01:920:216: Sociology of Women - Study Guide
01:920:216: Sociology of Women - Study Guide 01:920:216
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This 33 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Thursday October 16, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 01:920:216 at Drexel University taught by MacKendrick in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 258 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Women in Sociology at Drexel University.
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Date Created: 10/16/14
The Social Construction of Reality The historical process by which our experiences of the world becomes put into categories and treated as real things In relation to gender The Thomas Principle if ppl define situations as real they are real in their consequences ex there is no biological differences in determining the race between ppl but over time ppl considered race to be of more importance than it actually was biologically hence the racial categories we know today Many ppl believe these categories to be real thus they rly do have actual effects on our lives Stereotypes Historical Approach Ppl often think things are real bc that is how they have been and always will be Historically we can show that racial categories for ex have actually changed over time thus calling into question the reality of current racial categories Cross Cultural Approach Ppl of different culture see different truths so then what constitutes a universal truth Racial category can change depending on country you are in Sex or Gender What s the Difference Sex The biological differences bw males and females genetalia Gender The social meanings that are layered onto the biological differences Biosocial Approach Much of what we experience regarding gender is socially constructed Biosocialists believe in sexual dimorphism The claim that sex marks a distinction bw 2 physically and genetically respective categories of ppl that sex exists and we can use certain characteristics to objectively sort ppl into 2 categories m amp f Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia CAH XX chromosomes but masculinization of the genitalia At birth appear to have both a penis and a vagina Likely to have penis removed Androgen insensitivity Syndrome AIS XY chromosomes but feminized genitalia Have a vagina and testes Likely to be raised as a girl despite testes and dvlpmt of masculinity at puberty These infants unlikely to survive childhood w ambiguous genetalia intact doctors perform surgery to fix it lntersexed Refer to any wide number of conditions causing ambiguity in regards to sex lntersex conditions 17 all births More common than albinism Determining sex In past docs went by internal sex organs Now docs go by external sex organs Either way intersexuality makes both ways imperfect methods of determining sex category Sex hormones not differentiated in children until puberty and often a wide variation of their presence and absence anyway Those with AIS have testosterone cannot metabolize so grow breasts Sex hormones are then unreliable for determining sex Genetics XY and XX chromosomes are the norm Those with Turner Syndrome lack a 2 sex chromosome making them XO Those with Kinefeter s Syndrome have 2 X chrom and a Y making them XXY Cannot determine gender based on X0 or XXY Biosocial perspective These variations exist but we fit these variations into the m or f category anyway with a little tweaking of the criteria Strong social constructionism No tweaking poss lntersexuality teaches us us that sex itself is socially constructed Bodies are a blank canvas There is no meaning behind m amp f until we assign meanings to those differences Thus there is no criteria that will consistently and reliably sort ppl into categories of m amp f True for physical and behavioral characteristics For strong social constructionists this means that categories themselves do not work Rather they believe that sexual dimophism is a claim and not the truth Biosocialists believe sexual dimorphism is the truth and not a claim The Cause of Gender Biosocial Perspective Sex precedes and therefor causes gender Babies born assigned a category and based on that assignment raised into an appropriate gender role There are limits however to the degree in which gender can be socially constructed Caused by the biological reality of sex Ex the biological reality that women get preg and nurse babies places limits on gender construction making sex a casual factor dictating how gender gets expressed Strong social constructionist perspective Gender in the form of social meanings causes us to believe there are real categories out there called m amp f Sex itself is socially constructed therefor culture dictates how we understand sex Ex greeks believed in onesex model women just inferior version of males in the hierarchy of gods men slaves dwarves etc this gender system cultural belief shaped the Greeks biological reality Other cultures believe in 3 sex models Diff societies construct diff non dimorphic sex models so sex is socially constructed Gender therefor produced sex Sex Biosocial perspective Sex indicates the existence of 2 diff kinds of ppl mampf Strong social constructionist perspective Sex indicates the belief in 2 kinds of ppl mampf Essentialism amp Constructionism Essentialism Something has an essence which is what gives it its name Similar to biosocial There exists an identifiable essence that makes someone m or f but it does not have to be grounded in biology Believe there are m and f bc god created them for ex Essentialists see gender as timeless and unchangeable Constructionism There is no essence only the unique subjective perspective of ppl See sex and gender as something made up by society Sex and gender have changed over time and can change in the future The Study of Gender Must study in a universal sense If focus on gender experiences on a certain part of the world you will tend to normalize these experiences making what it means to be gendered outside of these areas to be abnormal making a global perspective critical LECTURE Straight Laced a film What is gender Biological and non socioogica explanations for gender differences The biological perspective Focus reproduction physiology chromosomes Biology shaped by ideas of what is normal how can there be a normal for malefemale behavior Sperm are aggressive egg is passive as explained by bio but we could just as easily say the egg is waiting to entrap a sperm How do we use biological cues to make gender attributions Looking at someone else and placing them in a category Biological psychology Hormonal differences endocrine system and the brain s response to that Men are gt aggressive bc of secretion of androgens like testosterone Women sociable empathetic bc of oxytocin Evolutionary biology Men amp women behave in certain ways to perpetuate the species basic survival of the species Women w hips more desirable bc of childbirth Women nurturing by nature so can take care of offspring Men desire gt sexual partners for more offspring Gender rooted in physiology brain endocrine systems Genderbioogica differences Different Cultures Popular psychlinguistics Partly bio reason for the difference in how men and women speak M amp F belong to distinctly diff cultures Men are from Mars Women are from Venus To explain relationship probs miscommunication What determines our sex 23 pairs of chromosomes 2 combos most likely XY male or XX female fetal dvlpmt Yandrogenspenis and testes Dimorphic Ideal 2 category gender system XX amp XY must be normal normal genitalia reproductive system physiological response to hormones lntersex Any hormonal chromosomal or anatomical variation that doesn t fit with Dimorphic Ideal Present at birth not always detected at birth Surgical reassignment after birth bodies changed to fit the 2 category system Sex Biological category based on chromosomal and physiological diffs Sociologists believe that sex exists Gender Socially constructed Gender from a sociological perspective Biological explanations for gender differences Gender differences are rooted in physiology brain endocrine systems Gender is explained mostly by biological diffs and evolutionary adaptations Infidelity in men have evolved into cheating to recreate Only 1 explanation for this behavior Women are nurturing this is evolutionary so they can care for their children Not completely true for all women some may have difficulty adapting to motherhood Dimorphic Ideal Female XX and Male XY individs normal genitalia reproductive system physiological response to hormones an ideal what we are striving for what we want but not necessarily attainable not everyone fits into this ideal intersex Transexual Born to fit dimorphic ideal but born into a sex that you do not identify with Born into the body of a women feel as though should be a male Some undergo surgery to better fit the gender they identify with Body does not match gender identity lntersex Not so much identity issue more physiological issue Discovered at birth or later in life Like when cannot conceive do not go through puberty etc Any hormonal chromosomal or anatomical variation that does not conform to dimorphic ideal Sex Biological category chrom and physiol Diffs Gender Socially constructed category Gender attribution Categorizing These categories are important bc we don t want to address someone as the wrong gender and offend them Gender is a profound category of identity Sexual Dimorphism 2 physically and genetically discrete categories of people only 2 possibilities m orf Essentialism Men and women are diff There exists an identifiable essence that makes ppl different m orf To take essentialist perspectiveagreeing w dimorphic ideal Essence could be behavior attitudechromosomal makeup physiology etc Are men and women really so different Psych study Meta analysis of psychological studies Looked at 128 attributes to see what the gender diffs are Testing a gender similarities hypothesis Looking for the similarities btw men and women different from other studies in the field Attributes ddifference mean for women mean for men Mathematics computation d 014 women outperforming men but this is just by a little Mathematics self confidence d 016 men mean higher Self disclosure d 018 Spatial perception dO44 medium size diff Attribution of success to ability d 013 Interruptions in conversations dO33 Aggression all types dO50 medium size diff Anxiety d032 Conclusion 78 of effect sizes are small or close the the zero range so her hypothesis is supported There are more similarities bw men and women than diffs Biggest Differences Throwing velocity 218 Throwing Distance 198 Attitudes about Causal Sex 081 The Sociological Approach to Gender Pre feminist sociology White men as a proxy Men used as a rep for all ppl Women seen in a private sphere of the home Women are in the home bc diff than men better that way Essentialism Biking with wind at your back when others struggle you attribute it to their personal defect PSYCH you have the wind at your back they are women fighting against the women Privilege A set of unearned advantages and rewards that come from ones status in society Contemporary Perspectives Attn to diff creates gender categories Private troubles as public issues Hoe is gender produced in everyday life and interactions Not just est a birth What is considered appropriately m or f changes Normative idealogy A system of meaning that tells you how the world should work how the world should be Gender is a system of inequality Sociologists are Archaeologists of assumptions Pull assumptions and treat how arch treat the things they pull from the ground What is this where does it come from what does it mean what are its consequences Thomas Principle Social construction of categories If ppl define something as real it actually becomes real in its consequences Gender differences and the confirmation bias Ignoring info that goes against your belief paying attn to things that confirm your belief Social constructionism 2 perspectives Biosocial Sexual dimorphism is real diffs bw m and f exist Much ab gender is social constructed First you have sex and over time gender dvlps Gender diffs in health Men Shorter life expectancy High risk behaviors Production of testosterone Socialization Women Chronic illness Depression and anxiety Has to do with womens immune system balancing multiple social roles Women amp The Workforce Gender Differences The Glass Ceiling Women will get to a certain point and then theres an invisible barrier that keeps them from going up any further The Glass Escalator Refers to subtle and invisible ways that men go up and are promoted when a man enters a female dominated job Assumed that a male in a female dominated job most likely wants to make it to the top nursing Gender Differences Persist Sex segregation Occupational Concentration of men and women in different occupations Engineering is male dominated Job4evel Harder to measure bc one job can have different names Jobs wI engineering 13 of women in 10 occupations teaching nursing admin assistants etc unlikely that men and women will have the same job at the same time of day if they are working together its diff jobs diff level of authority or diff shifts no occupations fully integrated Wage Gap Women s pay at men s pay Even after accounting for type of work amp qualifications Reasons wom make left Don t negotiate for salary while men are socialized to negotiate Wom not aware of the salaries of male counterparts Wom tend to underestimate their abilities amp attribution of success to external rather than internal factors Management 072 Legal 057 Healthcare 078 Lumping together some very different jobs Women drawn more to jobs w flexibility and less strain on family life like pediatrics over surgeons Largest Pay Gap Financial managers 67 67 cents for every dollar men make Legal Occupations all 57 Physicians 64 Female dominated jobs and fields often payed less is this bc women are choosing less valuable jobs or bc women s labor is less valued by society than is men s labor Higher paying jobs tend to have more authority W tend to shy away from jobs that have a lot of authority men are socialized to gravitate toward them Historical Perspective Women entering factories wages lower than men who also worked there Wom willing to work for a lower wage Men feel threatened bc losing job bc owners would rather hire wom and pay them less Labor Organizing Came up with men s machines and women s machines as a solution Men s machines more important so more valueable so more pay Dynamics of Job Segregation Changes to the occupation or industry Entry of low wage workers Change in how worklabor is valued as a result Transitions in Occupations Think computing Originally new and very tehinical and male dominated now more advanced and easier don t need programming skills and female dominated Wages decline due to recession of competition Deskilling the actual skill required to do the job becomes less complicated Job autonomy lose authority over your job and others Causing men to leave Results in gap need someone to fill Women fill these jobs then minorities and immigrants Ghettoization Lower paid women s jobs are separated from higher paid men s jobs in 1 occupa on Real estate Residential real estate and commercial real estate male dominated Commission goes down men more concentrated in commercial so now res real estate is more female dominated Resegregation When an occupation switches over to be female dominated Secretarial work used to be male clerks teaching computing Devaluation Once women enter a job it becomes devalued Gender ideologies Used to support of course women are good teachers they relate well to children Explanations for Gender Segregation Socialization What boys and girls are aspiring to do certain kinds of jobs are girl jobs others are boy jobs Women socialized to go into jobs that are already devalued Sex roles raising boys in the way that they re best suited for jobs of authority girls better suited for those that require interpersonal skills Human capital Education and training By going to college you are investing in your own human capital Women aren t investing in the kinds of human capital that are needed to get to the top of these organizations women aren t choosing to study engineering for ex Gendered organizations Women and minorities more white men as you move up Ideal worker is someone who can invest himherself entirely into the job the joblife Historically men expected to devote themselves entirely to public sphere bc women were in the private sphere so the ideal worker is kinda assumed to be male bc of this Mentor Brings you into their networks teaches you rules of the game prepares you and helps you on your way up Mentors usually male If a young woman comes into a male dominted org ppl are going to talk sleeping to the top if shes being mentored Potential for Equality How does Sheryl Sandberg explain women s failure to rise to the top Sit at the table make your partner a real partner and don t leave before you leave Women not ambitious enough both at work and in the home they need to make more demands and be more aggressive She has good advice for women who want to make it all the way to the very top not necessarily in real life How much choice for this advice You need mentorship to follow this advice Class based advantages End of Men Hannah Rosin For the first time in history the global economy is becoming a place where women are finding more success than men more women are primary breadwinner 4 in 10 households single women out earning single men women better positioned to benefit from a recession economy Gender in Soc Before Feminism Soc Discipline dvlpd by white upper class Uero hetero men Early soc theories found as a response to problems these men perceived of their own lives Industrialization urbanization spread of capitalism 2 problems w the was soc addresses gender in early history 1 Used men as a proxy for all human beings men rep the most important universal human experience gender ignored only men used as research subjects men and women were the same in their experiences womens experiences were not as important 2assumed and reinforced a gender status quo that confined women to private sphere of the home before feminism soc of family was the only part of soc that included women Privilege Set of mostly unearned rewards and benefits that come w a given status position in society Men in soc dprtmts in priv position due to their stat as men Priv bc of their gender so naturally didn t spend much time thinking ab gender 1 reason we must be cautious in trusting the reality of our own views ab gender we could be priv normative ideology makes suggestions about the way things should be rather than just what they are not objective so sociology cant technically be the ultimate science feminist science feminists say the objectivity that scientists aspire toward is usually tainted by social biases of the relevant time period LECTURE Strong Social Constructionism amp Theories of Gender Biosocial Sex dimorph is real Much ab gender is socially constructed Sex gender Strong Social Constructionist Sex dimorph is a social construct Other categories of gender are made to fit to the 2 category system intersec transgender cultures with 3 39 sexes Diff ways of being masculine and feminine Blank canvas Gender sex Want to dismantle a gender categorization system Theories of gender Sex roles Individuallevel Gender resides within each individ Men and women more naturally suited for certain roles There are certain expectations for men expectations for women they each respond to the expectations Functional gender produced bc men and women better at diff things Women nurturing expressive Meninstrumenta task oriented inequality Gender organizations Institutional approach part of the social structure stores bathrooms sports teams marriage all separate m and f advantage and disadvantage control identity for diff genders organizational logics inequality Doing gender Ethnomethodology A perspective that looks at all of the rules that guide how we conduct ourselves in everyday life social norms Garfinkel Agnes Born biologically male identified as female Transgender transsexual Had to learn how to hold herself as a woman Becoming a woman vs performing femininity lnteractional Complexities Gender is performed everyday Gender doesn t just exist within ourselves its interactional we need to perform femininity constantly being produced Gender is an accomplishment If u see yourself as feminine and someone else sees u the same way you have accomplished gender Sex categorization same as gender attributions lf can test If individ can easily be seen as female then we can categorize her this way Accountability Following the rules of masculinityfemininity we are accountable to our gender Allocation explain inequality who gets to do what in an interaction lntersectional ls gender the only category of difference that matters What about race economic status social class How does gender interact w other categories Humor A male practice according to the article Article written in 2007 things have shifted Tina Fey Bridesmaids Theories of gender in the article Sex roles Gender divides wI individs women don t have capacity to be funny bc of their bio role men expected to be funny Doing Gender Approach in the article Accountability If your not funny your not being appropriately masculine your not being accountable for your role as a man Women don t need to be funny to be accountable for femininity What does the article suggest ab female comedians What is gender humor Female comedians successful ones tend to be more masculine hefty dykey Jewish In order to be successful in comedy a woman must let go of accountability to her gender and femininity The Women s Film What forms of inequality do these women experience Women entirely responsible for all the housework occupying jobs but had subordinate positions in those jobs Women occupied a 2 class status relative to men Women s subordinate role in society was instilled at a very young age Housework and responsibility for the domestic sphere women occupy subordinate position in the workplace women experience inequality relative to men sub learned at young age is there one common experience of inequality Are there different experiences of inequality How so Women on welfare all felt the system was not responding to their needs Women support their husbands on the picket lines Key diffs in race black men and women not equal but blacks in general not equal to whites esp in school system Marital status being single a disadvantage Having children added responsibilities Level of edu women less educated social class race marital status education parental status being a mother Thinking of this as a film from the 1970 s how much has changed for women Domestic labor shared more at home more women joining the workforce Men think their wives should be like a slave a footrest Giving a woman a job is as a last resort women cant be a doctor but they can be a nurse Men are always the supervisors men watch women Women objectified used Something to look at someone to do the work no one else wants to do Your occupation as black manwoman is determined at birth If you appear to be too smart put into a slow learning class in the hopes you ll get bored and drop out so less competition for the white man You cant help yourself welfare women stick together Workers men and women being kicked around treated like animals by the pd Women backing their husbands fighting against the scabs Women tend to define themselves only in terms of men bc they know no different As women taught t o be passive in the face of aggression Women don t realize they re oppressed until they compare stories w other women lntersectional Identities The article Becoming Black Women on Sakai up to pg 183 lntersectional Paradigm You cant remove a section of ID its always there and always talking to the other categories of ID You cant be a women wo race informing how you are a woman Gender is a performance but its not driving our performances Race class gender sexuality are not discrete categories the overlap Mutually constituted Categories of ID take meaning in reference to each other talk to each other Multiple forms of oppression or privilege at the same time Based on your ID and depends on the sitch your in Intersectional Identity Work Women tell stories about their college experience Black women in predominantly white unis Thru stories and narratives we build and maintain our identities There are stories we tell others and some we keep inside We draw boundries btw ourselves and others lden es Patricia Hill Collins IDs emerge from negotiation bw Imposed meaning controlling images A stereotypical image that we don t have a lot of control over could be historical media produced etc Black women controlled by stereotypes must conform more ot one or another at times No room for femininity that feels authentic wo conforming to these sterotypes Chosen meanings Controlling Images vs Normative femininity Norm fem assoc w white hetero mid class fem A way of carrying yourself dressing acting etc Those who conform to this tend to get more priv Justify racial oppression Black women have failed at the proper gender performance Identity Work article pg 175 Ways ppl use signifiers to claim and give meaning to their selves Stories are part of our ID work Stories are not Iies but part of a performance ID Not false rep of your life Stories align us w others separate from others create group boundries and memberships Becoming Black Transition from high school to college This transition reinforces one aspect of their ID over another d Uni racial redefinition In high school important categories were gender and social class race neutral enviro Race not activated but class status is relevant Diff sitch activate certain parts of our ID Peer dynamic drives this redef New peers make assumptions Assumps contain stereotypes This category of ID marks them as diff race Why does race become activated in college Overt racism assumptions ab class credentials Black women had to learn how to be black while also anchoring their position as middle class Brandi vs Samantha Brandi from working class starts making friends w working class whites then later learns how to work the black femininity Samantha from upper mid class had to learn norms of fem to fit in w black women To belong to black peer group must perform a middle class black femininity to belong Wom across social class positions learn the codes of middle class blackness Summary Categories of ID are mutually constitutive Diff sitches activate our categories of ID but the other categories are still there Like if you don t have time to wear something nice to go shopping you may feel that your social class is being activated plus are you walking into a target or bloomies Boundary work Finding a place where one belongs How Do We Learn Gender Recap lntersectional theory Multiple and intersecting categories of identity Different experiences and contexts activate our categories of identity but they are never completely separate Our categories of identity can create privilege and discrimination depending on the context Some performances of gender are more valued than others Normative feminism Middle class white hetero sexual Valued more by the media the most valued by culture or society Gender amp Socialization When does socialization start When does it end 1 What was your own process of socialization 2 At what age do you recall developing a gender identity 3 Who were the important people who socialized you 4 Did you model yourself after someone Identify more with a person in your family Was socialization fair compare to siblingscousins Socialization Member of any group Constant process we re always being socialized into new groups Gender socialization Gender norms and identity Sex assignment Conditions for socialization exists before birth adults have expectations for girls and boys Gender Norms Gender Identity 1 Agents of socialization primary group family friends peers Institutions law school 2 Targets Children adults Family Birth Name Names can be gendering Gender norms located in family cultural identity Expectations based on gender birth order future contribution to family Relative to siblings Theories of Socialization 1 Social Learning Theory psychology and behaviorism rewardspunishment sex typed behavior learned through these usually subtle Latent Learning lden ca on Child starts to identify as bg and with their same sex parent Identify w adult modeling imitation Children passive in this theory 2 Cognitive Dvlpt Theory Piaget children are active in their own socialization Stage of cognitive dvlpt important Acquire a gender identity at an age when their brain is more mature First stage recognize genders acquire identity 25 3 yrs old Gender stability age 5 realize their gender is permanent Gender constancy age 7 realize gender is a fundamental category of difference if w dresses as man understand that it is a w Late in childhood cognitive readiness 3 Gender Schema Theory is everything gendered Bem why is sex an important organizing principle around which children build theuiden es Gender Schema a lens to organize the world a way of making associations thru gender Children socialize themselves through these schema kids active Learn the content of the schema and appropriate associations then place themselves in one of those schema femmasc Also explains culture Socialization in Ango European Society Gender schema theory and the role of culture and society Most societies believe that they would not func wo sex as a basic category of organization Gender usually learned before race social status etc Ango Euro culture shaped by gender schema Androcentrism Male is the category of reference he Gender polarization 4 Psychoanalytic Theory Chodorow 1978 The Reproduction of Mothering Similarities across generations ab how boys and girls are socialized Why is the subordination of women universal Feminist revision of psych new ways of thinking about the relationship to the mother Psychoanalytic identification amp ego bounndries Child will identify with the person in their life who holds the most power Learn to regulate their behavior based on this person they identify w Most often it s the mother Closer ship w mother mother at home in 78 Ego bound up w the mother Girls strengthen bond w mother bond never fully severed Boys sever the bond Effects empathy if you have a bond w someone else more able to put self in someone elses shoes Reason why girls considered more empathetic 2 contributions how socialization reproduces itself across generations women s subordination masculinity dvlps in opposition to the feminine Interventions into Primary Socialization Culture lt gtPrimary groups like family 4 Primary Socialization China Political shifts Women hold up half the sky 1949 and onechild policy 1979 Women are equal will contribute to society One chid policy fams hope for a boy the process of giving up girls increased Negative and positive consequences for women If the family did raise girls the one child policy ensured they get attn schooling the ability to become successful where before w many children girls were valued less in the family Culture lt gtPrimary groups like family 4 institutionspolicies 4 Primary Socialization So basically institutions or policies can intervene in this model they can effect what families do and how they affect their children Peers Borderwork Children socialize each other Children police the boundaries of gender Point out to others behaviors that are not gender typed Borders created thru games contests chasingpollution cooties invasions spying Borderwork Children policing the boundaries of gender Diff types of playinteractions bw girls and boys Boys Hierarchies Games take up more space and rougher Competitions Breaking rules Girls Shifting coalitions change best friends Popularity Intimacy and monitoring of others emotions Small scae cooperative play Secondary Socialization Happens later in life Secondary groups Occurs each time we join these groups Socialization is not fixed at a certain age it is continuous doesn t end at 7 ex immigration Hybrid Identities Learning norms in one country having to adopt new ones in another Nida Pakistan supposed to marry early us supposed to get degree so does both Filipino culture and family At odds w school and other demands in us culture
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