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Exam Study Guide psychology 100 srull university of illinois exam 3

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Memory

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

Recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning

Storage

the retention of encoded information over time

retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

Sensory Memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." (Also called declarative memory.)

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention conscious effort

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called procedural memory.)

iconic memory

a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

echoic memory

if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

chunking

often occurs automatically

mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning

shallow processing

encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words

deep processing

tends to yield the best retention

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." (Also called declarative memory.)

hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.)

flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

long-term potentiation

(LTP) an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

mood congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

serial position effect

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

anterograde amnesia

inability to form new memories

retrograde amnesia

an inability to retrieve information from one's past

proactive interference

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

misinformation effect

incorporating misleading info into one's memory of an event

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.

deja vu

that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.

cognition

the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

concept

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

prototype

a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).

algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier -- but also more error-prone -- use of heuristics

heuristic

usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms

insight

it contrasts with strategy-based solutions

conformation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.

mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

intuition

an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

availability heuristic

if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common

overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments

belief perseverance

clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.

intelligence

mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

intelligence test

a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

general intelligence (g)

a general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.

factor analysis

used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score

savant syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.

creativity

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.

emotional intelligence

the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions

mental age

the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.

Stanford-Binet

the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test

Intelligence quotient (IQ)

defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 [thus, IQ = (ma/ca) x 100]. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.

achievement test

a test designed to assess what a person has learned

aptitude test

aptitude is the capacity to learn

standardization

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS)

contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.

normal curve

the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.

reliability

the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting

validity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. (See also content validity and predictive validity.)

content validity

The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.

predictive validity

it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also called criterion-related validity.)

cohort

a group of people from a given time period

crystallized intelligence

tends to increase with age.

fluid intelligence

tends to decrease during late adulthood.

intellectual disability

varies from mild to profound. (Formerly referred to as mental retardation.)

Down Syndrome

a condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21

Heritability

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. the heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

stereotype threat

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.

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