HST 103: Western Civilizations - Study Guide
HST 103: Western Civilizations - Study Guide HST 103
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This 32 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Thursday October 16, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to HST 103 at Arizona State University taught by Cartwright in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see Western Civilizations in Arts and Humanities at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/14
Introduction to Western Civilizations 08272014 1 a 1350 The Black Death b 1400 The Italian renascence c 1500 the protestant reformation late Tudors d 1600 English Civil War e 1700 Scientific Revolution and enlightenment f 1700 late the American Revolution 2 E a Beginning 1280 b European map taking shape c The Holy Roman Empire d Chaotic map e New world not discovered yet 3 a i Bellatores 1 Those who Fight Upper cass ii Oratores 1 Those who pray clergy upper cass iii Laborares 1 Those who work Everyone else iv No middle class during this period v Most dramatic changes shifts in social class b i Lord of the manor anyone who owns land an estate can be a king count knight abbot bishop 1 Provide to peasants a Protection i The lords court b Justice ii Peasants 1 Under lord a They provide to lord i Rent in goods H Labor iii Fees for mills tolls etc 2 Lives in small village and worked in the woods and farm land 3 Many generations were born lived and died in the same village i Europe s agriculture was booming 1 Made lords extremely wealthy 2 Kings and nobility were even richer i Crusades 1 Start around 11001300 rough dates 2 Westerns head to middle east to re conquer the holy land a Not very successful b However they opened up western trade routes for the first time since the roman empire i Silk ii China iii Other goods a Beginning of a demand for luxury goods 1 Education and knowledge flourished as a result a Islamic had amazing advances i Medicine ii Physics iii Anatomy b Revolutionized the western world i Fresh influx of knowledge 1 Small renascence b 12t century Renaissance Birth of Universities i Rampaging students and poor faculty issues forced the idea of universities 1 U of Paris was founded as a result of a brawl between Germans and Parisian students a Were kicked out and governed themselves b The university was formed ii Chartres Cathedral 1 Gothic Architecture a b c New style Focus on height and size Engineering is making huge strides i Trial and error Flying buttress i Vaulted roofs caused weight down and out on the walls leads to damage 1 Pillars that connect to the building and force the weight directly down making the walls able to hold no weight Sainte Chapelle Paris i Gothic Chapelle in the center in the Paris 1 Louie the 9quot to house a relic the holy thorn Jesus s crown he got during a crusade a People thought relics has the same power that they were trying to honor Changes on 120039s O8272014 1 a b c d Increase in population production Increase in price of goods wealth of lord Increasing stratification of peasant class Development of cities and towns 2 8 To satisfy the needs of the people in the castles at Bruges 13 merchants with luxury articles began to surge around the gate then the wine seers came finally the inn keepers arrived to feed and lodge the people who had business with the prince so many houses were built that soon a great city was created i Chronicles of St Bertain on the city of Bruges Medieval cities were build from commerce and the towns grew around the nobility and the merchants who came to do business Cities were very dirty due to the fact there was no formal sewage system i Mortality rates in city are higher then country hygiene was a main issue d Were very tight e Guild i Unions of people within the same trade 1 Guild of blacksmiths carpenters etc 2 Set fixed price between the merchants Oversee and force the price of a good Guilds from different cities were supported by each other Social connections a Guild halls central social place families meet ii Compagnia quot39gt 3 Changes on 120039s 08272014 1 Union of wealthy man 2 Italian word company 3 Usually among merchants a Would pool resources to make new ventures i Oversea trade ii Buying of goods 4 Spread risk and allows them to make more business like the importation of luxury goods 5 Foreign goods flooded through Europe as a result of this iii Commune 1 A communal government where different people try to establish a council of elite men to govern the land against the lord a Must be bought out i Good early bad later 2 Can establish courts and a judicial system 3 Regulate commerce and no tax s 3 j a Medieval Warm Period i 8001300 ii Allowed farmers to get to yields of crops a year b Great Famine i 131522 1 When it warmed up the crops were lost by about 75 for about 3 years Changes on 120039s 08272014 2 It rained all summer and didn t allow crops to grow 3 Took 5 years to recover and establish pre famine food surpluses 4 About 20 of the population was lost possibly 30 b The Black Death 1346 13471351 i Found on the black sea at an Italian outpost by Constantinople ii Theory of how it landed in Europe 1 Mongols sent bodies of dead to Europe and the fleas who lived on the ships they transmitted the disease to genoa and then it spread incredibly quick One year it spread to England and Scandinavia It was mysterious no one knew anything Estimated 5070 of the western population died within 3 years Most diseases in medieval times hit the lower class due to malnutrition and unsanitary situations vii Black death did not spear anyone viii A lot of people thought the Black Death was caused by god plaguing the Christian western society ix Pogroms 1 Violent mob activity against a religious group a Mainly against Jews during the time 2 Stopped by church x Flagellants 1 People who repented their sins to god by traveling through town in rags whipping themselves xi Miasma 1 The cause of sickness by bad air 5 lt 2quot 55 Changes on 120039s 08272014 2 Doctors believed to ward of the sickness by smelling good things a Bird masks with herbs flowers Knowledge didn t know much about disease transmission and ended up infecting more then helping 2 a Shortage of workers xii i Fall in prices for agricultural goods ii Changes in government iii Benefit of life for lower class citizens 1 Free time 2 Quality of life 3 Food and shelter 4 Education of the world iv Ordinance of laborers 1 1349 a reestablishment of servant workers to nobility to the pre black death quality and wages i Changes to diet housing ii Sumptuary Laws 1 Curve consumption a Ex from Florence Women cant wear more then one ring with not gems etc b Non nobes could not wear velvets and furs The late 13quot Century Papacy in Action 08272014 1 Vast majority of medieval Europe was catholic The late 13quot Century Papacy in Action 08272014 a 99 looks to the pope for religious and life guidance and also as a role model b popes could do anything even excommunicate kings and declare a religious halt in countries c The pope has incredible power 2 In late 1200 s people argued the power that the pope had 3 Papacy made a large profit on the crusades 4 The Papacy of Overreaches Boniface Vlll 12951303 a 1296 i Papal Bull Cericos Laicos 1 Only the pope can tax the clergy b Response of Philip IV of France c 1302 i Papal Bull Unam Sanctam 1 All secular power was subject to the church d The Outrage at Anagni 1030 i Boniface was on vacation here in Italy close to the border ii 300 French soldiers stormed and captured the pope and threw him in a dungeon He never recovered iv Dies at the end of 1303 1 Papal election a Long debating The late 13quot Century Papacy in Action O8272014 b 2 candidates French and Italian 5 The papacy of Clement V 13051314 a Apologized to Philip for Anagni b Trial of the Templars i Supported the crusades ii Extremely wealthy iii Wanted to fight the English and wanted to seize the land of the Knights Templar 1 Put entire order on trial everyone 2 Ridiculous accusations in a French court 3 All found guilty 4 Philip got all their money and all of their land c Absolution of Anagni i Support for French and apologized for Anagni d The Avignon Papacy 13091377 i Moved everything to the south of France 6 The Avignon Papacy End of the international church The black death occurs and the pope is not in Rome No one in strong control of religious Europe Possible why the chaos occurred Behavior of popes was less then desirable FD90quot The late 13quot Century Papacy in Action 08272014 i Selling indulgences 1 in the authority of all the saints and in compassion towards you I absolve you from all sins and misdeeds and remit all punishment for ten days Johannes Tetzel 2 Buying the right to have your sins absolved and limit the time people stay in purgatory ii Gregory XI 1 The newly elected Pope 2 Returned to Rome 1377 a Reclaim prestige 3 Less then a year after being back in Rome Gregory passed away 4 1378 the people camped out demanding that an Italian pope be reelected a Urban VI b Was only elected because he was Italian and he was there i Paranoid about the French ii After a month all French cardinals left and reelected a French cardinal in Avignon 7 The great western schism 13781417 a Pope Clement VII 1378 Avignon b Pope Urban VI 1378 i First thing they did was try and excommunicate each other c Kings tried to hold control of their own clergy a in 1408 cardinals in Rome left to Piza i held a church council to resolve the issue ii excommunicated the popes and elected a new pope in Piza in 1409 The late 13quot Century Papacy in Action 08272014 1 Pope Alexander V iii In 1417 a group of Cardinals from all Papal organizations 1 14171420 The Council of Constance a brought international bishops b outside support was needed 2 excommunicated all three popes and elected a new one with the support of kings bishops and the cardinals of Europe 3 new pope elected iv Election of Martin V v Conciliarism 1 Movement where councils controlled beliefs and judicial problems vi Martin V already declared his power and didn t claim the council to have authority over him vii Popes were not allowed to tax internationally viii Kings questioned them ix Popes had to manipulate kings to do things x The power would never be regained New Technology of 15 Century 08272014 1 100 years war a 13371453 b Governments have a way with war that goes with the personality of the kings 2 Henry V of England a No longer under protection of strictly the nobility b 1400 s changed this 3 Charles VI of France a Madman b Not a trusting leader people were afraid he might kill people on his side 4 1415 Agincourt a Major Battle b Crazy technological advanced c Changes of social structure d New weapons i Pike 10 ft long pole with a blade on the end ii Longbow and Crossbow 1 Greater advance in warfare 2 Easy to distribute 3 Longbow required skill a Discovered in Wales b Had advantage with speed reloading New Technology of 15 Century 08272014 4 67 vs 12 arrows per minute Really wet made French charge futile 13 record of peasants defeating nobles Other kings began to modernize their armies and gain peasant foot solders h Warfare was changed from then 5 1420 Treaty of Troyes a English and French peace treaty b Core between Henry and Charles Charles VI made Henry V the heir and inherit France i Has child Henry VI the heir to England and France 6 Joan of Arc a 14 year old peasant b Came to see Charles VII and told him she had a vision and said to turn the army over to her and he would be the rightful leader of France c Was given control d Retook Paris in 1429 from England e Captured by English in 1430s and put on trial for being a witch 7 Cannons a Gunpowder had been discovered during the 1300 s but perfected then b Small and reliable or big and delivered shock and awe c 1453 2 cities conquered 8 More Technical Innovations a Lots of developments in Italy Pquot New Technology of 15 Century O8272014 b Merchants and bankers in the 15quot century i First system of banking almost like modern times discovered by the Medici Family ii Insurance 1 Emerged to the risk of everyday life iii Metal was the only form of money 1 Weight of the coin is worth that of the metal iv Lenses 1 Middle easterners developed and came to Europe in the 1200 s 2 No practical applications until 1400 s 3 Try and correct the natural world v Clocks 1 Known from 1200 s 2 Developed to make better in 1400 s Time was much more fluid People began to have time looked at in a more regulated way quot39gt 3 The Renaissance 08272014 1 The Rebirth a Rebirth of society and cultures i Italian Renaissance 1 Begins in 14quot century ii Northern Renaissance 1 Begins in the 16quot century 2 The fabulous new forms of art 3 The intellectual advances a The printing press i Rumor Johannes Gutenberg in 1455 1 Real story a man from Germany in Europe trying to make money ii The Gutenberg Bible 1 First printed book in 1455 2 Printed in Latin a Aimed toward the highly educated and wealthy people 3 Owning books were a status symbol iii Movable type moving letters etc 4 Humanism a Emphasis on the liberal arts and public service b Revival of roman authors c Revival of classical Latin studies The Renaissance 08272014 5 Francesco Petrarca a 13041375 b Works of cicero c Latin vs Vernacular d See the world around us not in religious terms e Language was changed classical and medieval Latin was very different 6 Erasmus a 14691536 b Publication of new Latin Bible i 1516 c Christian Humanism 7 Changes in art a Detail and knowledge in painting techniques realism b Revival of roman sculptures i Stone freestanding usually in front of churches 1 Lots of skill required New artistic themes The New World m Spanish monarchy tried to hold a monopoly on chocolate production FDPPPquot Spanish and Portuguese colonies The treaty of torsilladas 1494 Native Americans terrible slaves a To foreign b To weak Cotton production Tobacco Mining production New pants new crops a Potato incredibly efficient b 600 bushels average c can live solely off of potatoes lots of war in Europe a potatoes are not susceptible to military activity squash tomatoes indigo Europeans were desperate for any arable land Getting strong colors was difficult in regards to clothing Opium was a painkiller stimulants O8272014 The New World 08272014 a Cocaine and chocolate from coca plant b Coffee i Dangerous ii Made people sharp and therefore talked about politics and how they could change it iii Made people more alert and awake 0 Silver and gold a Mexico and south America Took it all back to Spain Richest country In the 1500 s Imported every good they could think of Flooded European with silver it destabilizes the European money market inflation from to much silver wheat price indicates the price of living price of everything starts to skyrocket all classes feel the burden price revoution no rough dates 16001750 more like 1575 apx 39393quotQquot P90quot Ijn The Protestant Reformation 08272014 1 Factors Leading up to the reformation a Crisis in the church i Great schism b Nationalism i Rise in nationalist sense especially in unified states c Humanism i The focus on people in the arts shift in thought among classics and old style rediscovery liberal arts movement d The printing press i The speed that people can get new ideas and how much faster it could spread 2 Reading the scriptures a Exegesis i Problem reading ii Not everyone could read in exegesis because of the specific way of reading iii If you could read the bible without exegesis then someone will go preaching the bible wrong 3 Martin Luther a 14831546 i Monk ii University professor iii Wittenberg iv Justification by faith v Priesthood of all believers The Protestant Reformation 4 95 theses a 1517 b message board to faculty c challenged johann Tetzel i condemning a majority of peasants 5 Pope Leo X a 15171521 6 Categories of the holy order in the Lutheran catechism 1529 a Bishops pastors preachers Civil government Husbands Wives Parents Children Male and female servants hired men and laborers Masters and mistresses Young persons in general j Widows k All in common I Sacraments i Baptism ii Eucharist W Penance 7 John Calvin a 15091564 i 1528 1 Master of Theology Paris 2 15361537 39393quotQquot P90quot in Geneva O8272014 Politics of the reformation O8272014 O8272014 O8272014 O8272014 O8272014 O8272014 Tudors protestant reformation 08272014 1 The king s great matter a Thomas More Thomas Cromwell c Thomas Cranmer i Catholic the Chaplin of Amblin d Reformation parliament 152936 i Subjected to the clergy to common law ii Limited tithes to Rome iii Banned appeals to Rome iv 1534 Act of Supremacy v 1535 Act of Succession 1 the supreme authority that the king has the ultimate dominion under everything in his state 2 The Anglican Church 3 Henry VIII and Jane Seymour 0quot O8272014 O8272014 O8272014
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