04:189:101: Introduction to Communication and Information Systems and Processing - Study Guide
04:189:101: Introduction to Communication and Information Systems and Processing - Study Guide 04:189:101
Popular in Introduction to Communication and Information Systems and Processing
Popular in Communication
This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Thursday October 16, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 04:189:101 at Drexel University taught by Householder in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 406 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication and Information Systems and Processing in Communication at Drexel University.
Reviews for 04:189:101: Introduction to Communication and Information Systems and Processing - Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/16/14
Com Human com is the process thru which individs in rships grps orgs and societies create and use info to relate to the enviro and one another Com is complex Com skills and understanding not common sense they are uncommon sense Common sense other ppl like us theyre likes dislikes perspectives etc are like ours Uncommon sense leads us to question own assumptions and be gt attentive to needsperspectives of others Guides us to attend more carefully to com sitch and to be more analytical in our dealings with others Com and Occupational Effectiveness Technical ability and com ability both needed in many occupations Many com competencies essential in the workplace writing public speaking leadership networking etc Com necessary for leadership energizing others managing teams decision making etc Education does not ensure Com Competence Most educators wrongly assume its common sense everyone knows how to do it Most educators do not teach non verbal com Com the Field of Study Focuses on the study of inforelated behavior A behavioralsocial science and an applied liberal art Personal Theories Aka native theories Allow us to navigate our phys and soc enviro Dvlpd over time and over experience Private unique to each person Stable resistant to change Scholarly Theories Of a sci nature Based on systematic observation and testing Continually questioned Public Subject to modification Com The name of the discipline The label for the phenomenon Term refers to the academic field and a focus of study Has popular profesh and tech meanings Levels of Observation We can study com on level of cells ants bees individs relationships orgs a culture society or international level Focus on one several or all of these A levels Question of Intent Com occur anytime behavior is attended to and interpreted intentional or not POV Emphasizes perspective of a msg source Issue of Outcomes Some defs consider an interaction to be com only if it meets certain guidelines of the sitch Com as a Process Com not 1 single static act Sequence of interrelated activities Com that occurs in a convo activity composed of interrelated steps occurring over time Msg sent received interpreted responded to Com is Essential Thru com that We form relationships of all types How We communicate our needs and goals W those of others Allows for collective action the est of a common identity the dvlp of leadership A Message Any symbol or collection thereof that has meaning or utility Thru process of creating and interpreting msgs that We interact Can be verbal or non Information ReceptionInterpretation Responding to msgs and transforming them into info We can use The Way We attend to attach significance to and use info The Role of Tech Our societies are mediated when We com thru media or tech Extend out natural capabilities for com Social Position and Roles in society contribute to our identity Social Position Our place or standing in a social hierarchy occupation age income edu relationship etc Role Constitutes a set of expectations that governs how someone who holds a position should behave Roles are learned from fam friends media etc Roles are general not a script Roles are id related Most of us play many roles The more you play a role the more it becomes part of your id Role rigidity Occurs when a single role takes over one s id Like a drill sargent in the army Very austere at home Role con ict Occurs when two or more roles make opposing demands Like dad and uncle herb brothers or co owners Goffman s View We are actors putting on a show Backstage or back region The place ppl go when not acting We might feel pressured to become a diff person in certain social situations The roles that We play that are very different from our actual personalities may be stressful and more or less of a stretch for us to play Self Concept How we see ourselves When we resist standard roles or make our own rules We are creating a personal identity Personal identity focus uniqueness best represents the modern modal self social standing class and character of hard Work have been modal self in the past Who you are used to mean your job Now it is a more abstract question allowing for uniqueness of personal identity Now the modal self is being unique Paradoxical if everyone tries to be different that characteristic remains the same bw us How do We choose or reject our roles Social support Familyfriends give feedback Might reject a role if do not receive support Amt of role commitment personal investment theory How much timeinvestment u put into that role The more you stick with it the more likely you are to stay with it Rewards from playing intrinsic extrinsic Satisfaction selfpride shame disappointment trophies money tangible things LookingGlass Self Theory Others act a mirrors and re ect back to us who We are How you are doing in regard to your roles is re ected passively back to you Get a vibe from others that you are are not doing Well you don t seek that out The sticker game Social Comparison Theory We actively turn to others for info ab the validity of our opinions and abilities for feedback Like when you ask how other people did on a test to see how you did compared to everyone else Self Concept Formation How We come to be who We are Our self concept is fashioned from our changing life story Narrative Self How We talk ab ourselves the stories We tell about ourselves and our lives Organizing Principles SelfSchemata When you think ab who u are u list the ideas ab that identity the things that come up first From our actions behavioral self Thru What We do Identifying yourself based on your behavior From our relationships Relational Self From our Selftalk self as internal dialogue We talk to ourselves its internal We don t see it Evaluating Self Selfesteem Is the subjective or evaluation of who you are Your self assessment of you Face Ones selfperception in interactions Putting out a face for others to see Facework The act of using com to maintain ones selfperception Engage in behaviors to make ppl have better perception of me so others like me think positively of me Presenting Self Noble Self Feels a strong obligation to say what you think not doing so would be hypocritical blunt honest seen a offensive Like Simon Cowel Rhetorical re ectors Present a new self to everyone They try to placate others Seems to have no individ self They tend to say what the other person wants to hear Politicians the wishy washy ones Rhetorical sensitive People find a balance bw the noble self and rhetorical re ector Say what you mean but say it nicely non confrontational J ohari Window All related to self identity Open window Readily avail info you know others know Hidden window You know others don t unless you tell them You might be sensitive inside have a tough exterior Blind window Others might think you are a jerk you do not realize Unknown window Others don t know bc you don t know you don t know bc you haVen t yet been exposed to it Environment amp Self Esteem Some contexts increase ones eVal of self State V Trait Communication Apprehension The fear of public speaking interpersonal com etc State com app Context driven Ab the specific enViro and place and time Trait com app Inherent to who you are that you have a certain anxiety related to public speaking You get stressed by com Shyness and comm ap are not the same Shyness More general sense that an individ might exp low degree of app and a higher degree of potential to manageability Is this fear learned or genetic Communibiological A genetic receptor that allows for us to manage anxiety Nature and nurture Self Esteem amp Disclosure Ppl W low self esteem often fail to follow disclose norms nondisclosure ooding or premature Nondisclosure being part of convo talking reciprocating Flooding babbling saying too much going on and on Premature telling someone something b4 theyre ready to hear it lst date and 5 sui attmpts inappropriate early on Disclosure Rules 1 Works from small demographic info to intimate unfiltered disclosure 2 Is reciprocal im fromwhere are you from Equal disclosures 3 Is risky risky info personal info 4 Involves trust u Wouldn t trust to give a stranger your address 5 Increases feeling of closeness Improve Self Esteem Self talk self talk internal pep talks Visualization prediction self fulfilling prophesy if you imagine it badly your not gonna do it not gonna get What you Want just like you imagined it Avoid comparisons Don t compare yourself to someone at elite level will fail at their standard Reframe past events Take something meaningful out of past events amp failures Have honest feedback sources Ppl tell u What they think u Wanna hear u Want the truth so you can improve Where you need to Let go of the past Seek support Approaching Interpretive Competence Langer says We are mindless rely on old categories and routines in our social interactions A schema is a cognitive structure that helps us process and organize info a mental guideline that enables us to comprehend and make sense of events prototypes scripts episodes and implicit personality theory Stereotypes Often used as schema Often untrue generalizations ab a groupS Implicit Personality Theory Take a stereotype and use those traits to describe someone Personality elements used to describe someone based on a part of their ID Greek partier We only become mindful when 1 A novel sitch arises W no script something diff have no preconceived plan on how to deal 2 External factors interrupt a script excess noise in the channel 3 Acting according to a script requires effort more effort than you expect having to say things over and over again 4 The outcome is not What We expected or issues W choosing the appropriate script 5 Con ict bw multiple scrips occurs being mindless is often an effective Way of responding to the World Being mindful requires a lot of effort may be uncomfortable would take forever and make you an outcast when everyone else is mindlesslike being on autopilot Perception Making sense of your World Attribution The process whereby We generate explanations for people s behavior Internal attribution When We attribute behavior to something inside the person Situational attribution When We attribute behavior to something outside the person Perception Problems Lack of cognitive complexity Do you like puzzles Fundamental attribution error We are more likely to make situational attributions in regards to ourselves The more a person is like us or the closer the relationship the more situational Self serving Bias Valance of perception gt for our own behavior Perceive own actions even if identical to someone else s as better Order Effects Halo Effect Attributing quals to ppl We like Horn Effect Attributing quals to ppl We dislike Primacy effect You never get a second chance at a first impression Recency effect Your only as good as your last game Active Perception Checking Describe he behavior Offer multiple interpretations Allow for feedback Could be giving a person a Way out We like to confirm our guesses but this part takes that away Selling Communication Finding and maintaining valuable relationships Often linked to divorce or dissolution of important relationships 1 skill desired by employers for hiring retention and promotion verbal written and social Degree programs communications ranked 4 most desirable degree by employers comm degree 5 most employable Relationship and Monetary benefits Historical Overview of Comm in Society 400 BC Sophistic Tradition Rich land owners of Ancient Greece hired Sophists Sophists helped the aristocracy to give persuasive arguments because the ancient Greeks stood for themselves in court of law etc like a lawyer so truth takes a backseat for Sophists monologue has value Plato and Aristotle Greek philosophers Philosophy lover of truth Plato s work usually consists of dialogue only thru dialogue can you get to something meaningful truthful Aristotle s book The Reteric was a Sophist handbook Saint Augustine Communication in this time was about persuading ppl in the name of the church religion Scribes monks ppl in churches were the ones who knew how to write in the Medieval Times The Gutenberg was the 1 western written commercial document Mass Communication early 1400s The printing press marks the first mass production of material Made propagation of both religion and knowledge easier Democratized knowledge made intellectual material available to many more people Telegraph Radio Telephone TV Psychological intrapersonal Freud and the psychoanalytic school of thought Asked people questions discussed past discussing various symbols Over course of discussion problem would illuminate itself Plato s dialogues the truth on the inside is revealed through talking communication Interpersonal Family dynamics relationships the study of people Social interaction approach of looking at communication Contextual Specialization Where We are today Focus on various contexts certain types of environments Ex organizational communication social media communication etc More specific fields Communication in family context Work context etc etc What is Communication 126 definitions of communication Dance 4 important principles inescapable We communicate if We Want to or not More than spoken and written Word that can produce messages being in attendance body language etc Intent There is a message that is being sent no matter What so the intentionality of that message comes into question Irreversible Cannot uncreate In interpersonal situations with social media Can do your best to alter the message change perception but can never undo What has been done Contextual Environmental situational relational psychological and cultural Focus is usually put on environment but it is MORE than that it happened at the bar bar being the environment but it is still a limited perspective on the environment as the bar can change from time of day etc behavior can change based on situational factors club meeting class etc Relationship can be fighting close etc Psych your mindset angry happy stress level etc Rules and expectations given a sociocultural group religion sexual orientation etc Culture being a value set Complicated 6 people in any 2 person conversation 6 people in a Dyad 1 Who you think you are 2 Who you think the other person is 3 Who you think the other person thinks you are 4 Who the other person thinks she is 5 Who the other person thinks you are 6 Who the other person thinks you think she is Simple Communications Systemsmodels T pg 51 Source Message Channel non verbal verbal etc Receiver Feedback Noise In all of these models some or all of these are present Actioninteraction transaction Action 1 Way delivery of info Interactiontransaction 2 Way street Situational perspectiveapproach Addresses the physical elements of a communication situation Small number of communicators dyads Close proximity Face to face Maximum use of senses smell touch sight No intermediaries mechanical device or 3rd parties no skype cell phone etc Immediate feedback verbal and nonverbal This model tries to eliminate misinterpretation to some degree not necessarily true This model says that important interactions come from these type of situations that if these 5 things aren t happening it degrades the meaning of the communication Ex If you lack the ability to see nonverbal cues it takes away from the communication limits how you perceive the message Developmental perspectiveapproach to communication Addresses the knowledge one has of another in a communication situation NOT INTERPERSONAL VERY IP Range of how valuable the info is Levels of information to make predictions 1 Cultural sociological psychological Levels of knowing 2 Descriptive predictive explanatory Levels of interaction rules 3 Extrinsic intrinsic extrinsic rules being social rules norms intrinsic rules being individualized rules you have with another person Process perspective Means becoming aware of what s happening when you communicate Focus on form and content Balance spontaneous and analyzed Watch yourself or create a double consciousness Sort of like an outofbody experience picturing yourself This perspective is more important in interpersonal relationships IPR Communication Competence Model The ability to communicate in a personally effective and socially appropriate manner Internal or Process Competencies Interpretiveperceiving Ability to read communication situations What is going on What s happening Roleadapting Take the role of a student when in class Selfself presentation How much of your actual self are you displaying Selfrole con ict its easier to play roles closer to your actual identity Goalplanning How do I get What I Want out of this situation Internal struggle in deciding what behaviors to engage in Messagecoding What am I going to say how am I going to do it Deciding how to formulate What you are trying to get across External or Performative Competencies VerbalWords Nonverbalother symbolssigns Relationaldesired relationship Are you communicating the desired level of relationship Communication incompetence in any of these levels can have serious implications Can cause comm breakdown Different Types of NV Cues Movement and gestures Kinesics Space proxemics Vocalics or paralanguage tone rate of delivery accent not the Words but how they are said Enviro olfactics Time chronemics Touch haptics Phys appearance and artifacts Face and eye behavior oculesics Kinesics 5 body movements emblems emblematic behavior nv statements or gestures that translate directly to verbal statements Wave mid finger shrug etc known by most or all of a group culture of subculture can be restrictive can be used as a sub for verbal most often intentional can be understood out of context illustrators gestures used to add emphasis create spatial relationship bw objects and show the mVmt of another animal often unintentional need context large cultural diffs in acceptability affect displays displays of emotional state or mood jumping up and down crying laughing etc consider the culturalgendered Value regulators gestures and mVmt that signal the starting stopping and turntaking in an interaction 1 Turnyielding stay relatively quiet gesture 2 Turnmaintaining keep on talking ignore others attempts at request 3 Turnrequesting 4 Turndenying eye contact facial behavior Not as intentional as emblems or clear as emblems Can be done W other cue types Adaptors Highly unintentional responses to stress or boredom Showing of neg feeling ab self and others 1 Object adapters like pen chewing playing W something 2 Self adapters biting nails splitting split ends touching self 3 Alter adapters mVmts and gestures meant to Ward off interaction facial covering crossing arms etc Proxemics Hall s interaction zones Intimate 6 l8 Personal l8 4 Social 4 12 Public l2 25 Dependent on context enViro If you have space you will most likely Want to use it Territories boundary markers Olfactics Important memory aid Scent heavily linked to recall Linked to image Linked to sexual attraction Linked to health Chem reactions infections etc Think perfumecologne ties you to an image Women better than men at scent detection Chronemics How we perceive use study structure interpret and react to msgs of time Psychological time orientation Past orientation Dwell on the past Present orientation Future orientation I cant wait till im 21 Monochronic VS Polychronic One thing at a time highly scheduled organized Emphasis on many ppl and less rigid North am latin am Punctuality or Lack of it Cultural Time Orientation Haole time VS Hawaiian time Haole Very punctual Hawaiians more uid concept of time Harris and others coined colored people time Punctuality less important for non white cultures Jewish standard time The extra 15 Pueblo Indians no term for waiting or late Important Time Findings Higher status indiVids allowed more deviation its ok if the prez is late Time important expression of liking More time in doctorpatient encounter lead to higher compliance rates Ppl do dhat dr says more when the dr spends more time with the patient dVlp a relationship dvlpbetter compliance rates Strong personality indicator Type A s Indicator of health issues Stress indicator the more punctual the more stressed Lark Owl Scores Indicate Findings how significant impacts on com behavior and task performance Argument for Vestigial gene night watch person Phys Appearance Body types Mesomorphic Triangular body shape broad shoulders narrow waist firm or muscular Authoritative leadership Ectomorphic Bony tall think fragilelooking atchest lack muscle and fat nerdy Endomorphs Rounded ovalshaped bodies soft or fat around the middle pear shaped Nice jolly Psych links to body types Somatotonic Confident energetic dominate enterprising Cerebrotonic Tense awk meticulous detached smart Viscerotonic Slow sociabl emotional forgiving relaxed Looking Glass Self Theory Based on the language others use around you you form your self concept media friend family Selffulfilling prophesies Image Fixation Women place a higher degree of importance on image Gap Wide but now much smaller Men hold body image higher now in this generation Socialization of image importance is significant in North American culture Serious implication Plastic surgery hyperactive exercise behavior eating do Artifacts Clothing Jewelry Tattoos Body art Home team win effect Choices you make in assoc with the feedback of others Facial amp Eye Behaviors Highly universal SADFISH Surprise anger disgust fear interest sadness happiness Crosscultural Mutual gaze or mutual looking Direct eye contact bw 2 ppl Gaze aversion Gaze omission EVT Expectancy Violation Theory How space violations are perceived Social norms that we follow like to see followed extrinsic rules Most ppl think its bad of you break these rules This theory says that violating rules and expectations can be a thing Reward Valance Attractiveness ability to be rewarding ability to engage in providing punishments If VS model sat close next to you you d be happy high reward valance violations Violation Valance If a hobo sat close you d be mad low reward valance violation Interpersonal Deception Theory Ppl are bad at detecting deception based on NV cues Feely Study False detecting deception is based on chance no one is really good at this regardless of whether or not it is done facetoface On the phone for ex not being distracted by NV cues and only paying attn to the narrative Relational closeness You will only be more biased not more likely to be able to detect deception The theory looks at relational closeness and how that impacts ability to detect deception
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'