dionysus Dionysus is the twice born god Dithyramb translates to quotTwice bornquot Religion Poytheism Twelve Olympians Religion was huge in the lives of Ancient Greeks Dionysus is the son of Zeus in this religion Dionysus thyrsus is the god of Wine agriculture fertility illusion religious ecstasy and theatre His headband is wrapped with pinecone and ivy His women followers are called Bacchants or Maenads These women are decorated in ivy The male followers are Satyrs Usually half human and half horsegoat Dionysus s religion of worship is a mystery A religion that is reserved for the initiation You must be initiated to practice this worship which is a huge reason we don t know a lot about it Wasn t public The goal was to transform through intoxication and dance and song They were looking for a transformation To also achieve clarity and become closer to the god City or Great Dionysia Where these ritualsfestivals happened This is a very speci c setting place It is a festival and this is where tragedy originated It was a weeklong festival in honor of Dionysus Dithyrambic and dramatic competitions 534BCE Each playwright presented a tetralogy 3 tragedies and 1 satyr play A wealthy citizen was appointed the Choragus producer and nanced the production This person was chosen and it was considered an honor The prize was awarded on the last day and it was a vote democratic Tragedy transated to quotgoat songquot The protagonist is the characters whose Will drives the action of the play Sometimes called the Tragic hero There are 3 components of Tragedy o Hamartia means error in judgment misstep 0 They experience a reversal of fortune Peripeteia o The third component is Recognition or Anognorsis Without these we cannot have Catharsis Hubris excessive pride The antagonist is the character whose Will opposes the protagonist Aristotle thought that tragedy was meant to teach Theatrical and dramatic conventions What are conventions They are the unwritten rules of the game The customs which have been followed Conventions of Greek Theatre Tragic plot based on myths It was the telling of these stories of where we nd the novelty The Chorus They are a group of performers that acttalkmove in unison They would often gather young men for the chorus because it was seen as military training They thought this because they all work in unison They are essential in telling the story and have many functions including to dance sing and bring the musical spectacle to the performance They are a part of the cast and they observe comment question give advice and warn Vioence kept off stage They don t show the violence We see the aftermath of the violence and the violence is described by the Messengers Messengers as narrators They describe and act tell what happened during the violence It is another way of the audience getting an image of what really happened Minimal scenery There wasn t a lot of scenery They didn t replicate trees or locations The work of the dialogue would create and image for the audience of where they were They didn t use sets Masks In Greek drama all actors would wear a mask The chorus would all wear the sameidentical mask The masks were mostly made out of natural material linen cloths etc and had hair The mask would de ne character and you could determine social classage etc The mask has a xed expression and communicates emotion All Male tradition Greek theatre was an allmale tradition There is a reason for this In ancient Greek to be a citizen you have to be a free man All the festivals were meant for citizens Women weren t considered citizens They weren t even sure if women were in the audience Pays could be performed by 3 actors There would be no more than 3 characters per scene Thespis 6th c BCE A poet and playwright Singer of dithyrambs He is credited to be the quot rst actorquot He stepped out from the chorus and spoke lines to the chorusaudience The word thespian which means actor comes from him Aeschylus 525456 BCE Wrote 90 plays 7 survived and won 13 contests Author of the oldest surviving Greek plays and the rst known trilogy ntroduced the second actor Sophocles 4974065 BCE 120 plays only 7 survived won 24 contests ntroduced the 3rd actor on stage He reduced the size and role of the chorus ntroduced the art of scene painting This would complement the scene Euripides 4804065 BCE Won 4 contest 90 plays and 18 survived Turned to minor myths and radically altered major ones Bacchae wasn t never appreciated till after his death after his son entered his plays in contests Aristotle called him the most tragic playwright Author of the only complete extant satyr play Aristophanes 466376 BCE Comic playwright quotOld comedyquot Commented on contemporary Athenian Society Theatre of Dionysus was performed outdoors during the day Theatre at Epidaurus 80 miles outside of Athens 0 Seats about 14000 people and the sound quality is awesome because of the architecture 0 They used the natural hillside to build upon Orchestra quotdancing placequot This is where the chorus would occupy for song and dance Skene skaynae quothutquot scene house Theatron quotSeeing placequot The entrances were called quotparodosquot The Special Effects Ekkyklema is a wooden platform with wheels They would use this to reveal big parts of the play Ex Wheel in Penthius Mechane is a cranelike machine that could stimulate ight We don t know exactly how it worked but it could lower someone or raise someone Dues ex machine quotGod from machinequot The 6 Cultural Functions of Theatre Know these Ritual Education 0 Economic Propaganda 0 Entertainment 0 Social Action Aristotle s 6 Elements of Drama 0 Plot 0 Character 0 Thought theme Diction Language 0 Music Spectacle Plot is the selection and arrangement of incidents or events in a play The structure and sequencing of the action unfolding Plot is not the same as Story Story is a narrative usually told chronologically where plot is selections of events in a speci c order to unfold the action drama 3 Types of Plot Cimactic Episodic Circular Climactic Beginning Situation Inciting lncidentRising ActionPlot complications Climax Very topFaling Action Resolution at very bottom Beginning Situation The who what where when and Why We have expectations lnciting lncident Something happens that usually wouldn t happen during this day Creates the con ict It upsets the equilibrium After Resolution there is a quotnew normalquot There is a new balance but it is not the same world Theatre Spaces and Stage Configurations Space is really important in theatre experience Proscenium Arch Type of arch over the stage Proscenium line The space in front of where the curtain falls Broadway has a lot of these What does this do Grounds eye view it is a rectangle Where the audience sits is called the House It creates a picture frame effect It also hides all the machinery What does this do Grounds eye view it is a rectangle Where the audience sits is called the House It creates a picture frame effect It also hides all the machinery Thrust Stage Audience surrounds stage action on 3 sides The stage thrusts out into the audience Ex Greek Amphitheatre Amphi means quoton both sidesquot Audience can see the play and each other A tighter sense of community There are lack of places to hide things during the play everything is more exposed Theatre in the round Arena Vomitoria A passageway where the actors come through Traverse alley stage It has 2 sides of an audience What they use in runway shows Black box theatre A smaller space with a lot of exibility You can set it however you want Elizabethan Theatre Secular tradition Popular entertainment 0 Commercial Theatre 0 Theatre professionals Bolsterous crowds Outdoor playhouses Thrust stages 0 Minimal scenery Special effects ropespulleys o Allmale performances tradition Shakespeare All of Shakespeare s plays had a total of 17677 words Shakespeare invented 1700 words fancyfree Flowery Manager Mimic Moonbeam Shakespeare s Globe 1997 A reconstruction of the original 17th c Globe Playhouse Shakespeare s Dialogue had weird pronunciation its own dialect It was kind of ScottishIrish Begins late Compressed Few locations and short period of time 0 Fewer characters 0 Cause and Effect chain 0 Single plot 0 Linear Episodic Climax Begins early Expansive Multiple Locations and spans time Many characters Individual episodes Multiple subplots Everything is cumulative to completely understand how the pieces t together Nothing is linear NonLinear A lot of Shakespeare s plays were like this Theories of Comedy 1 Relief Theory Sigmund Freud a Release of nervous feelings b Social Safety valve 2 Superiority Theory Schadenfreuds a Makes us feel superior b Taking pleasure in the pain of others 3 lncongruity Theory a Henry Bergson Mechanical b Anesthesia of the heart c Realize of what is human behavior vs what is mechanical Comedy 0 Functions as a social corrective Celebrates bad behavior but upholds good Comedy vs Tragedy Structural difference how does the drama resolve con ict o Tragedy ends in death and in Comedy is resolved in forgive and forget or Learn from situation or Restoration of harmony Very different resolutions Origins o Ritual Myth Magic Aristotle phillac songs 0 Comedy KOMOIDIA Komosrevel Kome village Aristophanes 446386 BCE o The comic playwright that survived quotOld Comedyquot was about ordinary people The everyday people Political Satire 0 Commented on contemporary Athenian society Menander 341290 BCE New Comedy 0 Family and social groups Love as major theme Reduced Role of Chorus Recognizable settings and characters and situations Stock Characters Back round actors OOOO Farce vs Satire Farce is extreme physical humor Sometimes violent Ex 3 stooges Also called quotSlap stickquot Satire More intelligent comedy through dialogue mindful humor Intellectual humor that relies on wits Ex The office Tools of Comedy Surpdse o Exaggerann Violence 0 Mistaken ldentity Shakespeare used this sometimes Ex A young women protects her virtues and then go into public as a man It makes the wrong people like each other 0 lncongruity why kids swearing is funny Scatological humor Ex Farting o Repetition triple Actor Audience Theatre quotWilling suspension of disbelief for the moment which constitutes poetic faithquot Double consciousness The audience has a relationship with the actor They realize you have invested time and money and you are willing to buy into their story An audience are then capable to actually feel emotions with you It is called the feedback effect Empathy the capacity to understand what another person real or ctional is thinking or feeling Actor Interprets a dramatic character Communicates the actions of the play through the performance of the character Actor Training 0 Actors raw material is the Self Create neutral body 0 MVP o Mentalvocalphysical Stage presence Stanislavski s System 1 Circle of Attention focus on that actor 2 Magic IF 3 Given Circumstances 4 Emotional Memory Theatrical Realism Melodrama Good in the end always triumphs It became one of the most popular ConvenUons Music Stock Characters 0 Whitecolor would be good people and Blackwhite would be bad gUyS Coincidences Elaborate Spectacle Special Effects 0 Tableaux Vivant quotFrozen Picturequot Coincidences Elaborate Spectacle Special Effects Tableaux Vivant quotFrozen Picturequot Realism 18901920 In uences Auguste Comte 17981857 0 Sociology Charles Darwin 18091882 0 Origin of the Species 1859 o Sigmund Freud 18561939 0 Unconscious mind 0 Karl Marx 18181883 0 Class con ict a source of social progress Father of Realism Henrik lbsen 18261906 A Doll s House 1879 Conventions of Realism quotTheatre of the fourth wallquot Presentational vs Representational modes of performance Characters from life Language Stylistically quotrealquot Reactions against Realism Expressionism Emotional subjective Edvard Munch The Scream 1893 Bertolt Brecht 18981956 0 Epic Theatre and verfremdungseffekt effect astrangement effect Wanted audience to have a critical distancing 0 He wanted you to think when watching his plays Narrator 0 Actors remain visible 0 Songs Reactions against Realism Vsevelod Meyerhold Nonverbal aspects of theatre Biomechanics Kinesthetic approach to actor training Express emotions physically Focut on the uses of the body Expressionism Emotional truth subjective Nighrmarish dreamlike atmospheres Abstarcte Unnatural Disssonance Trying to capture an inner emotional truthreality Theatre of the Absurd Godless and unpredictable world Circular plots no resolution Characters who are adrift Repetition With comedy to behavior Unadequacy of language Lynn Notage 1964present How has race been represented on the stage Black actor played parts in which they would have to put makeup on to make them look backThey call this black face Legacy of Minstrelsy Black Caricatures Mammy Harlem Renaissance New Negro Movement 1910 s 1930 Flourishing of African American performances and art Centered mainly in Harlem New York Rejected racial stereotypes made popular by Minstrel shows Lorraine Hansberry 19301965 First Black women to write a play performed on Broadway quotA Raisin in the Sunquot 1959 Alice Childress 19121994 She was white but played a black actress Trouble in Mind 1955 The Art of the Director 0 quotBring the playwright s vision to lifequot 0 Melissa Maxwell 0 Guest Director Spring 2015 Trouble in Mind Coordinates amp integrates all the artistic elements of the production 0 Interpretation amp Presentation 0 The captain of the ship Actormanager 0 Henry Irving 18381905 As Hamlet First actor to be knighted 0 Lead actor in a company Coached other actors Ownedran their own company Choose the plays they want to star in Actressmanagers 0 Laura Keene Did everything an actormanager does Our American Cousin John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln Georg II Duke of SaxeMeiningen 18261914 First person to be a Director as we know the role Meiningen Ensemble Believed in historical accuracy against convention at the time Supernumeraries in a crowd scene Supernumeraries extras Paid close attention to every detail even assigned speci c roles for actors in a crowd scene 0 How to begin the Process 0 Read the play reread the play then read the play again 0 Types of production research 0 Historical o Biographical 0 OOO 0 Critical 0 Literary Production Concept aka Director s concept 0 quotA central idea that uni es and informs all elements of production to make it uniquequot 0 Casting Rehearsal o Staging Using the performance space and architecture of stage effectively Making sure things are visible on the stage no obstructed views 0 Blocking The actor s large movements around the stage Includes entrancesexits Going to change 0 Stage business Character s behavior actors small actionsgestures Handling props 0 Coaching How to make the performance better Practice Questions Test Structure TF Short Answer Multiple Choice Mixmatch Melodrama Episodic Actors were male Shakespere Ver frenduss steck Brecht 1 This convention represents the invisible divide between the actors and audience Fourth Wall 2 The 3 theories of humor relief theory release of nervous feelings superiority theory taking pleasure in pains in others incongruity theory realize of what is human 3 Samuel Taylor Coleridge39s phrase describing the moment of poetic faith suspension of disbelief 4 A central idea that uni es all elements of the production and makes it unique Production concept 5 The Athenian civic festival where dramatic competitions took place City or great Dionysia Know your Greek shit and those quiz questions list which one is not 6 A dramatic convention where a god suddenly appears to resolve a seemingly hopeless situation Deus ex machina 7 What39s a stage look like in ancient Greece a Tiring house the green room where actors get dressed have thrust stage b Skeene in greek theatre the green room amphitheater 8 The company that Shakespeare and Richard Burbage belonged to under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth Lord Chamberlain39s Men 9 Aristotle39s six components of drama a Plot b Character c Thought theme d Diction language e Music f Spectacle 10 The rst black woman to have a play produced on Broadway Loarraine Hansberry Raising the sun play 11 The actress manager who was performing on stage the night President Lincoln was assassinated Laura Keene 12 An actor39s pattern of movements across the stage including entrances and exits Blocking 13 The Russian who created a system of actor training that promoted psychological realism Constantin Stanislavski a Know this guy39s list 14 Like the Greek skene this provided a place for actors to change costume in the playhouse The tiring house 15 He is considered the rather of realism of theatre Henrik lbsen play doHs house 16 The rst painting of William Shakespeare s collected plays a The First Folio his only full collection 17 The selection and arrangement of events or incidents in a play Plot 18 The 4 main types of play research historical critical biographical and literary 19 The choral performance sung in honor of Dionysus that means quotdouble birthquot Dithyramb 20 In greek tragedy this is the moment of insightful recognition for the tragic hero anagnorisis 21 The type of 34 stage associated with the Elizabethan playhouse Thurst stage 22 Bertlot Brecht s estrangement effect verfremdungseffekt 23 He is the god of theatre 24 He is an ancient greek who is considered the rst actor Thepis 25 Song dance and jokes told by white actors in the blackface that promote racism and sterotypes The minstrel show or minstrelsy 26 The roots of theatre can be found in religious ritual celebrating the death and resurrection of these divine gures from these three historical penods a Egyptian b Greek c Middle Ages
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