CHAPTER 1-6 STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 1-6 STUDY GUIDE RP & SE 300
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mackenzie Traub on Friday October 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to RP & SE 300 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Aydin Bal in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 226 views. For similar materials see Individuals with Disabilities in Humanities and Social Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Chapter 1 Questions 1 Cooperative teaching has become an increasingly popular strategy in schooling today There are many different approaches to cooperative teaching but each bene ts students with and without disabilities in more ways than one In cooperative teaching a general education teacher and a special education teacher pair up to work together in a normal classroom setting The main goal is to support all students in the classroom regardless of intellectual ability It is important that the general education teacher switches roles periodically with the special education teacher in every scenario Cooperative teaching is bene cial to all students because it does not single out the students with disabilities lt mixes all students together and puts them in an equal learning environment In cooperative teaching students are observed taught put in small groups and encouraged to work with one another It is nice to have two educators in the classroom because they can both critique each other s teaching skills but also learn from one another Overall cooperative learning provides a positive work environment and encourages students to all work together in the classroom setting 2 Labeling can serve as a means for funding and administering education programs They also allow professionals to communicate efficiently and heighten the visibility of the unique needs of persons with disabilities Labels serve as a bias for providing a count of number of individuals with disabilities and help the government schools and organizations in planning needed services Labeling can be seen as a negative aspect though They can lead to stereotyping and can diminish an individual s self esteem Also they can lead to reduced opportunities for normal experiences in school and the community 3 A disability is a restriction caused by a lack of proper functioning ranging from physically to intellectually Some examples of a physical disability would be an absence of a limb deaf or blindness or even arthritis while intellectual disabilities consist of dyslexia attention deficit disorder ADD dysgraphia and many more The restrictions turn into disabilities when they interfere with a person s social educational or economical wellbeing A handicap is the effect or consequence of a disability The problems and obstacles a person faces because of a disability such as not being able to walk upstairs due to paralysis or inability to drive to blindness are all handicaps A person with dyslexia is disabled while their inability to read is the handicap Regardless of the de nitions people with disabilities and handicaps are often discriminated against and their full potential is limited daily Overall there are many differences between being disabled and having a handicap It is important to realize these differences but even more important to see that people with disabilities and handicaps are just as normal as the rest of us 4 Special education is a specially designed instruction to meet unique needs of an individual recognized as exceptional Chapter 2 Questions 5 Component 1 Free appropriate public education FAPE All students regardless of intellectual ability cannot be excluded or rejected from the public education system Component 2 Least Restrictive Environment LRE Students are included in their highest possible environment with classmates who do not have disabilities Component 3 Individualized Education Program IEP An educational plan that helps meet the needs of children with disabilities Component 4Procedural Due Process Con dentiality of records parents rights to legal counseling and access right to an independent evaluation Component 5 Nondiscriminatory Assessment A child has to be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team in every area where they may have a disability Tests must not be racially culturally or linguistically biased Component 6 Parental Participation Parents are equal partners and allowed to participate in the decision making process for their kid s education 6 The Americans With Disabilities Act ADA forbids discrimination against people with disabilities in public and private sectors Employers of 15 or more have to make quotreasonable accommodationsquot so that a quali ed individual with a disability is not discriminated against Also hiring ring and promoting cannot discriminate an applicant or an employee 0 Mass transit systems have to be accessible to people with disabilities 0 Hotels theaters hospitals etc can t discriminate against individuals with disabilities and must be accessible to everyone 0 Companies that provide telephone service must have relay services for individuals with disabilities with hearing or speech impairments 7 An IFSP is an individualized family service plan lFSPs measure an infant s usually under the age of 3 levels of physical cognitive communication socialemotional and adaptive development They are usually early intervention services and are meant to provide a plan that re ects the family s needs and priorities These plans are reviewed every 6 months An lEP individualized education program is also made up of a group of team members These plans are used for children 3 years and older Their disability is already determined and they have a plan set to know where they will go to get assistance for their disability These plans are reviewed once a year unless a parent feels the need to have it reviewed more often 8 Prereferral intervention is instructional strategies brought in by a general educator to help students experiencing difficulty in school These interventions bene t students who are suspected of needing a referral because it incorporates many different educators in the student s life They reduce unwarranted referrals and provide individualized assistance without incorporating special education Chapter 3 Questions 9 Culture is the beliefs and practices of a particular group It is the way people value life and respect the traditions shared in their group Cultural diversity is realizing and respecting the differences between varying cultures and beliefs 10 Bilingual education is controversial because although it can be effective some students are being moved into general education classes too soon Teachers have been moving students in bilingual education up to general education classes after two years because they believe they can show conversational uency Investigators are now saying that students in bilingual education will not reach uency until about ve or six years after they have started the program because the more complex language skills do not come into education until later years 11 There is an overrepresentation of minority groups in special education which means there are more African American and Latino students in special education than there are whiteCaucasian American students This overrepresentation stems from inappropriate placement into special education programs Inappropriate placement mainly comes from false positives which is when a minority student is tests positively for a disability when in fact they are not actually disabled When minority students are placed into these special education classes it takes away their ability to reach their full potential The outcomes are actually very enduring for the students placed into the special education programs 12 The assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse students is perceived to be problematic because the assessment process for these students is not organized It is commonly characterized as quotrandom chaosquot There are not any guidelines for the educators to follow which leads to overrepresentation of minority students in special education Many educators are concerned with the standardized testing because they believe it is culturally unfair to minority students Chapter 4 Questions 13 Researchers have come up with a stage theory which is a hypothesized pattern of parents reaction to the news that their child has a disability The rst stage is the primary phase Some common emotions felt during this stage is shock denial and grief The next state is the secondary phase Reactions during this phase include ambivalence guilt anger and shameembarrassment This is commonly known as a period of emotional disorganization The nal stage is the tertiary phase In this phase parents experience bargaining adaptation and reorganization and acceptanceadjustment Parents nally feel that they have a way to handle their child with a disability 14 The purpose of the eugenics movement was to improve the quality of humankind through controlled selective breeding Basically if you did not have good enough genes to reproduce then you were not allowed to There were laws forbidding marriage between people with intellectual disabilities The main goal was to reduce the amount of un t parents in the world which would reduce the number of inferior offspring The eugenics movement caused tension between the relationships of professionals and parents Parents thought professionals were arrogant and believed they were superior to everyone 15 I believe being patient is the most important characteristic for a professional to have Professionals must make time to work with the individuals and they cannot get aggravated with the individuals if it takes them longer to understand a certain concept I also think they have to show unconditional support towards the individual The only way for them to improve is to know there is someone that will always be there for them the whole way 16 It is important to incorporate the whole family as opposed to just the parents because every family member can affect an individual not just the parents It is important to include everyone in the family so the individual with the disability can receive help from everyone they interact with Chapter 5 Questions 17 Assistive technology includes the devices and services that will improve the functional capabilities of an individual Universal design is the design of curriculum and evaluation procedure that meet the needs of students with intellectual disabilities Assistive technology is an aspect that can support the implementation of universal design The Center for Applied Special Technology has created many different technologies in support of universal design 18 Assistive technology services are the groups that consider select and implement assistive technology devices into schools The services are the groups of people that test out the devices 19 Assistive technology services are mainly provided by assistive technology specialists These are people that are trained to give assistance technology services to any individual that has a disability Most of the time these specialists are not available in school systems When they are not available there are many other substitutes ready Special education teachers speech pathologists occupational therapists and instructional technologists can also provide assistance to these individuals in the school setting 20 The rst purpose is positioning This works on seating and posture and an example would be adjustable height desks The next is mobility and some examples would be a wheelchair and a gait trainer Both of these make it easier for individuals with disabilities to get around The third is augmentative and alternative communication Two examples would be the Picture Exchange Communication System and the ProloqquGo which can be used on an iPad or an iPod The fourth purpose is computer access and the most common example would be alternative keyboards Next is adaptive toys and games Some toys include switchoperated battery toys and braille playing cards The sixth purpose is adaptive environments These help with everyday activities and include adapted utensils bowls and cups as well as motioncontrolled lights Finally the last purpose is instructional aids There are many examples of instructional aids A few would be pencil grips ReadingPen Speechtotext calculators and Etexts Chapter 6 Questions 21 In the past intellectually disabled individuals used to be referred to as mentally retarded It was not until recently that word has been replaced with intellectually disabled It is seen as less offensive and consistent with contemporary terminology In the 19605 intellectual disability was described as quotsub average general intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period and is associated with impairments in adaptive behaviorquot This de nition changed in 1973 to signi cant sub average general intelligence functioning existing concurrently with de cits in adaptive behaviorquot It was very similar to the previous de nition Tat de nition was used mainly throughout the rest of the 20th century The 2002 de nition changed the wording to a more contemporary de nition The biggest difference is that the term quotmentally retardedquot is no longer used 22 First strategy etiological perspective Classify based on medicalbiological causes Second strategy intellectual de cits Use results of an IQ test to determine intellectual level Third strategy educational perspective Classify based on expected or anticipated educational accomplishments Fourth strategy level of support Classify based on the type of assistance needed to function in areas 23 Functional academics are the application of life skills as a means of teaching academic tasks Function academics are a core part of programs for students with mildmoderate intellectual disabilities also known as functional curriculum Some examples of functional academics are following steps in a cookbook calculating change and reading directions in a manual These tasks are related to the concept of communitybased instruction because all of the tasks relate to everyday activities that a majority of people will use around their environment and community 24 Adaptive behavior is de ned as quotthe ability of an individual to meet the standards of personal independence as well as social responsibility appropriate for his or her chronological age and cultural groupquot It can be dif cult to assess adaptive behavior but the most common way is through direct observation structured interviews and standardized scales Family members teachers caregivers and other professionals in the individual s life observe the information Another way to measure the behavior is with the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale DABS It uses three categorical areas conceptual social and practical to provide a precise cutoff point for people that have quotsigni cant limitationsquot in adaptive behavior
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