Popular in United States History 1877-Present
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Popular in History
This page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Pollard on Friday March 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2710-01 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. Mark Miller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see United States History 1877-Present in History at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
The Roaring Twenties Modern America Begins gt Birth of the Modern Economy 0 The economy started to become much more diversi ed than ever before 0 We see the service sector start to develop Some people work in factories and there are still a lot of Americans in agriculture farming gt Majority of Americans Live in Urban Areas 0 For the first time ever the majority of Americans live in Urban areas 0 Note that the census defined a city as holding 2500 or more people gt America Electrified 0 By the end of the decade many Americans have electricity in their homes 0 This allows people to have household appliances such as toasters and washing machines gt The Automobile Industry 0 Many if not most families own a car by the end of the decade Getting Better All the Time gt The American Federation of Labor 0 This union fought for bread and butter issues such as safe working conditions better pay lower working hours and paid vacations gt Welfare Capitalism 0 GE and Ford pioneered welfare capitalism with the idea that happy and healthy workers are productive workers 0 Welfare capitalism provided for the needs of employees with benefits like health clinics pensions day cares and gyms The Business of America is Business Calvin Coolidge gt Republican Administrations 0 The 20s were largely characterized by having Republican presidents such as Harding Coolidge and Hoover 0 They were pro business had a balanced budget and the US was a creditor nation lVIeaning that other countries borrowed from us gt Auto Industry 0 Henry Ford created the Model T car They were uniform down to the color 0 He also was the first to use the assembly line to build cars This and the standardization of the vehicle itself made production much less expensive 0 He paid his employees 5 a day which was two or three times more than what people with similar jobs at this time would have made 19208 Culture Change and Culture Clash Auto Culture gt Autos and Related industries 0 When the auto industry grew we saw a rise in other related industries 0 Examples rubber gas stations mechanics steel etc gt Growth of Suburbs 0 This easier and more free way to travel made it possible for the middle class to move out of the inner cities Mainly these people were white so this was dubbed the White Flight 0 Many suburbs had restrictive covenants People would buy a house and agree to have a house with a certain appearance and often agree not to sell their home to a person of color gt Autos and Dating 0 Cars afforded teenagers an unheard of level of privacy Dating used to take place in the home but cars allowed them to go out and date each other without a parent s watchful eye 0 47 percent of younger women admit to having premarital sex Growth of the Middle Class gt Rising Education Levels 0 The Morrill Land Grant allows more states to build schools Example Utah State University 0 In 1900 1 200 went to college and 10 graduated from high school In 1930 two thirds graduated high school and 10 went to college gt Birth of the Modern Teenager In the past people entered the work force at about the age of twelve Because of booming economy and their parents having more money teenagers didn t have to necessarily work as much They were able to go to school and prolong their childhood Summer Vacations and Associated Auto Industries gt People Taking Vacation 0 Because of the increase in people having paid time off and the growth of the middle class people could actually afford to take vacation Usually for only one week National Park visits soar and we see roadside attractions pop up gt Associated Industries Paying to stay somewhere else over night was a luxury only for the very wealthy However with more middle class being able to travel there was a need for an affordable place This resulted in the Motel motor hotel The first was Hojo s Fast food grew in popularity with the popularity of baseball and travel Culture Clash Prohibition gt 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act of 1920 The 18th amendment prohibited the sale transportation and production of alcohol The Volstead act was created to enforce the 18th amendment and to regulate the production and distribution of alcohol for non beverage purposes Goals prevent domestic violence employment rates more money for families and decrease crime Realities did decrease alcohol consumption because it was more expensive and harder to get speak easies were more prevalent than saloons had been government corruption increased and less money went to families because the price of booze went up gt The 18th amendment was eventually repealed by the 21St amendment in 1933 Culture Clash Feminism and the New Woman gt Flappers 0 They were women who showed more skin who drank and smoked and who were promiscuous for their time 0 People were concerned about the media s effect on the young women As there weren t any production codes to begin with however by the end of the twenties the first production codes and ratings surface gt American Birth Control League Eugenics This was started by Margaret Stanger a nurse who had watched many women including her mother die in childbirth This was the roots of the modern day Planned Parenthood and was just as controversial as it is today All forms of birth control were illegal at this time gt Pseudo Science It believed in evolutionary biology and the idea that some people are better evolved than others This meant that white people were on the top of this pyramid somehow gt Based off Darwin Sometimes this was called Social Darwinism which was a serious distortion of Darwin s ideas Darwin came out against this sort of science gt Goddard s IQ Test Henry Goddard was a British psychologist and eugenicist that developed IQ tests that were widely used Utilized on Ellis Island to weed out morons White people always did better on these than other races and blacks generally did the worst gt Sanger s Ideas Margaret Sanger was an advocate for eugenics and believed that people of inferior races should use birth control to stop their blood lines and eliminate that liability to society Sterilization programs for those who could possibly be a burden on the state such as criminals and black women were introduced The KKK of the 19208 gt Reborn in 1915 with Simmons gt Equal Opportunity Hate Group 0 They had objections against Catholics Jews liberal whites immigrants and of course blacks 0 Basically if you weren t an Anglo Saxon protestant they hated you gt Hiram Evans and the Pyramid Scheme 0 Hiram Evans played a large part in the success of the Klan in this time period because he helped the Klan to grow as a business 0 If a person wanted to start a branch of the Klan they would pay a franchise fee to a supervisor and they would sell Klan paraphernalia to members and recruit others to open more branches Helping everyone get rich along the way gt The Klan burnt out in 1927 when the grand wizard was accused of raping a white girl Immigration Restrictions gt 1924 National Origins Act 0 Established quotas for the first time ever Only certain amounts of people from a certain country could immigrate 0 This was based off the 1890 Census which was when we saw more of the new immigrants 0 Asiatic barred zone created Politics of the 1920s Republican and Conservative Era gt Harding 1921 1923 gt Coolidge 1923 1929 gt Hoover Harding Administration gt A Congenial Man 0 He was every body s best friend he was handsome and looked presidential 0 He gave excellent speeches gt Florence Flossy Harding 0 She was the first modern first lady She had her own agenda and she pushed Harding to do more and be better gt Sexual Scandals 0 Harding reportedly paid off one woman 25000 to be quiet about their affair 0 He got one woman pregnant in a senate closet 0 Another woman was driven to suicide because he wouldn t leave his wife for her gt Ohio Gang 0 Politicians and industry leaders who closely surrounded Harding Many of them he acquired when he was state level politician in Ohio gt Veteran s Bureau and Teapot Dome Scandals 0 One of Harding s acquaintances was in charge of the veteran s bureau bought a lot of items for veterans and instead of giving them to the veterans he sold them as army surplus for much lower prices than purchased for 0 The Secretary of the Interior leased the Navy s oil reserves to companies for low prices without competitive bidding gt Early Death in 1923 There are many debates and mysteries about exactly how the president died because Flossy didn t allow his body to autopsied and she meticulously burnt correspondence He did eat some tainted crab meat in Alaska However some believe that he may have been poisoned to shut him up about the scandals Most scholars believe that in all likelihood it was just a heart attack This was largely a merciful death He died a popular president after his death all the scandals were uncovered and is now ranked as one of the worst presidents in history Coolidge Administration gt Silent Cal He was very serious and quiet which earned him this nickname gt Coolidge Prosperity There was a lot of Laissez faire economics at play They relaxed regulations and weren t as diligent about breaking up trusts The federal budget was reduced and balanced with a large part played by Mellon and Hoover Taxes were reduced especially on the top 1 The federal payroll was cut There was a return to isolationism Retrenchment in Reform gt Adkins vs Children s Hospital 1923 The Supreme Court ruled that minimum wages laws for women were unconstitutional because they interfered with workers right to bargain for wages Hoover Administration gt Wonder Boy 0 Calvin Coolidge hated Hoover and nicknamed him wonder boy out of jealousy gt Bonus Army 0 In 1924 congress overrode a veto from Coolidge to pass the World War Compensation Act This would give veterans from the war bonuses as certificates of service that would mature in 20 years 0 Veterans marched on Washington demanding the early redemption of these certificates Many of them had been out of work for an extended period of time and desperately needed the money 0 The police were sent to intervene and it resulted in the shooting of two officers The army was then commanded to intervene which destroyed Hoover s political career gt Laissez faire and Voluntarism 0 Hoover thought that government interfering into economics would hurt Americans liberties more than it would help the economy 0 Instead of legislating what actions companies and individuals may take he asked them He believed that people would take the right actions out of their own altruism Great Depression Early Years Coolidge Administration 192 3 1929 gt Restores dignity to office 0 Coolidge prosperity everything was all good 0 There wasn t any shenanigans more presidential and official Hoover Administration gt Westerner 0 First president born west of the lVIississippi Iowa 0 Raised in Oregon 0 Graduated in the first graduating class of Standford gt Very successful engineer 0 Turned around failing mines Could f1X most any problem gt Humanitarian 0 Belgian Hunger Relief gt Stock Market Crash 0 He said that it would be over in siX weeks it wasn t 0 Eats his words the rest of the years and makes him look bad 0 He knew it was an issue but was trying to raise moral Causes of the Great Depression gt Agriculture Recession It wasn t doing very well throughout the entirety of the 1920s Everyone had taken out loans to buy farm equipment and they were over extending themselves 1929 31 Wheat is down 90 A cycle of overproduction was occurring gt Consumer Economy Infant Stage Consumer Spending drives it People are buying things like craZy because they can have things that make their lives easier and are new Companies are producing too much of the new goods Households just don t need more than one car refrigerator washing machine etc Buying things on credit gt Unequal Distribution of Wealth Richest 5 hold 30 wealth there s only so many things that even rich people need Their money is either saved in the banks or invested lVIiddle class 30 of United States not enough demand for what the rich are selling 65 poor or subsisting barely getting by gt ClimaX Black Tuesday Oct 29 1929 Bull Market 1927 9 good big strong market Buying on margin for as little as 10 down to buy a stock but stocks weren t always going up It created this bubble because the price of stocks weren t re ecting the actual demand for them New York Stock Exchange On black Thursday they see a huge drop and decide to close until Monday Because there is such a huge herd mentality associated with this people were afraid which multiplied in the crowd Everyone began selling which drove it down even more 0 It went down and stayed down gt International Loans Reparations amp Trade 0 World Depression occurred because everyone s economies are so linked 0 Germany and Austria s response they were no longer going to pay back their reparations 0 Tariffs Hawley Smoot Tariff 1930 record high protective tariff at the time The 60 taX on imports effectively halts international trade 0 Federal Reserve Response Increased interest rates further discouraged people from purchasing new goods gt Basic Stats 0 The average family is making half of what they were before 0 The average unemployment rate is 20 25 Toledo at 80 0 The banks are closing gt Hoover s Beliefs 0 Laissez faire government should be involved as little as possible Good things will naturally happen they way it needs to Government intervention could hurt the economy more than it could help it 0 Volunteerism No federal government involved with the poor and the unemployed Private individuals churches and other organizations should help the poor Handouts make people lazy 0 Public Relation issues trying to show a face of confidence never visits a soup kitchen good meal in the White House never shows emotion 0 Hooverville in Central Park NYC 1932 Bonus Army Fiasco I Hoover Presidency Bio Belgian Hunger Relief quotWonder Boy Consevative Principals Laissezfaire and voluntarism bonus army fiasco and Election of 1932 Dem FDR victory Causes of the Great Depression Ag Recession of 19205 Income Distribution Inequality Consumer Econ In quotInfant Stage buying on credit Stock Market Speculation buying on margin quotBull Market 192729 Crash Black Tuesday 1929 International Trade reparations retaliatory tariffsHawley Smoot Tariff 1930 Fed Reserve responses
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