01:920:216: Sociology of Women - Study Guide
01:920:216: Sociology of Women - Study Guide 01:920:216
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Thursday October 16, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 01:920:216 at Drexel University taught by MacKendrick in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Women in Sociology at Drexel University.
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Date Created: 10/16/14
Abbreviations Wom Women individs individuals soc sociology msg message Am American ab about Af Am African American mags magazines bc because rship relationship bw or btw between assoc associated ppl people W With Overview Media as a gendered institution Marketing and commodification Media as an institution Institution Part of social life that is complex ongoing and organized Also have essential logic we can see this logic hru routines and patterns Can be comprised of formal organizations or other forms of grouping like marriage courtship etc Have rules and norms that guide behaviors Mass media Form of com to a lot of ppl News tv radio internet advertising etc Control of media contend does gender matter Threat to democracy Are women s issues properly represented Media as a formal organization Formal organization Group of ppl that interact on a regular basis and have a set of explicit written rules Creates and produces media content Advertising firms Cable networks Movie studios and producers Publishing firms News corporations Execu ves Ad firms 28 of women 1993 in upper management positions Broadcasting 37 2007 Women forced out of Hollywood s major studios Fortune s 50 most powerful women in business very few 17 in mediaonline news and those who do come mainly from TV Where films have more prestige Who produces the news Graduated of journalismcom programs 74 News director 28 News assistant 75 Who delivers the news News anchor 57 Sports anchor 8 Not all but many are sexualized Directors Writers amp Producers Television 16 directors 27 Writers Film 15 in behind the scenes roles in filim 19 of screenwriters 2009 top grossing films 7 directors screenwriters scenarists women key scenarists switchover to sound film made the whole thing turn over media becomes these big lucrative orgs women pushed out 1930s 15 of screenwriters women begin to pull out of media to where they could take a top level position as demands like motherhood take hold Notable Female Screenwriters amp Directors Nora Ephron nominated for best screenplay Women s themes tend to be their own genre chickflicks Women can work on films w feminine themes not action films for ex Thelma amp Louise certain type of picture There exists a certain type of film and if youre a women then that s the kind of film you work on Bigelow Hurt Locker ZeroDarkThirty Films that don t fit into that women s film concept Tina Fey Bossypants Men throw out a screenplay based on who theyd fuck in the character layout Older women in business deemed crazy to filter them out Age and sexual desirability in the media Marketing Role in household purchasing 85 Market segmentation As an advertising agency you are looking at key categories of ID and separating the market out in terms of those women mostly involved in cleaning commercials men s aisle snack food beer juice condoms Commodification Creating a sense of need Diamonds Before the 1940s diamonds weren t considered a symbol of love but a good investment to be passed down Commidified by De Beers as a symbol of commitment now we automatically think of diamonds when we think love engagement etc Ideals can also be commidified Normative femininitymasculinity Distorted sense of what is really true Formed by media images Thinness part of normative fem Commodified into actual products Skinny water skinny pepsi can Women in Media Content Overview Advertising Images Codes of Gender Roles for women in film media power vs d power teen mags Goffman Gender Displays The performance of femininity in advertising Exaggerated form of culture Images Codes of Gender Patterns The ritualization of subordination Repeated in the media all the time Code Shorthand set of rules that everyone shares feminine ideals not necessarily attainable but highly sought after Power Sexism The ritualization of subordination Women often portrayed as lying down defenseless powerless position Sexualization Submissive powerless dependent amp sexually available the bashful knee bend uncentered ungrounded sexualized posture head cant head not held high lnfantilization Little girls and grown women presented in same way Women have as much agency as a child Fingers in mouth Literally shown as young girls or dolls Grown women equated w chilldhood but children equated w mature womanhood and sexualized codes Women in the Media How are women represented in the media Compare speaking roles dress visible flesh occupaations Roles for women in TV and Film Speaking roles in G Rated films 101 Top Grossing g rated movies from 19902005 28 of speaking characters are female 83 of narrators are male 86 are white other films Speaking roles Flesh JobCareer thinness exposed flesh small waist unreal body Feminism in Teen Magazines Underlying traditional msgs find a man that can take care of you look pretty Little emphasis on career and edu aspirations advice from men on how to make them happy Representation of women vs men What has changedgt Couched in terms of empowerment and grrr power Marketing Make girls insecure so they buy Criticism Women of color When you don t see someone who looks like you in ads you are less likely to internalize it and more likely to be objective and critical Consequences Thin sexual ideal lnternalization amp body dissatisfaction Beauty amp diet work Not just women How much power do we have Does the media reinforce gender norms Or is I a source of resistance to the status quo Adorno Media Power Theory lndivids highly succeptible to media All of culture under critical control False consciousness You think you are in control of reactions but you really have very little control You think you are a critical viewer but your views are still influenced by the media Fiske Decoding Audiences can come up w own meanings and interpretations Audience power theory Preferred meaning Meaning that the writer wanted to convey Overspill of meanings The diff meaning that can be interpreted from audience The Body Thinness amp Weight Control Sociology of the body from a gender perspective The slender body Beauty textbook no class Focus on women More than one story race and social class HampM Advertises 2 models with the same exact photoshopped body The Thin Ideal Promoted thru media amp cultural msgs Family you look great lnternalization Childhood early adolescence early adulthood Girls as young as 6 can recognize their figure is diff Consequences Body dissatisfaction Weight control disordered eating Men amp women The gendered body Female Slenderness Cultural shifts Control amp femininity Bordo Bodywork Starts preadolescence and continues Male Height masculinity Ieanness Control power status Bodywork Stars in adolescence Cult of Thinness Hesse Biber Obsession w weight Rituals Practices like diet exercise When cant engage in the rituals that creates stress and feelings of failure bc your living in the cult of thinness Demographics age By age 6 girls start to express concern ab their own weight and shape Girls ages 911 prefer images of thin women over images of thicker women and start to talk ab their own bodies being too fat By age 1314 half of girls have tried going on a diet This diet is w a goal of looking better Compares to 20 of boys in adolescence talking ab diet Perfect Girls Starving Daughters Thinness is not just a psych problem but a soc problem Obsessive perfectionists body Many who obsess w thinness had been perfectionists since a young age Controlling the body Thinness can be controlled and it is also highly valued Perfect Girl vs Starving Daughter Perf on outside inside is like a black hole of dissatisfaction where nothing is good enough cant enjoy their other accomplishments Feminism having it all Could have been pushed to far Filters down to the newer generations w even stronger msgs Social class Gossip girl Change of class more concern over weight African American Women Wash Post article and sociological research on this subject Body ideal and self acceptance promoted in black culture Thin ideal not as dominant in black community as it is in others Body ideals are cultural Media images cultural resistance Black women not necessarily internalizing media images bc do not identify w them Younger women moving into middle class and professional enviros Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa 1519 Obsessive limiting of calories to control weight and through use of compulsive exercise habits Bulimia Nervosa 1519 A cycle of bingeing and compensatory behaviors to undo or compensate for the effects of binge eating Binge Eating Frequent episodes of eating large quantities of food in short pds of time Feeling out of control over eating behavior during the episode followed by negative feelings ab the behavior Disordered Eating Eating disorders not otherwise specified EDNOS Not falling into these catagores Martin Occasional starvation bingeing and purginggt restricting intake of calories in a variety of ways Equality Body acceptance The Dove Campaign using plus sized models but not total acceptance bc still selling beauty prodcuts Attention to other pursuits Beauty ideasintensifying Mind Body Dualism Belief in a split bw the phys body and the nonmaterial entity we call mind spirit soul or thought Mind superior to body Spirit reps our higher selves to which we aspire body reps a preventative force to these aspirations bc of its weakness Mind masculine Rational aspires to best efforts of self closer to god working toward self realization Bodyfeminine Heavy drag on aspirations of the mind Women assoc w now Women seen as closer to their bodies than are men Body Image Involves perception and evaluation of ones own bodily appearance Connected to self esteem and emotional stability Suggests how our bodies affect mental state Scars Marker of social status Cultural diffs The Beauty Myth Body used to maintain power imbalance bw m amp w thru beauty ideals The belief in a quality called beauty that is real and universal and that wom due to bio sexual evol factors should want to embody and that men should desire wom who embody that ideal Beauty gendered racialized classed and sexualized These ideals not actually attainable not really true Around 80 of wom dissatisfied w their bodies The Beauty Myth amp Media Body type most depicted attainable by 4 of pop 9 taller 16 thinner than avg woman Hysteria amp Eating DOs Hysteria Diagnosed among upper class wom on US amp UK in 19 cent Headache muscular aches weakness depression menstrual difficulties indigestion fatigue debility that requires constant rest Treatment The Yellow Wallpaper The Psychology of the Uterus Wom s whole persona dictated by the uterus Body Image Distortion Syndrome BIDS Beauty Dualism Mind Rational Logical Wise Philosophical Masculine Body Flesh Arms legs Eyes Corporeal Feminine Beauty as Doing Gender Beauty integral to doing gender appropriately Beauty work Refers to the specific appearance and beauty practices performed on oneself and on others But also reproducing and strengthening a social system that privileges youth and attractiveness Beauty as an advantage Physical body represents a person s life potential and worth Perceptions of beautiful ppl are generally positive A halo effect 1 positive characteristic is used to infer other positive traits about them translates into social rewards ppl perceived as phys attractive thought to be more talented work evaluated as more positive benefits in social interactions judged as more cooperative gain coop from others greater peer acceptance more likely to be smiled at Institutional Advantage Hiring promotion salary attractiveness bias Rewards at the institutional level esp for men In school less likely to be punished wrongdoings overlooked work evaluated as higher quality Strong incentive to participate in beauty work Real implications when not fitting the norm Beauty Work Hegemonic beauty ideals A dominant definition of beauty that is highly difficult to oppose Shapes almost everyones ideas of what beauty should be Women s bodies must be altered Natural state is not acceptable Women therefore in constant conflict w their bodies Cosmetic Surgery Extreme form of beauty work Liposuction Breast augmentation Blepharoplasty Anti aging doube eyelid surgery Beauty ideals are racialized Culture amp Women s Bodies Change in role for women will be played out on the body Psychopathologies Psych probs often diagnosed in moments where these changes in roles in society occurs Hysteria Medical gaze focused on the uterus Bordo victorian era upper cass white women limited to the home and reproductive role Bordo amp Eating DOs Eating dos are a psychopathology but these are connected to culture Control over the body related to ideas ab women ideas that are embedded in culture Psychopathology can be related to culture and shifts in roles for women Beauty Myth Naomi Wolf Beauty is always ssubjective elusive Denies women full power in striving for beauty women s sense of potential personal power is undermined Beauty as the last thing that keeps male power intact Time energy money invested in beauty work Drain on self esteem Impacts Decline in sense of selfworth esteem value depression shame In 1985 30 of UA women unhappy w overall appearance In 1993 48 Among college women 80 report body dissatisfaction 1999 Enjoyable Empowering Third wave feminism Lipstick Proviso Don t have to sacrifice femininity to get equality Bonding and communityforming Relationships Relationships Gendered Sexuality amp gender Sexual identity Heterosexual homo bi Heteronormativity The idea that people are supposed to like the opposite sex High school prom kingqueen celebration of hetero rship Anything that falls outside of this is labeled as abnormal Key to masculine identity Masculinity Heterosexuality and power Young boys use the term fag to regulate each others masculinity not as a form of homophobia Power over women control over rship Compulsory heterosexuality Implications for gender relations and power Sexual subject vs object Subject full individ control initiator men Object passive observed wom Pursuerpursued Initiator and receiver Femininity Emotions and connections Women and sex tourism Romance tourism Travel to meet someone wom want to be swept away Teenage girls and ideal love Have sex to maintain rship Men losing vcard accomplishment Assumption committed rship as the end goal Hookup Culture Dating model Still exists but not the only model available Hookup casual sexual contact bw non dating partners wo the expressed expectation of forming a committed rship as a culture or sub cuture 72 reporting at least 1 hu by senior year Hookups Uncontrolled sexual behavior Women driven to depressioneating dos More positive than a committed rship By senior yeaer lt 40 engaged in lt3 hus 40 bw 4 amp 9 and 20 10 ppl reporting 10 also reporting was w same person 30 get oral men receive most wom receive least expected that men receive 13 hu wom in later hus men think women orgasm more than they actually do the double standard men accomplished womsut doesn t necessarily involve intercourse not necessarily a stranger can have repeat hus w same person committed rships formed by senior year 69 women the positives of hooking up delays forming a committed rship college you should be working studying and rships are a drain on time and energy exciting noticed fun easier to end women the negatives pleasure gap and negotiation sex in rship better more pleasing to them and partner in rship hu is more ab pleasing male partner in rship can negotiate so both pleasure double standard bad hus ending in guiltshame sexual assaultrape contexts known for hu potential gender equality hookups vs rships hookups more freedom sexual and longterm flexibility easier to end negotiation of sexual activity pleasure more for men stigma slut committed rships less freedom more dif cult to end more negotiation less stigma companionship gendered hus vs committed rships freedom vs stigma need gender equality in all forms of rships TEST 2 REVIEW washington post article African american women have broader conception of beauty embrace their curves more than their white counterparts They tend to be heavier than their white counterparts but have higher levels of self esteem INTERNALIZATION internalizing ideals has very real consequences The problem about effortless perfection Courtney martin studies wom who strive for perfection in striving for perfection in all areas of life including in their bodies so effortless perfection seems effortless to others but it is really not effortless at all Perfection must appear effortless but it is not The beauty myth oppressive for wom The lipstick proviso empowering for wom
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