The Newborn I & II
The Newborn I & II CPSY 2301
U of M
Popular in Introductory Child Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
verified elite notetaker
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Friday October 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CPSY 2301 at University of Minnesota taught by Henriette Warren in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Introductory Child Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
Reviews for The Newborn I & II
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/02/15
The Newborn I amp 11 September 22 2015 1 Average baby weights a bit more than 7 pounds 3 kilograms at birth 195 or so inches 50 cm long head circumferences of about 14 inches 36 cm In just 12 short weeks the baby will gain approximately 6 pounds amp grow more than 4 inches length Neurogenesis The process by which neurons are generated from the neural stem cells amp progenitor cells Proliferation of neurons through cell division Is the most active during prenatal development amp is responsible for populating the growing brain with neurons Synaptogenesis The process of synapse formation Forming connections with other neurons Synaptic pruning The process of selective dyingoff of nonfunctional synapses Eliminating synapse that are rarely used needed Myelination Product of myelin around an axon A fatty sheath that greatly speeds processing Brain plasticity Refers to changes in neural pathways amp synapses due to changes in behavior environment neural process thinking amp emotions Experimentexpect plasticity How brain learns information from experiments that it can expect to encounter Connections already present Expect to have things to see sounds to hear objects to touch similar to all people Irreversible reduction in visual activity in cats occurs if an eye is deprived of visual input because of a cataract early in life we expect it to act Experiencedependent plasticity How the brain learns information that depends on our individual experiences New connections are made as learning occurs Depends on what our unique experiences are different for all people Violinists with years of practice amp training have an increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand Violine is not something we expect someone knows Although brain development in large measure tales place according to strictly internal biological process the environment also plays a major role in shaping the brain s structures Sensitives periods Open a window of opportunity where experiences have a greater impact on certain areas of brain development During sensitive periods the brain is mostly likely to strengthen important connections amp eliminate unneeded ones in a specific part of the brain What do we know Very few if any true critical periods It s broader amp more exible than critical periods Windows of opportunity may narrow but already rarely close 5 Visual Preference If the infant looks longer at 1 stimulus compared to the other we can assume The infant prefer the one shehe looks longer at The infant has the ability to distinguish the 2 stimuli from each other Habituation Habituation Present stimulus repeatedly until response decrease Dishabituation Present novel stimulus amp look fro increase in response The infant has identified the stimulus as novel If dishabituation occurs it is to be assumed Violation of Expectation Show 2 events 1 consistent with expectations 1 violated expectations Infants like adults look longer at something they perceive to be impossible 6 Condition Since fetuses respond to sounds outside the mother s womb it is no surprise that newborns respond to sound immediately after birth They will turn their head toward the source of the noise an indication that they perceive sound as roughly localized in space However newbom s hearing is not as acute for some parts of the sound spectrum as it will be when they are older Very young infants are able to perceive all the categorical sound distinctions used in all the world s languages Prefer to listen to Sensitive to broad range to pitches Hear high frequencies better than low frequencies Sensitive to the smallest sound categories in human speech that distinguish meanings Eimas Study Categorical perception Phonemes Smallest meaningful sound categories in human sound bapa 2 months old can distinguish phonemes So they seem to be born prepared to learn language Picking up meaningful differences 7 The lens of the eye amp the cells of the retina are somewhat immature limiting visual sharpness In addition the movements of the baby s eyes are not coordinated well enough to align the images on the 2 retinas to form a clear composite image Limitations Not as sufficient as adults when looking images Immature fovea having difficulty interpreting images Adults tiny spots with 50000conts Infants twice as big stumplike cons littered with other cells Visual Activity Visual activity is poor Infants are nearsighted Reasons we know that Smallest trips newborns can detect are 30X wider than what adults can detect Much improved through not yet adult like by 68 months of age Color Vision Newborns make some color discriminations but not all At birth grey vs red green amp yellow By 2 months basically adult like Depth Perception 3 types of cues 1 Kinetic operate from birth cues created by environment Very adaptive protects from humanO 2 Binocular Operate by 4 months cues that rely on binocular disparity 3 Pictorial Operate by 7 months cues that render depth in 2D images able to see details smaller background the closer the object the bigger it will be 8 Research shows that a sweet taste has a calming effect on crying babies amp diminishes indication of pain both physiological amp behavioral helping babies cope with aversive situations Studies shows that babies only 2 hours old produce different facial expressions in response to bitter sour amp salty tastes Flavors from the mother s diet are transmitted to her newborn by way of her breast milk Mennella amp Beauchanp 1999 In the study pregnant women who planned on breastfeeding their infants were randomly assigned to experimental amp control groups Compared with infants in the control group the infants who had been exposed to carrot avored amniotic uid or breast milk exhibited fewer negative facial expressions when being fed carrotfavored cereal than when being fed cereal mixed with water amp they tended to eat more of the avored cereal 9 Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov 18491936 He showed that after several experiences of hearing a tone just before food was placed in its mouth the dog would begin to salivate in response to the tone before it received any food Pavlov had caused the dog to learn to expect food when it heard the tone amp its mouth watered as a result Conditioned stimulus a tone Unconditioned stimulus food in the mouth Conditioned responses When the unconditioned responses salivation in response to food in the mouth occurs in response to the CS the tone Unconditioned responses salivation One of Pavlov s coworkers demonstrated conditioned feeding responses in a 14 month old infant based on the principle of classical conditioning The baby opened his mouth amp made sucking motions CRs at the sight of a glass of milk CS When a bell a new CS was sounded on several occasions just before the glass of milk was presented the baby began to open his mouth amp suck at the sound of the bell There is no biological connection between the sound of a bell amp the mouthopening amp sucking responses it elicited The fact that the new stimuli elicited theses responses shows that learning has occurred 10 Operant conditioning in young infants has been experimentally demonstrated with a variety of reinforces such as milk sweet substances the opportunity to suck on a pacifier the sound of a heartbeat or the mother s voice amp the appearance of an interesting visual display An elegant produce demonstrates how infants will repeat behaviors in order to produce interesting visual effects 11 Learning is an important contributor to the development of behavior organization comes from studies that show that even very young infants are capable of remembering what they have learned from one testing session to the next a capacity that improves markedly during the first few months of life Re exes in born automatic responses to stimulation Adaptive survival value Rooting When touched on the cheek the baby turns head in the direction of the touch amp opens mouth Function Component of nursing Sucking The baby sucks when something is put into his or her mouth Function Fundamental component of nursing Past adaptive value Moro If a baby experience a sudden dropping sensation while being held or hears a loud noise the baby will throw the arms outward while arching backward amp the then bring the arms together as if grasping something Function Disputed its presence at birth amp late disappearance are a basic sign of normal neurological development No know adaptive value Babinski When the bottom of the baby s foot is stroked the toes fan out amp then curl Function Presenceat birth amp normal course of decline are a basic index of normal neurological condition Starting points Grasping When a finger or some other object is pressed against the baby s palm the baby s fingers close around it Function Presence at birth amp later disappearance is a basic sign of normal neurological development Stepping When held upright over a at surface the baby makes rhythmic leg movements Function Disputed it maybe only a kicking motion or it may be a component of later voluntary walking Debate The disappearance of the stepping re ex Present in newborns Disappears by 3 months Reappears as voluntary stepping 1012 months Re ex disappears should not be a result of cortical maturation as other starting points are more continuous e g reaching grasping Thelen As baby grows bigger Muscles are not strong enough to move legs when standing Put their legs in the watergt stepping actions reappear in water 12 Recent research has suggested that the stress of traditional NICUS may attribute to babies difficulties Preterm babies often experience episodes in which the oxygen in their blood drops to dangerous levels This stress of the NICU is experienced at a critical time in the development of the brain s neuronal circuitry B abies are watched for cues that they are hungry or need changing Stethoscope are warmed before they are placed on the baby s chest incubators look more like cozy nests than sterile platformsamp family members are included in the baby s care 13 Common states of arousal for a newborn Active Sleep 8 hours Quite Sleep 8 hours Alert Sleep 2 hours Active Sleep 25 hours Crying 2 hours 16 hours they spend on sleeping REM sleep Why so much time in REM sleep Autostimulation Theory REM makes up for absence of visual input during sleep Boismeyer Study Varied level of newborn visual experience while awake Newborn s who are provided with more visual stimulation during alert state decrease in REM sleep 14 Different Values US independent amp privacy Other cultures interdependence Fear of smothering infant Major industry built up around getting kids to sleep Morelli et al 1992 Middle class mothers in the United States Rural Mayan mothers in Guatemala None of the US parents in the study allowed their infants to sleep with them Many parents kept the sleeping child in a nearly crib for the first few months but soon moved the baby to a separate room In US I think he would be more dependent Mayan Always had each new child sleep in bed with them until the next baby was born They insisted that this was the only right to do 15 SIDS Suddenly Infant Death Syndrome Sudden unexplained death of infant as a result of failure to continue breathing during sleep Low birth weight Smoking during or after pregnancy Sleeping on stomach especially on soft bedding material Other risk factors Formula feeding being male Prevented Quiet smoking during pregnancy Don t exposure to tabacco smoke or secondary Tabacco Breast fedding babies Don t place infants to sleep on their stomach 16 Effect Either to get attention or because they are bored As a signal to promote caregiving when the infant is hungry in pain or separated from its caregiver Adaptive Function All adults respond to babies crying with higher rate higher bp anxiety Interpreting cues amp ability to soothe improves with experience Smoothing rocking Feeding charging etc Crosscultural evidence suggests that infants cry less When their culture s care giVing practices include proximal care that is prolonged holding frequent breastfeeding rapid response to infant frets amp cries amp cosleeping with infants at night In several African Cultures These practices have been found to different extents in Western cultures amp the differences have similar repercussion for infant crying
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'