04:189:101: Introduction to Communication and Information Systems and Processing - Study Guide
04:189:101: Introduction to Communication and Information Systems and Processing - Study Guide 04:189:101
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Thursday October 16, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 04:189:101 at Drexel University taught by Householder in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication and Information Systems and Processing in Communication at Drexel University.
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Date Created: 10/16/14
Verbal Competence Words are symbols that rep We use words as symbols Words are arbitrary There is not necessarily Language is living and new things Sapir Wh Strong connection bw ver a an nonverbal Words are Bound to Context and Culture Words derive their meaning from the sitches which they are used The meaning of a word can change from culture to culture thong The Theory of Symbolic lnteractionism We are bound together as a society via our common symbols We share symbol systems so we are able to converse and understand one another Words have Denotative amp Connotative meaning Denotative is linked to the language system and is sterile Standard definition you might find in a dictionary Connotative meaning is linked to the memories and emotions of a person and their involvement w that word What comes to mind for you personally for that word Words are Concrete andor Abstract A word is concrete if we can experience it with one of your senses nt something else tionship to referents and thoughts nnection bw the symbol and the referent develop the need to name and describe The more concrete our language is the easier it is for others to understand Abstract is more connotative concrete is more denotative Concrete allows for greater nonverbal influence Language Barriers Bypass Occurs when the same word means different things to different ppl An hour is a little late or ten minutes is a little late Lack of Clarity May be created w improper or imprecise grammar syntax and context words This includes the use of restricted codes is there an officer problem You down for K s later baseball or drugs Need elaboration when you want to include others Allness The unqualified and often untrue generalization Allness statements deny individ diffs or variations Stereotypes The French are outstanding cools bball players are dumb Bafflegab Use of highly abstract lang Used to dazzle others hide ignorance or just lack other orientation Polarization Fails to recognize the middle ground That movie sucked or that movie was great Your friends are hot or dogs Fact lnference Confusion Occurs when we pronounce something as fact w littleno proof of correlation You were late to your appt the fact is u don t care ab the class Biased Language Reflects a lack of culture ethnic or gender sensitivity that can be offensive Joenh is a male nurse She is a great woman mayor He is a very influential black congressman What is enny s argument ab using the n word What do u think ab his argument regarding the use of the n word Do u find lenny and his act offensive Do u think that in comparison to stand up acts today he would be considered obscene How do elements of the context allow for lenny to use the lang he does It was offensive but it got peoples attention it got people listening it made an impact The more you use a word the less powerful it becomes Desensitizing effect Language and Power Critical Theorists Argue Those who have control of lang have the power in society and will use that control to keep power Muted Group Theory When u recognize that your com style isn t the appropriate one your realization leads you to be silent Don t have the ability to use those privileged com skills that are appropriate Spiral of Silence Theory In social settings spec when you recognize that your views are in a minority it is typical for them not to be expressed You don t speak up Natural sel protective func of not expressing minority views Listening Even the best listeners have poor results Right after a com interaction we have 50 retention and 48 hours after only 25 Serial transmission The act of passing info from one person to another Serial Transmission Listening characteristics Details become omitted Details become sharpened Details are added and embellish the msg Details that were qualified become definite From im not sure but I think this happened to this happened Details are described in the order one would expect Why do we listen We listen to discriminate What was that sound We listen to appreciate For personal enjoyment like music movie etc We listen to comprehend So that you can recall later We listen to evaluate So we can make a judgment We listen to empathize Recognize emotions of others Are we listening Selective exposure Our willingness to confront or avoid specific stimuli Selective attn Our active participation in determining which of many stimuli we actually perceive We think we talk more than we do In verbal com 70 80 of our day situations and listening is wwhat we do most 50 listen 30 talk Other 20 zoning out mindlessness Keys to Good Listening A good listener doesn t tune out dry subjects Judge content and not delivery Listen for central themes Holds off judgment is flexible Works at listening Resists distractions Goal Competence Overview All com contexts have goals and needs We use our com skills to influence others in attempts to fill our goals and needs Clarke amp Delia s 3 Com Goals Instrumental Taskfunc based goals fulfill core requirements Relational Fosteringsupportingmaintaining rships w others go to starbucks not for coffee but to see someone there Identity Support who you think yourself to be keep internal consistency Not mutually exclusive one tends to be the focus Ability to Influence We cannot achieve our goals unless we recognize the needs of the others in the contect Roe taking Ability to predict the thoughts and objections others might have to your goals and needs The more cognitively complex The better one is at role taking Ones ability to create multiple response and use many diff persuasive techniques improves goal competence 5 methods od sef presentation to help us get what we want ingratiation making oneself Iikeable thru flatter and favors intimidation making oneself appear dangerous by threateningbullying self promotion making oneself seem competent via bragging or displaying credentials exemplification seeming to embody high values or being good being the angel supplication seeming weak so others are forced to help you Learning Theories Argue ppl are motiveated by the need to gain rewards and avoid punishments Classical conditioning Holds that pairing stimuli together transfwe the response from one stimulus to another eventual one can be removed Operant conditioning Based on manipulating the consequences of a response Social learning theory Holds that we learn vicariously from watching the rewards and punishments others receive Consistency Theories Balance Theory Holds ppl p will match opinions w valued others o and not match w disliked others towards an attitude objects x P X Cognitive Dissonance Theory Holds that whenever we hold 2 contradictory cognitions we will feel discomfort We change our beliefs or behaviors to remove the discomfort More important issue more dissonance How to get friends to Compliance Threat If you don t I will beat you up PreGiving I lent you y car now I expect you to Positive SeIf feeIing You will feel proud of yourself if you Negative Esteem Your family will be disappointed if you don t Aversive Stimulation I won t let you ply with the PS3 until you Sequential Request Strategies Examine msg order impacts on influence Foot in the door A small request is made that is accepted and is followed by the second or goal request Door in the face Large initial request is made that one knows will be rejected and the rejection is followed by the goal request both techniques have been shown in studies to work better than a goal request asking directly for what you want only 30 better Various Reasons Given for FflTD Effectiveness Reciprocal concessions Other person feels that you have given ground feel they should too Perceptual contrast In contrast seems better option Selfpresentation Offers opportunity to save face Prosocialness of request Works well for non selfish matters Guilt Guiltcog dissonance esp for prosocial cause Must alleviate guilt Ajzen s 1985 Theory of Planned Behavior TPB TPB is predictive model that argues a persons behavior is the result of the rational systematic use of info Intentions are the best predictor of behavior compliance TPB Components Attitude What do you think about the behavior attitude intentions go up Subjective Norms What do valued others think of the behavior If valued others think of behavior intentions go up Perceived Behavioral Control Do you feel like the behavior is something you can do Efficacy Interpersonal Intimacy The degree to which we can be ourselves w another person showing closeness and concern Intimate rships have stronger emotional bonds and greater trust in relational commitment We depend on others for conformation of sef image and during periods when one lacks intimacy it is hard to maintain a sef image The more intimate the rship the more empathic listening More intimate lPR s better phys health Show true self Less stress correlated w phys health Interpersonal Relationships Connections we dvlp w other ppl as a direct result of our interpersonal com w them Rships of circumstance Brother sister mother assigned roomie coworkers Does not necessarily mean we have an intimate rship w them Rships of choice Friends lovers spouses Intimacy A unique bond created by 2 ppl that includes lnterdependent actions Engage in activities together Individualized rules Intrinsic rules Personal disclosure Affection Intrinsic rewards self feeling Irreplaceable Unique and special Interpersonal Trust The degree to which we feel safe disclosing info Social penetration theory onion Disclosure ab self starts w superficial info then info becomes more significant more critical and personal Uncertainty reduction theory We are naturally curious wee seek out info bc we don t like uncertainty During interactions reduce uncertainty ab likelihood of if we want to dvlp an rship further w them Only thru com Predicted outcome value theory Don t seek to reduce uncertainty Make a prediction pre interaction ab how that interaction will go If prediction go talk and reduce uncertainty If don t go thru effort to reduce uncertainty Displays of Trust Reveal intimate info display vulnerability display confidence in another You get confirmation after your release of info you want it to be supportive Tests of trust Protecting info showing support confirming msgs when revealed neg or threatening info Relational Message Competence 2 types of relational msgs content msgs actually what is said ab a topic manifest msg relational msgs let us know the speech act behind the content telling us how to interpret the msg and what a speaker thinks of us latent msg often conveyed indirectly nonverbal leakage provide additional meaning mood not noticed in health stable rships an accumulation of relational msgs provides us w a relational definition Messages Convey Power Dominance submission Lets us know who is in control Competitive symmetry a relational msg pattern of all one ups A msg that indicates desire to take control I want to see this movie tn Submissive symmetry Relational msg pattern of all one downs Yields control to another that sounds great Complementary pattern A relational msg pattern of one ups followed by one downs Duck s Four Attraction Filters Sociological or incidental cues The ability to observe interact and expect future encounters Pre interaction cues Phys cues height weight artifacts and beauty that serve as a basis for attraction and perceptions of similarity and difference Interaction cues Topics of convo convo management eye contact and interaction distance Cognitive cues Formed impressions of attitudes beliefs and personality Knapp s Stages of Romantic Dvlpmt Initiation Include 13 2 parts of Duck s steps Com consists of greetings and contact required by the sitch Romantic Reconnaissance Experimenting Small talk and flirting can be misinterpreted to assess of one wants to precede lntensifying When intimates to be make overtures to each other signaling a new level in the rship Secret Tests Baxter amp Wilmot Indirect suggestions Hints to move rship up Do you wanna come to my parents for dinner separation tests separate for a while to see how they respond I miss you Endurance Tests Do something you don t want to do for the other Triangle Test Get other people involved Integrating Couples organize their lives around each other and compile relational symbols Behavioral action symbols Pet names or pet actions Eventstimes 13 date anniversary phys objects promise ring gifts symbolic place where for 13 date kiss symbolic cultural artifacts fave tv show your song Bonding Public recognition and legitimization of rship Marriage engagement major purchases tvtvtvtvtvtvtvtytvtvtvtvtvtvtvtvtvtvtvtvtvtvtytvtvtytvtvtytvtytytvtvtytvtvtytvtvtytvtvty When dialectic tensions are not reframed or seen as pos partners engage in neg com behaviors Criticism Attacking the partner and not the behavior You never do anything right Contempt Intentional insults and psych abuse Name caing hostile jokes Defensiveness Denying responsibility for one s actions whining tossing back counter attacks Stonewalling Stop com silent treatment Gunnysacking Saving up grievances to use them at a later time Kitchensinking Throwing all of your grievances in one fight Knapp s Breakdown Stages 6 Differentiating stage focus on things you don t have in common 7 Circumscribing stage restrict to safe topics eventually these run out 8 Stagnating unpleasant POV talk ab very little 9 Avoiding couples do not have face to face interaction 10 Terminating reevaluate gather strength to make the final break Duck s Breakdown Stages lntra psychic Internal eval of reasons to withdraw Dyadic Confronting your partner ab breaking up Social You make the info of break up public Grave dressing Tell how you are better off now to cover the hurt amp pain You come to terms w the fact that the rship is dead Breakdown Model Issues Both models don t really consider social elements have friends or family known ab the break up before the partner Not really models You can bounce bw levels Stage Findings During the avoiding stage ppl have the highest tendency to engage in extra dyadic rships cheating failure event ppl often engage in extr dyadic coitus have sex prior to termination bored revenge not satisfied make partner jealous triangle test what is the rship bw religiosity and extra dyadic coitus The rate is the same No rship bw religiosity and extradyadic involvement Only diff the highly relig cheat much later in rship Majority of the time no termination occurs after extra dyadic involvement Only the cheater knows ab it Most common way ppl get caught confession Ppl tend to stay in abusive rships Low comparison level of alternatives social exchange theory Jealousy Real or imagined threat of a relational rival Constructs related to jealousy Negative affect Derogation of rival Put the rival down Increased surveillance Doubts self Higher when rival is seen as different Doubts ab partner commitment Anti socia com behavior Householder findings 2004 related to EVT lt s Over Decision to end rships can be bilateral or unilateral multilateral Bilateral mutual agreement Unilateral 1 person wants to end the other doesn t Multilateral in a fam w kids Sudden death Endings use more direct termination strategies Fading away Uses more indirect termination strategies Relational replay After termination the same rship starts over
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