01:920:216: Sociology of Women - Study Guide
01:920:216: Sociology of Women - Study Guide 01:920:216
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Thursday October 16, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 01:920:216 at Drexel University taught by MacKendrick in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Women in Sociology at Drexel University.
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Date Created: 10/16/14
Motherhood amp the Division of Household Labor Sexual division of labor All forms of labor that a family performs paid amp unpaid Paid and unpaid related to a job and household work Unpaid still contributing to household but not part of formal market economy Historical perspective Childcare as women s work Rship to gender equality 2 category system women caring for children and the home unpaid labor low value labor men providing for family outside the home paulabor high value labor more and more men trying to move into unpaid labor more women trying to do both modern system traced back to victorian era Doctrine of Separate Spheres Medieval times peasants worked side by side No such thing as work outside the home the home was work Household as the factory Fathers as authorities over the home Women more for nurturing but not deciding for child Agricultural communities Victorian era industrialization modern marriage creation of a middle class Wom considered to have superior moral compass and better at raising children and running home Doctrine of separate spheres Rigid gender system who is best suited for privatepublic spheres Men stronger can handle coarseness competition don t want to corrupt women s morality Separate Spheres The balance of Work and Motherhood an its Different Forms Working class poor immigrant families Ideal family ideals coming into play Don t have the luxury of this separation 1saary isn t enough support Sometimes the children contribute Thought of as the exception Working middle cassmothers Increasingly going into paid labor force but the 2 spheres still exist bc we say they do both Transnational motherhood Mothers who are working away from their families Mothering from a distance Othermothers In black neighborhoods when mothers go out to work Communities care for each others children Translates into respect for women Families Today 50 of children will spend part of life in home wo marriedbiological parents couples w children where male is sole breadwinner 15 more and more women outearn their partners majority of women w children under the age of 6 work outside the home 60 Modern Motherhood College educated women pulled in 2 directions Fulfilling career vs involved motherhood Delaying childbirth Avg age of first birth increasing 1970 214 timing children according to career and biological clock finding a partner raising money getting est at a job30s to early 40s fertility drops after age 30 for women new technologies egg freezing after the baby mothering ideology the good mother time energy striving for perfection attachment parenting traditional societies baby very close to mother til age 3 breastfeeding expectation of perfect motherhood doing everything right can be difficult depressing because the pressure is so intense maternal ambivalence problem with no name a regret of having kids or not enjoying time w them Division of Household Labor Household division of labor Deciding who does what for unpaid labor only Second shift 5 hours more per week the workday never ends come home from paid labor now have the unpaid time convergence asks how much time you did what like a diary of your day 70s wom do most of unpaid labor the 90 s labor force participation in unpaid and paid start to look more similar bw men and women mens participation increasing women doing more paid work women less free time than men but still changing Hannah rosin more wom in college strict patriarchal socityies breaking down a little parodies of American manhood in advertisemens men feel the most of the recession not pushed by passion or outright women happens because of a shift in the economy polarization of economy men dropping into low wages wom rising the boy crisis very young boys do worse in school than young girls wom more independent want to work and have the husbands take care of the kids media romantically challenged losers strong powerful women the high bridge sandberg women not making it to top of profit or nonprofit org we need to keep wom in the workforce the problem is that wom are dropping out 1 sit at the table 2 make your partner a real partner 3 don t leave before you leave 1 Wom underestimate their abilities men attribute success to selves wom attribute to other factors success and likability positively correlated for men negatively correlated for women which makes this point difficult 2 Women have more jobs than men in terms of housework on top of real work 3 Wom start chilling out at work when consider having a child but when they have to go back they wont want to bc the work isn t exciting if they didn t go after that propmotion Household Labor Mens participation increasing Women doing more paid work Women have less free time still though So theres a convergence but Women feel evaluated on how their homes look on how their meals are etc men feel congratulated and supported Time spent alone w children Men less likely to multi task w children Women multitask w children like grocery shopping cook etc Timeinflexible work Time spent w children is more of a choice for fathers like on weekends its adabptable to fit into a routine whereas when mothers do it theres a time pressure involved like pick kids up from school get them to bed and feed by certain times etc So even if a couple techinically puts in the same amount of time its still more work for women bc multitasking and working against time limits isn t as leisurely and easy as chillen w the kids for fun Other Families in the US single parent households second shift is mandatory same sex households gender cant be used as a determining factor for publicprivate sphere responsibilities more egalitarian divisions of labor Never perfectly equal false ideal One person usually takes on more often related to job responsibilities or salary Comes down to who has more time Women amp The Workforce Gender Differences The Glass Ceiling Women will get to a certain point and then theres an invisible barrier that keeps them from going up any further The Glass Escalator Refers to subtle and invisible ways that men go up and are promoted when a man enters a female dominated job Assumed that a male in a female dominated job most likely wants to make it to the top nursing Gender Differences Persist Sex segregation Occupational Concentration of men and women in different occupations Engineering is male dominated Job4evel Harder to measure bc one job can have different names Jobs wI engineering 13 of women in 10 occupations teaching nursing admin assistants etc unlikely that men and women will have the same job at the same time of day if they are working together its diff jobs diff level of authority or diff shifts no occupations fully integrated Wage Gap Women s pay at men s pay Even after accounting for type of work amp qualifications Reasons wom make less Don t negotiate for salary while men are socialized to negotiate Wom not aware of the salaries of male counterparts Wom tend to underestimate their abilities amp attribution of success to external rather than internal factors Management 072 Legal 057 Healthcare 078 Lumping together some very different jobs Women drawn more to jobs w flexibility and less strain on family life like pediatrics over surgeons Largest Pay Gap Financial managers 67 67 cents for every dollar men make Legal Occupations all 57 Physicians 64 Female dominated jobs and fields often payed less is this bc women are choosing less valuable jobs or bc women s labor is less valued by society than is men s labor Higher paying jobs tend to have more authority W tend to shy away from jobs that have a lot of authority men are socialized to gravitate toward them Historical Perspective wages lower than men who also worked there Men feel threatened bc losing job bc owners would rather hire wom and pay them less Dynamics of Job Segregation Changes to the occupation or industry Entry of low wage workers Change in how worklabor is valued as a result Transitions in Occupations Think computing Originally new and very tehinical and male dominated more advanced and 2 programming due to recession of competition the actual skill required to do the job becomes less complicated lose authority over your job and others Causing men to leave Women fill these jobs then minorities and immigrants Ghettoization Lower paid women s jobs are separated from higher paid men s jobs in 1 occupa on Real estate Residential real estate and commercial real estate male dominated Commission goes down men more concentrated in commercial so now res real estate is more female dominated Resegregation When an occupation switches over to be female dominated Secretarial work used to be male clerks teaching computing Devaluation Once women enter a job it becomes devalued Gender ideologies Used to support of course women are good teachers they relate well to children Explanations for Gender Segregation Socialization What boys and girls are aspiring to do certain kinds of jobs are girl jobs others are boy jobs Women socialized to go into jobs that are already devalued Sex roles raising boys in the way that they re best suited for jobs of authority girls better suited for those that require interpersonal skills Human capital Education and training By going to college you are investing in your own human capital Women aren t investing in the kinds of human capital that are needed to get to the top of these organizations women aren t choosing to study engineering for ex Gendered organizations Women and minorities more white men as you move up Ideal worker is someone who can invest himherself entirely into the job the joblife Historically men expected to devote themselves entirely to public sphere bc women were in the private sphere so the ideal worker is kinda assumed to be male bc of this Mentor Brings you into their networks teaches you rules of the game prepares you and helps you on your way up Mentors usually male If a young woman comes into a male dominted org ppl are going to talk sleeping to the top if shes being mentored Potential for Equality How does Sheryl Sandberg explain women s failure to rise to the top Sit at the table make your partner a real partner and don t leave before you leave Women not ambitious enough both at work and in the home they need to make more demands and be more aggressive She has good advice for women who want to make it all the way to the very top not necessarily in real life How much choice for this advice You need mentorship to follow this advice Class based advantages End of Men Hannah Rosin For the first time in history the global economy is becoming a place where women are finding more success than men more women are primary breadwinner 4 in 10 households single women out earning single men women better positioned to benefit from a recession economy cn ques she cherry picked her results listed data that supported but not data that opposed says that girls are inherently better Doesn t talk ab the motherhood penalty vs family wage Mothers less likely to be offered job rated as less competent and offered lower salaries Fathers judged as competent and offered higher salaries Men assumed to be earning a family wage women assumed to be making supplementary wages to what the father brings home Women 40 of mangers but wages 73 of men s College grad vs careers w earning potentialdepends on degree in terms of earning Gender amp Poverty Women more likely to be poor and have a diff poverty experience than men Poverty Status Based on family size and family income Poverty thresholds Pretty archaic equation for determining them not realistic bc these numbers are the amount is costs to feed yourself but there are so many other needs Feminization of poverty Women more likely to live in poverty 1966present Women are 29 more likely to be poor than men2010 Even when poverty rates decline proportion of women in poverty stays fairly constant implies that whatever is happening to improve economy women aren t getting the benefits out of it African American Hispanic Asian then white in most impoverished order In all categories women exp more than men Single motherhoodprimary cause of poverty for women af am Hispanic there was never a formalized union of union at all Whitedivorce separation etc Family composition of household 54 single married wom no depndt children 8 married wom w no dpnt children 12 married wom w dpnt children 26 single wom w dpnt children higher poverty rates for women during ages 1824 child bearing years Single Parenthood Single motherhood greatly increases a woman s risk of living in poverty 407 of single mothers vs 242 of single fathers are poor 2010 Causes of Poverty for Women Wage gap Low paying occupations job segregation Unpaid caregiving Bearing the cost of raising children Pregnancy domestic and sexual violence Supports in elderly years Immigration status Untenable Choices Taking a job also means immediate losses Three themes lnflexibleunpredictable work schedules So have to leave kids alone older child babysits neighbor bsits children receive lower level of care than they should Stigma Cant be ideal worker if have kids but cant be ideal mother either Norms of major institutions Read ab in article Solutions to the gendered aspect of poverty Shrink the wage gap Expand welfare benefits Child amp elder care Flexible work options Access to contraception Support for protectionstability for women in violent sitches Power Types of power Gender as a category that enforces differences In uence Persuasion discourse and hegemony Discourse creates knowledge Hegemony ideas that are the most socially endorsed Coercion Physically forcing or threatening someone to get them to do what you want Threatsdeceit Authority aka institutionalized power teacher has authority in the classroom but not outside of it Masculinity amp Power Social system hegemonic masculinity Very idealized Assoc w a man that has power in all aspects of his life Reject femininity fear of emasculation Masculine identity lndivid level men can feel powerless or at least not being a direct contributer to this system of gendered inequality Chaeuffeur Looks like he has the power but theres actually someone else in the backseat giving hi the directions Coercive Power Violence Private sphere Men more likely to commit violent crimes than women When women victimized most likely that male was the perp Most likely to occur in private sphere Head amp master laws Until 1976 marital rape was not illegal Geography of fear Public spaces Victim Being alone a privilege Politics Institutionalized power Political elite Public sphere Women often excluded too harsh for wom Defining women s roles in politics Descriptivenumerical representation Number of women elected in positions 20 in US amp UK higher in Cuba Canada almost half in Rawanda bc have quota Quotas Often put into place as a recovery strategy for govt By allowing wom wom are softer and will make govt more moral Democratization better for women Correlated w a decrease in women s rep Barriers To run for office need a financial backing for your campaign Need networks to promote you and also to donate money to you Women underrepresented in higher positions of business and law Wom lack financial backing and financial networks For women to be on the ballot they often have more political experience than the men 1 Culture gender ideaologies doctrine of separate spheres political socialization political efficacy socialized in diff ways in terms of type of power they occupy in political world 2 Economic inequality the launching point of a political career women s starting points not as high up as men s Social Inequality Bias networks Bias against women in politics How well can she regulate her emotions Same emotions labeled differently emotionalpassionate angerunhinged Angry women vs angry man NJ Federal no woman in house of reps since 2003 no female senators Christine todd Whitman 13 and only femalte governer Kim guadano lieutenant governer National 183 of congress 20 of senate 179 of house wom 5 female governers of 100 largest cities 12 have women mayors wom more successful at local politics less than state even less at national do positions of higher power contrast the idea of normative femininity Women s rep slowly creeping up 3 in 1979 18 2013 Women given portfolio work centered more around health and family Frustrating for those who are interested in finance military Some think it s a door to getting more women in if they decrease wage gaps give women more freedom in family to work Shirley Chisholm First back congreewoman Very popular Breaking up gender and color barriers Lost support at last minute of black and national women s caucus at presidential nomination These orgs want to support those who are most likely to be elected and support them in office Substantive Representation Women in politics what are their objectives Gendered leadership styles Ethic of care women vs ethic of justice men Difficult to move into hard poper portfolios Political gender gap Voting prefs of men and women Traditional gender gap vs modern gender gap LOOK UP IN TXTBK Gender as a framing device Wom more likely to vote democratic Reproductive and economic rights Recap Coercive power rape free vs rape prone Subtle forms of power girl watching Objectification a girl being watched wo her knowing Context a girl being watched returns that glance now a subject and not an object Overview Chapter How a feminist perspective can be applied to the analysis of institutions and organizational culture Looks at structure gender balance and gender history of organizations Looks at culture Asks how are internal cultures experienced differently by men and women Diff bc of internal culture and org of men and women in those cultures Feminist informed Investigations Everyday cultural workings of masc and fem IMF internat I monetary fund Policies structural adjustment programs SAP argets public services Way of restructuring global economies IMF offers 3 world countries loans in exchange for policies that roll back services dvlp market based economy As a result some ppl became very poor bc no public money women impacted by rollbacks in public funding and firing of public workers Seen as unfriendly to women in dvlping countries Internal culture of the organization Dominique Strauss Kahn DSK accused of rape ran a prostitution ring 15 of women in managerial positions the higher up the more sexual aggression and objectification sexual harassment and American idea so wom couldn t speak up melding of pub and private life wom uncomfortable decide to withdrawl woman appointed to head new president and france has first set of sexual harassment laws something ab the culture of the org that prized a certain type of masculinity Banking Crash of 2008 Margin Call 2007 banks worldwide begin reporting large losses Sept 2008 Lehman Brothers files for bankruptcy Looking back Risk taking connected to big bonuses Instruments for calculating profit vs risk Ppl didn t understand how these work Rolling back of regulation Trading Floor and Testosterone Sample saliva of 17 traders on a stock trading floor in London 2x a day for 8 days Matched mens levels of testosterone and cortisol w the amts of money the men lost or won on the markets Men w elevated levels of testosterone assoc w aggression made more money When markets were more volatile men show higher levels of cortisol a stress hormone Bankers Trust of New York BT Karen Ho worked for a year in trading dptmt and followed up w interviews A distinctive kind of masculinity smartest guys competitive hardwork desiring ever more money Warnings ignored Masculinized cultural norms Entrenched Caution feminine Secrecy isolation exclusive clubs too big to fail smartest guys feminization of management as protection against crisis post crash Iceland pre crash Iceland known for gender equality financial sector risk taking during boom yrs began to look abnormal speaks to cultural shifts post crash more women began running for political positions 36 to 39 of parliament world economic forum gender gap 4 place to 13 place
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