Eco&Mgmt Study Guide 1
Eco&Mgmt Study Guide 1 390
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Wildlife Ecology and Management Exam 1 Study Guide What is Wildlife In general the wildlife profession considers wildlife to be freeliving Wild animals excluding feral or exotic species of major signi cance to humansquot Week 1 History of Wildlife Management lmportant Court Cases look at background verdict and implications 5th Amendment Takings Clause Public Trust Doctrine Roman Empire 27BC 6OOAD Animals largely considered belonging to everyone or no one at all such as with the air amp ocean Animals only became property if captured or killed lawfully on one s own property However hunting was very common Display of slaying animals form of entertainment Roman Coliseum Saxon Invasion of England 4OOAD Distribution of land based on nobility Royal forests established but only to be used by the king Medieval Period 6001300 Feudal System taking of animals prohibited and limited weapon access Robin Hood William the Conqueror Normans 1066 AD expanded royal forest areas government could manage private lands for wildlife hunting permit aowed person to hunt on their own land possibly others but still restricted to noble class By 13OO many franchises had been issued especially for shing in waterways l problems arose with decreasing numbers of sh and available water Parliament passed Quali cation Statutes very exclusive hunting permits for wealthy avaiabe for individuals meeting certain standards 16005 and 17005 1677 Connecticut prohibits game exports 1739 1St game warden in Massachusetts 1776 1St game law regulating deer season 1791 5th Amendment rati ed quottakingsquot clause Many regulate takings disputes arise in context of land use regulation The Supreme Court doesn t require government compensation when said regulations dramatically increase government interests AND the regulations don t prevent landowners from pro ting through use of therand 18005 Transcendentalism movement originating in New England in 18305505 features a direct relationship with nature Intrinsic Value 1839 m by Emerson 1842 v Foundation of Public Trust Doctrine trust relationship has origins in other historic laws but the public trust in wildlife is considered to be distinctly American 3 Principles Wildlife can be owned by no individual but is held by the state in trust for all the people As trustee the state has no power to delegate its trust duties and no freedom to transfer trust ownership or management of assets to private concerns 1664 1849 The state has the af rmative duty to ful ll trust responsibilities i e it cannot sit by idly While trust resources are depleted or wasted Riparian landowner on New Jersey Raritan River claimed to own both riparian areas and land beneath the river Justification featured grant issued from King Charles to Duke of York ChiefJustice s verdict was lands held by the King as a public trust Used the Magna Carta to determine the King did not have authority to make a grant of that area Establishment of Department of the Interior see the many other sub agencies in DOI 1854 1859 1862 1865 1871 1872 1886 1896 Late 1890 Walden by Thoreau On the Origin of Species by Darwin Lincoln signs Land Grant Act 1St Game Department The Descent of Man by Darwin Formation of Forest Division aka Forest Service President Grant established 1St National Park Yellowstone Formation of Audubon Society V articuated a theory of state ownership of wildlife Geer was convicted of moving lawfully harvested game birds out of CN ChiefJustice traced history of government control over wildlife l determined had the right to regulate commonalities in game which was to act as a trust for the bene t of the peoplequot 18005 early 19005 John Muir preservation of wildlife advocate founder of National Park and 1894ClevelandYellowstone Protection Act combat poachingtrapping no removal of any species unless deemed deleterious to wildlife integrity 1900Lacey Act Federal Law prohibits trade in wildlife sh and plants illegally taken penalties for violators Secretary of Interior allowed adopting all necessary measures for preservation distribution introduction and restoration of birds reguates introduction of birds and animals to places where they have never existed before 1 time enacted to protect Wildlife President Theodore Roosevelt 19011909 contributed to formation of Bureau of Biological Survey 1905 estabished Boone and Crockett Club 1887 Reduced role of state and local government emphasized federal role in management of natural resources Reclamation Act 1902 federal funds to build reservoirs and irrigations words met some resistance from impacts to wild lands amp the wildlife that came with them Peican lsland 1St National Wildlife Refuge 1903 Gifford Pinchot appointed to lead US Forest Service Antiquities Act 1906 created extensive areas dedicated to conservation across the nation 19091933 Period of focus on eco development Taft Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover less on conservation 1913 Pennsylvania issues 1St state hunting license 19141918 WWI 1918 Migratory Bird Treaty Act MBTA unawfu to lnternational Law applied to the States as well fundamentay important when rst issued but doesn t have much effect in nowadays 1930s Aldo Leopold father of wildlife conservation in US author of San Antonio Almanac 1933 Game Management managed species through predator control In addition Dust Bowl result of drought and overfarming Great Depression 1933 FDR becomes President 19331945 Civiian Conservation Corps CCC Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Soi Erosion Service now NCRS Tayor Grazing Act Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp now Duck Stamp pays fees back into wildlife research 1936 The Wildlife Society Formed 1937 PittmanRobertson Federal Aid In Wildlife Restoration Act 11 tax that has been used for funding wildlife research projects Late 30s Bureau of Fisheries and Biological Survey merged to form US Fish amp Wildlife Service 193945 WWII 1942 Bailey v Holland Prohibition of hunting on private lands adjacent to refuge but without adequate compensation Potential violation of 5th amendment Takings Clause 1940s60s Green Revolution Normal Borlaug use of chemicals to increase food output rst primitive applications of GMOs 1947 Federal Insecticide Fungicide Rodenticide Act FERPA 1St to regulate chemicals in environment 1947905 Cold War 195053 Korean War 19505 US in Vietnam escalated in early 605 1950 Lansden v Hart Government closing of hunting on private property without compensation lanother violation of the 5th Amendment s Takings Clause 1960 Sikes Act sh wildlife natural resources protected and enhanced conservation promoted while allowing military lands to meet operational military needs argey done through Integrated Natural Resource Management Plan INRMP federa act obligates another federal power to manage wildlife 1962 Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring documents environmental effects of pesticides accusations towards chemical industry of corruption New perspective advocates towards environmental health and human health 1964 Wilderness Act secure wilderness for future generations Late 605 Forming of Organizations and Clubs Environmental Defense Fund Sierra Club World Wildlife Fund Conservation International etc Environmental Movement Increases in Popularity Environmental Disasters Recognizing effects of toxic chemicals Man on the Moon see all available resources aren t in nite 1969 Nixon becomes President 69 74 What Environmental Acts did he establish while in of ce 1970 1St Earth Day Late 19005 1970 Hughes v Oklahoma Congress governs wildlife on federal lands In terms of legislation on wildlife supremacy clause will trump state law 1978 Tennessee Valley Authority v Hill Teico Dam project delayed due to snail darter keeping water enclosed in reservoir would lead to loss of habitat makes a hallmark of endangered species cases WHY 1992 Clinton becomes president 19922000 1996 All DOI scientists joined to National Biological Survey renamed the Biological Resource Division of USGS Formation of Cooperative Ecosystem Study Units CESUs 20005 Conservation and Reinvestment Act CARA proposed by not fully supported Caralitequot created State Wildlife Grant program Week 2 Habitats and Populations how muchhow many How good is it Quality or Condition What factors are driving the How goodquot quality of habitat or trajectory of populations can we change the how many to achieve a desired outcome and how Habitat What is habitat an organism s habitat and its behavioral adaptations GE Hutchinson 1957 an n dimensional hypervolume enclosing the complete range of conditions under which an organism reproduces itself in theory all variable relevant to life history of an organism must be included temperature X moisture gradient X light 3D plot Niche is important for us to understand all the factors necessary for the organismspecies to live in its habitat Niche range of conditions within the organisms can potentially be found Niche range of conditions within the organisms are actually found in Nature Habitat is the combination of resources and environmental conditions present in an area that produce occupancy by individuals of a given species Elements of Habitat Sum total of speci c resources needed by an organism over time and space Species Range can vary can be migratory range over a year migratory bird broader range based on of organisms living there time frame historic vs current make sure you have proper context s speciesspeci c not associated with vegetation coexisting there May or may not support survival andor reproduction at any given level habitats may vary over time Habitat Use extent a species uses space amount of time organism consumes food exploits resources or lives in area to better understand how species uses factors need to look at Use vs availability use vs nonuse presenceabsence accessibility of an organism to obtain consume exploit How to test for Habitat UseAvailability Sample for Measure Statistical analysis Make prediction can use a map Sample animals with traps motionpointradio collar detectors point counters to produce a grid of points over certain amount of space Mea5ure5 Use YES V5 Nonuse N0 Many methods have margin of error can t detect species results in element of uncertainty Measure Conditions Often vegetative oor density tree height density obstructions canopy cover soi composition topography slopeelevation Remote Sensing GIS Very Useful Sonar Noise Levels Statistical Analysis Compute test statistic Use for predicting drawing conclusions sometimes on the map Evaluate and make predictionconclusion Habitat Preference inferred by examining patternscorrelations of use compared to availability or nonuse Habitat Selection decisionmaking process of an animals in determining where to be in the environment involves innate and learned behaviors involves many sources of information PA39ITERN use vs PROCESS Information for DecisionMaking Perception cognition Previous experience Personal sampling vegetation and geographytopography predators food Socia dynamics conspeci cs around results in competition indicators of habitat quality Often tested with manipulative experiment variable and control is very useful in better understanding decisionmaking process of habitat selection Habitat Quality ability of the habitat combination of resources and conditions to provide for performance outcomes individua survival reproduction population persistence sometimes informationcues organisms use to make decisions for habitat selection are NOT always reliable miseading indicators usualy refers to scenario when cues are decoupled usually in situations where human activities have resulted in changes to environment an organism s otherwise appropriate selection decisions turn out to be a bad choice 1St described in 1970s by Dwernychuk and Boag terns and ducks coexisted Gulls replaced terns terns were good indicator of good habitat gulls weren t protecting the ducks but preyed on duck eggs and young SCALES AND LANDSCAPES many scales areas of resolution for studying ecological topics but no single answer to it all organisms respond differently to resources and conditions at different scales different life stages may interact with scale differently juvenile adult behaviors occur over different scales mating systems dispersal ecoogica patterns and processes change across scales what is scale of management How does that link to what we know about organism s habitat use Scale Components minimum resolution of data usually de ned by sample unit polygon or pixel size scale of data largest area considered size of area being studied and often correlated when we do negrain high resolution it s usually done over small space response data usually associated with grain data on yaxis amp set limits to data resolution what we can infer and understand How do we determine what scale to use want to use extent and grain that s appropriate for question being asked provides data that enables conclusions to be drawn and applied to area in question make ecological sense for organism under investigation evauate type of scale based on organism s perspective anima cognition amp perception ex how hermit crabs utilize resources vs bear Dispersal range Houston toad vs Pronghorn may be based on basis of management goals anthropogenic perspective Landscape and Spatial Ecology species use areas that vary in space factors important to a species may differ at different scales patterns and processes across spatial extents can affect species habitat use and tness context and surrounding landscapes can in uence conditions and dynamics of an area Patchmatrix model Patch Matrix Corridor linear patches that connect other patches Shortcomingslimitations 1 2 Mosaic model variety of cover types or landscape Landscape composition or relative area of coverage for each classi ed type of cover still uses idea of patches in that each element or cover type is described as a discrete unit Patch metrics size shape con guration perimeter interior distance connectivity number of patches function barrier or conduit permeability ability to move through matrix Landscape Continuum Model variegation model uses continuum of cover categories intact cover vs varigated cover vs fragmented cover vs relictual similar to HSM SDM or RSF Acknowledges that other organisms look at landscapes differently from how we do thus how we Classify it incorporates one or more species unique habitat requirements Creates contour of specieshabitat relationships across space intensity of use quality organism s use and performance in space creates visualization ofthelandscape Limitationsshortcomings 1 2 3What about the organism Patchmatrix and mosaic model concepts Edge to interior ratio Linear distance of edge Area of Interior ratio differs depending on species preferences size of patches shape what we see as edges vs functional edges for species of interest important to take organisms perspectives into consideration some species bene t from different cover types at an edge snakes whitetailed deer Others do not GIVE REASONS AS TO WHY OR WHY NOT Ecotone discontinuity in environmental conditions usually measured as transition between 2 different vegetationcover types Corridors and Connectivity see hedgerows roads waterways inear patches ba rrier or conduit l Depends on Organism neither What makes an effective corridor Are corridors essential Are they a good investment PROS CONS keeping species from increased mortality could introduce exotic species maintain genetic health of populations little data to support hypothesis expensive to make Fragmentation of habitat Think speciesspeci c has 3 components 1 2 3 Area Sensitivity Think speciesspeci c area needs to meet speci c requirements type of vegetation available presence use survival mating amp reproduction type of landscape can be linear or threshold relationship various sensitivities Island Biogeography Extinctions should occur less frequently on islands local population sizes if colonization occurs at the same rate on large and small islands islands will support a greater diversity of species Recommendations for protected area design Diamond 1975 arge reserve better than small reserves singe undivided reserve better than several small if divided few large reserves better than many small reserves should be spaced equally from another not linearly lf reserves are linear they should be connected with corridors lf reserve is small and isolated it should be circular and not near Use these ideas and apply them to patches even landbased ones may apply to some species and not others SLOSS Single Large or Several Small DEPENDS ON THE SPECIES Week 3 Look at notes on Habitat Preferences of Brewer s Sparrow by Chalfoun and Martin 2007 POPULATION DYNAMICS Why be interested populations are the fundamental unit of wildlife eco and mgmt management typically working to deal with either r or K Understand m of population How many Any past or current trends increasing or decreasing put pieces together to predict future trajectory ask the important questions declining need protection assess populations to measuring responses from management What is a population be aware of study area what you are studying and other factors when de ning population can differ between managing and biological perspectives behavior can play a complicating role Measures of Population Status how many individuals are in a population snapshot in time Assess by markrecapture usenonuse and useavailability count surveyoccupancy model for given area Population Dynamics and think of bathtub model with top of tub showing K How does this growth rate change over time Nt1N1BI D E A Nt1 N1 LVer dt Births aka birth rate number of young born potential capacity for reproduction ex number of gametes of an individual does not account for actual offspring produced rate differs depending on what you are studying can be tough to measure for some species nesting monitoring for birds radiotracking mammals to nd birth sites and young Sex Ratios usually expressed number ofmaes per female re ects an element of the potential for natality disruption in proportion of males to females can signi cantly affect repro success of a population Sex ratio info is commonly used by Wildlife agencies When studying big game herds agencies manipulate ratios of bucks to does removed from population each year attempt to yield max number of animals harvested while keeping enough bucks in population to ensure suf cient repro effort by females in the upcoming year For polygynous species 1 male and 1 female sex ratios shift to favor the in harvested populations for monogamous species 1 male and 1 female balanced sex ratio 11 is more likely for a maximum possible generation of offspring in terms of game hunting a sexspeci c hunting season could ravage a population even unharvested wildlife populations don t maintain a constant balanced sex ratio Deaths aka Mortality number of deaths aso dif cult to measure ephemera nature tough to identify can use hunter measurementcounting carcassses ook at age at death for animals killed by hunters measuring number of radiotracked individuals age at death alternatey can use survivorship Few wild animals die from solely old age typicaly 1 of several factors affects members of certain species widife population will be exposed to a variety of limiting factors over time causing an overall drop in population size some factors that have a large impact 1 year may be lesser the next the majority of population reductions from mortality factors remain constant mortality one type of mortality largely replaces another while total mort rate stays constant Ex Northern bobwhite quail very cold winters cause many deaths from exposure fewer animals killed by predation mider winters mean more quail survive only to be eaten by predators due to limited cover sti often see same numbers of surviving quail in a habitat from year to year DHabitat to a large extent determines number of animals that survive in a population could be considered a surplus of animals being removed by mortality Factors that affect Natality and Mortality Natality Both Mortality lntraspeci c Competition Predation Disease lnterspeci c Competition Climate Food Availability Reduced habitat Reduces K Emigration and Immigration We often assume effects of emigration and immigration cancel each other out but this isn t always the case very challenging to reach accurate estimates Investigating Population Dynamics Age Distribution prereproductive reproductive postreproductive Age Pyramidgraphical representation of relationship between sex and age of individuals in a population commonly used to used by wildlife agencies for example to estimate increases in whitetailed deer computer models amp simulations can also more accurately re ect this info Life Tables clear systematic picture of survival and mortality be sure to look over and examine parameters of life table on PowerPoint slides Growth Curves Exponential growth ex bacteria in a petri dish erNOe rate is constant no resource limitation quotselected speciesquot cannot occur inde nitely Logistic Growth dN rNK N dz K lndicates where the population is compared to the carrying capacity l density dependence resources limited growth slows as it approaches K quotselected speciesquot Allee effect low population growth at lower population densities ln ection point point on graph where slope begins to decline can be useful when managingharvesting populations observe relationship between population size and growth rate often only a small zone where harvesting members of population can actually bene t Not all sex ratios are created equal not all males bees get to hook up with queen bee Week 4 Populations and Predation f0cu5 0n trophic interactions Predation consumption of resources from another organism historically emphasis was on effects of predators on prey Predator controleradication regardless of consequences Trophic interactions trophic control and trophic cascades Predator prey dynamics see harelynx cycles Hewitt 1921 Elton 1924 Release of predators relatively small carnivores that consume autotrophs producers predators consume both producers and other consumers ie mesopredators Removal of sea otters wolves in Yellowstone can have a cascade effect on rest of ecosystem increa5ing awareness of importance of predators Lynxrabbit Experiments Experiment to test bottomup regulation was it availability of food to rabbits supplemental food raised carrying capacity but still showed cycle Experiment to test topdown regulation exclusion of lynx from certain areas higher density of predators gt lower hare reproduction combined with direct mortality from predators justi es this response LotkaVolterrra model 19205 uses predatorprey interactions as a base model to examine potentially similar effects seen in other populations very simple model Makes several simplifying assumptions wNI i Prey population in absence of predators Where N number of prey r prey growth rate De5cribe5 rate of change of prey population N With respect to time t Composed of difference between prey birth rate and prey mortality rate Where a N population of prey P population of predators Predator population without prey AP P At 1 Predator population with prey Where P number of predators B predator birth rate q predator mortality rate c conversion rate cocPN means increases in the predator population are proportional to predator X prey abundance As P and N increase their encounters are more frequent but the actual rate of consumption depends on attack rate mproved understanding and new viewpoint on predator role more efforts needed to explore needs of predators how prey affects predators Energetics Predator types specialists vs generalists Foraging behavior LV model simple enough to be mathematically manageable amp useful and complex enough to represent a system realistically Caveat l reliance on unrealistic assumptions Prey populations are limited by food resources and not just by predation No predator can consume in nite quantities of prey Better t by models that incorporate terms representing carrying capacity for the prey population realistic functional responses how a predator39s consumption rate changes as prey densities change for the predator population and complexity in the environment Strenseth et a 1997 The plant species in hare diet appears compensatory to each other The predator species may be seen as an internally compensatory factor The lynx populations are regulated from below through prey availability lClassic view of an equal hare lynx interaction is too simplistic the classic food chain structure is inappropriate the hare is in uenced by many predators other than lynx the lynx is primarily in uenced by snowshoe hare Food Habits Prey Selection Generalists vs Specialists can be studied by stomach or scat analysis can be invasive dif cult to discern Observation of actual predation events can be tough to collect Finding and Capturing Food Predator s functional response rate of prey capture as function of prey abundance Type I increasemore dense prey higher consumption until reaching a max rate sope consumer s attack rate possible only when handling time O amp predators don t get fullnot realistic Type II rate of consumption rises with prey density but eventually asymptote and all available time is spent handling prey consumption rate stays constant regardless of increases in prey dens y handling time rather than prey availability limits the number of prey items that a predator can consume handing time for every prey isn t associated with prey density at low prey densities a smaller proportion of predator s time is spent handling prey even if the predator attacks every prey item available no in vol ved Type III similar to Type II EXCEPT at high prey density occurs incorporates potential for or both Learning time improvement of predator s searching and killing effectiveness as prey density increases Foraging searching for food and obtaining resources all about TRADE OFFS Optimal Foraging Theory 1966 meant to describe foraging for an individual understand predatorprey relationships can be helpful with habitat management successfu foraging essential to survival strategic not random use decision theory to predict foraging behavior Optimal Model Forager encounters different prey types amp must choose which prey to attack Prey items have differing pro tability dependent on time to nd prey time amp energy to capture time and energy for handling and eating energy prey provides DUltimately animals choose foraging criteria for maximizing tness They should ignore low pro t prey when more pro table ones are suf ciently available Tradeoff between intake rate amp switching searching for other prey Patch Selection Theory prey is patchily distributed see apple picking depends on how much time individual spends on one patch before moving on to next one amount of travel time if travel time increases optimal time to stay in a patch also increases prey availability in patch drops due to predator s foraging activity depetion of prey evasive actions by prey to maximize net gain of resources predators should leave at the point max net gain that gives greatest gain or food intake per unit of time Assumptions 1 Each patch type is recognized instantaneously 2Travel time between patches 3Gain curve is smooth continuous amp decelerating 4 Central Place Foraging Theory variation of patch model describes the behavior of a forager that must return to a particular place to consume food to hoard food or feed it to a mateoffspring Group Foraging animals nd and eat prey as a group can occur when 1 2 Costs and Bene ts NAME COSTS AND BENEFTIS OF GROUP FORAGING Energy Requirements Metabolism basal metabolic rate BMR seen in many birds and vertebrates often higher for smaller animals To estimate BMR for placental mammals 293 x kgo3975 kjday Activity Daiy actions locomotion grooming preening foraging evading predators etc Assessed by ethnograms activityenergy budgets 5amping across 24hr day in increments is helpful very intensive studying process not a lot to of indepth studies found for this Thermoregulation fairly minor expenditures short term feathers fur undergoes pioerection shiver sweat ong term winter coat fat deposits torporhibernation Production amp Reproduction Somatic growth building bones muscle connective tissue fur feather Reproductive demands often higher for females varies over time over the course of 1 reproductive yearseason Behavioral Interactions Competition intra conspeci cs vs interspeci c members of different species food 5 ace mates competition is antagonistic interaction density dependence is generally negative as density increases tness decreases How prevalent is competition Interspeci c ead5 to radiation of species niche partitioning see warbler nch feeding habits lntraspeci c Competition each individual wants a piece of that resource food elbow room Competition presence of competitors excludes use of resources by others Competition for space amp resources in space Ideal free distribution Fretwell 1972 predicts animals will make decisions about where to go based on quality of patches available Wil choose most pro table patch depends on patch s starting quality and how many others are using resource group of organisms will distribute among patches equallyproportionally in patches of equal value the same individuals will hit the most valuable patches rst and then move onto next most suitable patch Assumptions Food resources only each patch has unique quality determined by available resources Perfect perception and complete information individuals can measure patch quality based on available resources lnstant decision individuals are aware of patch value allowing them to choose the ideal patch Zerosum game increase of individuals in a patch reduces patch quality via competition Democracy ability to move to highest quality patches and all individuals have same competitive abilities Unequal Competitors IFD addressed using weights to show differences in abilities Ideal Despotic Distribution formalize idea of multiple competitive abilities differs depending on how organisms use space nomadic doesn t involve much competition home ranges overlap with other could involve competition Competition territoriality and resource defense lis it worth it what do you spend energy defending cost and bene t to protecting resources Male Barrow s Goldeneyes defend their turf in open water invisible lines on water surface territories not touching shore are smaller less defendable and more energetically and usually left early 5h0reine leaves you With a clear boundary to check and defend Economic defendability defense restricts access to resources different systems vary in amount of restriction benefit COSt territory must ultimately yield net bene ts greater that if using area non territorially defense is more likely when animals can Renewal rate and spatiotemporal patterns of resource high depletion rate low renewal rate fruit trees not good sense to defend high depletion rate high renewal rate more likely termite mounds ant hills resources unpredictable in space and time unlikely to defend resource predictable in time and space more likely to defend Remember all related to negative density dependence and resources are limiting which isn t always the case Dispersal Emigration driven in part by resource availability Natal dispersal juvenile moves from birth site to new location Breeding dispersal adults move between breeding attempts Effective dispersal when either mode of dispersal ultimately results in successful breeding attempt spreading out of genetic lineage can vary by type species motive and distance Why Disperse response to environmental factors resource availability competition density dependence parentalkin aggression Ex Columbian ground squirrels Spanish Imperial Eagles Red foxes lnnate dispersal genetic tendency to disperse sometimes dependent on speci c env conditions in time and space Ex Belding s ground squirrels Positive intraspeci c interactions Group foraging group vigilance dilution effect increased foraging success more eyes looking for good food spots Cooperative defense alarm system confusion andor mobbing behaviors Faciitation presence of an individual can increase bene ts for other species for habitat Mating and reproduction Negative density dependence antagonistic interactions competitive exclusion avoidance ghting separation Positive density dependence correlation between density and tness Allee effect Attraction hanging with the big boys now see lekking clustering Important to conservation habitat available for colonias reproductive capabilities mating opportunity Week 5 Behaviors and Behavioral Interactions Behavioral Ecology interpreting behavior in stimuli explaining it right now vs evolutionary terms Why is this adaptive What behaviors do we observe What are tness bene ts or roles of said behaviors How might changing habitats or populations alter the behaviors Expected effects Management opportunities How do we study behavior focal animal vs scan ock sampling Censusing much harder Continuous recording throughout entire time very dif cult but allows for more complete description Or Discrete Radio telemetry or other tracking useful for migratory mating territory Mating Systems seecting and securing mates is essential for individuals tness determines fecunditynatality many systems to optimize tness outcomes number of genetic offspring qualitysurvival certainty of offspring being their actual genetic offspring allocation of effort towards raising young a depend on environment conditions may be shaped by adaptations resources time and space may shape plumage antlers differing behaviors sexual selection usually not always causes to be fancier shaped by sex ratio see deer hunting when 1 sex is limiting the other sex must compete for them often maintenance of uneven sex ratios Mate choice evolution Direct phenotypes female s preference for male ornamentsdisplay considerabe empirical support for this Sensory bias female genetic preference for male ornamentals for other reasons besides tness to female the males ashy ornamentals may indicate ample resources good habitatterritory which is selected for over generations increasing evidence some male ornaments evolved initialy through sensory bias honest vs dishonest Fisherian sexy son hypothesis may lead to coevolution selfreinforcement direct testing is dif cult lndicator mechanisms good genes handicap mechanisms Ex peacock s extra long tail alleles that complement the genome of the chooser advantageous in cases of dual parenting humans these mechanisms may not be operating alone could be working in tandem Types of Mating Systems Monogamy exclusive association with 1 member of opposite sex genetic monogamy vs monogamy apparent exclusive social bond is formed pair bonds may last for 1 breeding attempt 1 breeding season or several breeding seasons seen in 90 of avian species songbirds and less than 5 in mammals advantageous when femae availability males can t pair with or defend more than 1 female arge female home range femaes are solitary Biparental care for successful rising of young prolonged development stage shaped by permanent group livinggroup structure mongoose wolves Paternity certainty secures 1 partner ties into strong parental care threat of infanticide Types of Monogamy Facultative seen in elephant shrews females can t rear young without help of partners in case of mammals often form family groups longterm seen in many songbirds primates with species that have in habitat polygamy is more likely Extrapair copulations EPCs copulation with others besides matesocial partner Polygamy pair bonds with many mates Polygyny seen in deerone male has many females G for guy femaes join harem ifWhen reproductive success gt than being monogamous often relates to territorial quality Femae Defense Resource defense Scramble competition males seek to mate with as many females as possible Lek polygyny neither females are resources are defendable overdispersed but females may be predictable custered male territories gathered for purpose of display and mating no parental care promiscuity or maledominance polygyny M Allee effect Preferred habitat for display Female preference advantages gain compared to mating at solitary sites WHAT ARE SOME ADVANTAGES Hot female movementdispersal determines lek formation supported for widely dispersed lekking bird species maes tend to cluster on point of highest female density or range overlap Hot the unattractive males will gather around the other attractive ones to jump females go along for the ride kleptoparasitism cannot be only explanation for lekking very high bias is female choice Kin selection maes genetically related should get tness bene ts numbers game females have no special preferences more females will be around where large groups of male territories are present causing females to be pulled in and retained in area supported most for lekking ungulates Polyandry 1 female mates with many males very rare mating type parental care is usually by the male seen where 2 parents needed for raising offspring saddlebacked tamarins Polygyandry 2 males and bond with 2 females red foxes Promiscuity indiscriminant sexual relationships lekking usually brief Other behaviors sexual segregation may be seasonal different preferences for habitats age class segregation migration social systems predator avoidance Case Studies Wood ducks timber harvest reduced available nesting habitat tree cavities nest boxes acts as substitute when placed over open water high egg counts but low numberjuveniles Why conspeci c parasitism Relationship between nest accessibility and degree of parasitism Look at Wolves Trigger Trophic Cascade paper Mark Hebblewhite etaL2004
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