Exam 1 Material
Exam 1 Material CLT3378
Popular in Mythology: East and West
Popular in Classical Studies
This 33 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michaela Maynard on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CLT3378 at Florida State University taught by Mark Buzbee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 250 views. For similar materials see Mythology: East and West in Classical Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
CLT 3378 Notes 9115 Mesopotamian Creation Enuma Elish Sept 13 MesopotamiaEgypt Syria Sumermodern day Iraq 0 quotLand bn Riversquot Tigris and Euphrates quotFertile Crescentquot Mesopotamian Civ 6000 BCE o 60004000BCE people settled in Mesopotamia small villages gt towns Sumeriansc45002770BCE 0 After dealing with basicschid birth food etc they began advancing 0 Writing systems rst literate urban civilization Cuneiform tablets o 6000BCE539BCE Akkadian Empirec23342193BCE In uenced by Sumerians Sumerian Revivalc21002000BCE Rival kingdoms c20001600BCE rival city states rise of Babylon middle of Mesopotamia Rise of Assyria16OOBCE Akkadian speaking nation that uses cuneiform Babylonia Akkadian speaking rival to Assyria Defeats Assyria in 612 BCE 0 Falls to Persians in 539BCE THERE WILL NOT BE A QUIZ WITH DATES o Enuma Elish o Babylonian work tells creation and succession myths ApsuTiamut to Marduk Succession myth how one generation of characters leads to the next 0 Enuma Elish quotWhen on Highquot skies were not yet named 0 Poem recitedperformed at New Year Festivalspring equinox Themesrepetition were built into poem for memorization purposes 0 Describes the rise of power of Mardukruer of the universe their version of Zeus 0 Date of composition unknown c 19001000BCE 7 cuneiform tabletstabets get brokenlost etc Poetry vs Prose preserved as a poem 0 Enuma Elish Broken down 0 In the beginning waterprimordia o Apsufresh water and Tiamatsalt water Binatural godsspace AND god No explanation for their existence water was there to begin with ex God then creation of things Gods born within themmale and female paris from beginning not male dominated Lahmumae and Lahamufemae Ansharmae and Kisharfemae Ansharquotsky Axlequot Akkadian sky god great grandfather of Marduk Anshar Kishar Anu incest is big themehave to start somewhere Another sky god heavens and constellations Father of EnkiEaeventual father of Marduk o Anshar gt Anu gt EnkiEa gt Marduk Young generation meet together and create clamor More lively than previous generation partyrave bunch Generation gap very obvious Neg view of noise in Babylonian myth Noise not appreciated by older gods Epic of Gilgamesh human noise leads to ood Apsu cant sleep due to noise plots destruction Tiamat protests Apsu s reaction reacts maternallywants to protect her children 0 Where have we seen this 0 Compare Ouranos and Gaia Kronos and Rhea Apsu s viziercounselor Mummu incites himencourages reaction to younger gods Younger generation of gods discover Apsu s plotting EnkUEa O O O O EnkiSumerianEaAkkadian Nudimmud Spheres of in uence clevernesswisdom fresh waterives in water but not considered a water god Trickster god Associated with human creation Discovers Apsu s plotting lulls Apsu and Mummu to sleep with spells magic being introduced to myth Slays Apsugrandfather gure takes Mummu captive Sets up dwelling in apsureservoir of fresh water arises from slain god Marduk O EaDamkinawife Marduk Ruler of universe patron god of Babylonkind of like Zeus Storm godtypical of a ruler of the universepower of creationdestructionIightningetc not binatural Bel Akkadian for master epithetnickname 4 eyes 4 ears breathes re So awesome that his nature is impossible for humans to understand 0 Anugrandfather creates 4 winds for Marduk as a birth right gift 0 Tia mat s Plot 0 O Marduk s windsyoung doesn t know how to control winds stir up Tiamatsalt watersea Gods still cant seepMarduks windsyounger generation acting up since Apsu is gone Tiamat creates army 11 monsters includes viper dragon lion demons scorpion man Repititionheps build suspenserealization of immense power chorus emphasizes Tiamut monsters and Marduk s eventual heroism Qingu in commandviziercounseor and new lover of Tiamat Tablet of Destinies keeper controls fate of each individual 0 Tiamat gives to Qingu 0 Will no other god come forward 0 Ea discovers plot goes to grandfather Anshar for advice Sends Ea and Anu to ght Tiamat they return in fear Marduk volunteers like a champsti very younginexperiencedsmal Now has opportunity to prove himself Marduk s Rise to power 0 Anshar cas council of gods quotTiamat who bore us is rejecting usquot had been maternal in beginning but now being hostile to children Very unlike a mother goddess God proclaim Marduk king swear allegiance to himif he survives bringing Tiamat down quotDrain the life of the god who has espoused usquot Deities not necessarily immortal Marduk s constellation demonstrationpoints to sky and makes stars disappear Shows control over nature Marduk gets down to business 0 Marduk packing serious heat Bow macecub and net to ensnare Tiamat Flame lled body Four windscardinal directions from grandfather Anugod of winds lmhulluwindevi wind Storm chariot with four horses Slayer Pitiless Racer and Flyer A spell quotin his lipsquot can say at any moment when help is neededmagic An herb to counter poison shows reliance upon magic AND nature Godslgigi group of younger gods throng at his sides Battle Marduk vs Tiamat o The Annunakifollowers of Tiamatolder gods vs the O O lgigifollowers of Mardukyounger gods Winds released blow into Tiamat Tiamat in ated like a balloonike how wind in ates the ocean Tiamat fails to atter MardukTiamat realizes Marduk is powerful and tries to take his side to avoid loss lmhulluwind stretches her belly arrow splits her in two lowermost half sky Ea h Weeping eyes become sources of Tigris and Euphrates breasts becomes mountains tail becomes Milky Waycompare Apsubody is used Since Tiamat is quotwaterquot she is often represented as a serpent Qingu taken captivecompare Mummu Tiamat s associates imprisoned weapons smashed Storm God vs Serpentine Monster 0 O O O Recurring theme in Ancient near east Storm god often king of gods Serpentine monster often associated with primordial waters or the sea Tiamat a dragonserpentboth due to depictions at different times Enuma Elish not clear Tiamat represents sea Babylonian cylinder sealdepicts a serpent Aftermath of Battle o Marduk takes Tablet of Destinies from Qingu gives it to AnuMarduk may not have won battle wo winds from grandfather o Marduk makes his dwelling quotover the Apsuquot Names it BabiliquotGateway of the GodsquotBabylon Establishes Babylon as center of religious life Marduk Lives there center of power and Authorityaetiology science of studying cause behind something 0 Marks out cosmos creates calendar 0 Human Creation 0 Marduk says he wants to quotperform miraclesquot He IS power 0 Tella Ea his plan to create mancreated as basically slave workers Men to put gods at leisure perform ritual work in temples Eagod of wisdom use blood of Qinguthe counselor of Tiamatstill imprisoned Mardukor Ea kills Qingu creates humans from bloodidea of life giving lifehuman life is not made out of nothing Intentionally ambiguous Both important to human creationunknown which god killed Qingu o Gods build templeziggurat for Marduk to live in at Babylon Enuma Elish celebrates founding of BabylonTemple of Marduk Enuma Elish Themes 0 O Tells a successionMarduk becomes king of gods creationhuman life and a charter mythhow Babylon becomes center Overthrow of father and mother Order from chaos Ancient Freek comparisons Apsu and Tiamat vs Chaos Apsu vs Ouranos Tiamat vs Gaia Ea vs KronosPrometheus Marduk vs Zeus CLT 3378 Notes Atrahasis and the Flood 9815 0 What is a ood myth 0 Basic outline A god is angry at mankind for some reason 0 Ex Jupiter in Ovids Metamorphoses The god sends a ood to destroy all life upon the earth Another god warns one man of the upcoming ood The man builds a boat and loads animals onto it The man and his wife survive the ood The man sacri ces to the gods in thanksgiving Gods regret sending the ood in the rst place Atrahasis o Flooddestruction myth o Originated in Mesopotamiasince it is a myth there is no way to nd origin Helped to explain appearance of marine fossils in rocks high above sea level Ancients may have seen fossils in stone and needed an explanation lnvolves Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 0 Myth spread around by caravan routes Ovid Roman version of ood Flood myth is a latecomer to Greek myth no mention by Hesiod or Homer 0 Poemfragmentary due to being written on cuneiform tablets Old Babylonian Versionc 20001600 BCE Standard Babylonian Versionc 1000539 BCE 0 Author or compiler lpiqAya c 1700 BCE junior scribe Only survived on 3 cuneiform tablets 0 Junior godsgigifollowers of Marduk digging canals at the command of the Anunnakiolder gods probaby occurred before Enuma Elish possible that it just happened separately Backbreaking labor Clearing the channels of the Tigris and the Euphrates lgigi start a workers strike Surround the house of Ellil God of winds and storms O O 0 Boss of the working gods 0 Atrahasis author says gods had drawn lots for space assignmentsbasically drew straws to nd out what they were in charge of Ellil earth Anu sky EnkUEaapsu Land inheritance to sons in Ancietn Mesopotamia by same practice 0 Creation of Man 0 Ellil asks Anu and EnkiEa for advice on what to do Both say he is wasting their time asking this 0 quotDuh the gigi are working way too hardquot 0 EnkiEa s advice 0 Create primeval man to bear the yokeinstead of using gods for labor create a slave race Calls upon NintuMamiBeletili wombgoddess midwife of the gods 0 Time before modern medicine and therefore humans needed something to call on for the survival of childbirth Nintu will create man if EnkiEa gives her clay EnkiEa will slay one god and Nintu will mix clay with his esh and blood llaweagod slain EnkiEa provides clay Nintu pinches off 14 pieces 14 wombgoddessesNintu s servant gods One piece of clay each mix with blood 7 women 7 men Compare to immortlity of Greek gods Greek athanatoiquotdeathlessquot gods 0 The anger of Ellil O O O O 600 years pass after creation of man Humans overpopulated and noisy quotlike a bellowing bullquot Ellil quotlosing sleep over this racketquot Cf Enuma Elish Ellil decides to destroy humans order plague to wipe out mankind o Atrahasis and Ellil s rst Attempt o AtrahasisAtramHasis quotExtra wisequot King of Shuruppak human Prays to EnkiEa for help Mesopotamian concept of personal god and worship o EnkiEa s response to Atrahasis stop worshipping gods Humans brings bread offering to Namtara minor god associated with disease Temple built for Namtara Namtara appeased removes plague o Ellil s Second plot Famine o 600 more years pass humans too noisy again 0 Ellil orders famine O EnkiEa gives same advice to Atrahasis Humans don t worship the gods Humans give bread offering the Adada storm god can order rain for growing crops and build him a temple Adad appeased lifts famine How is Atrahasis still alive 0 Literary strategyrepetition helps with passing down myths through oral tradition o Elli s third Plot Drought 0 About 3 epochs pass same noise issue 0 Ellil orders drought o Atrahasis makes sacri ce to EnkiEa O EnkiEa hanging out in apsu Irrigation water carries gift down to apsu EnkiEa hears Atrahasis Fragmentary textbroken tablet Third god lifts droughtassumption due to previous repetition o Ellil s fourth plot 0 O O O O 600 years later same strory Ellil orders sickness famine and drought Cannibalism only 2 households left EnkiEa still instructs Atrahasis not to worship gods Fragmentary text Text resumes Ellil and EnkiEa furious with each other Tension Mounts 0 O O Ellil to EnkiEa quotYOU created man YOU destroy themquot EnkiEa quotnot my problemquot sticks up for his creation motherly qualities even though male EnkiEa advises Atrahasis Swears oath quotwall reed hutquot god calling upon nearby village reedinanimate object hut to be a witness to his oath Build boat put living things on it Atrahasis so scared he throws up New Atrahasis Fragment in course library 0 Boatbuilding instructions from EnkiEa 0 Made of palm bres 0 Circular design giant red raftcaed coracle New notion of quotarkquotthis story predates the Noahs Ark story Ellil s Flood 0 Ellil orders destructive ood o Nintu weeps Motherly compassion Humans quotlike sacri cial sheep being led to slaughter dragon ies being struck downquot 0 Flood rages for 7 days and 7 nights 0 Fragmentary text The ood ends 0 O O 0 Text resumes ood has ended Boat lands Atrahasis makes sacri ce Gods gather quotlike iesquot meaning unclear Ellil sees boat becomes furious EnkiEa quotI did it in de ance of youquot no way to predict tricksters behavior Enki and Nintu s solution to human overpopulation Told Ellil no future oods Infant mortality explained still born defects diseases childhood death etc Mortal man replaces primeval manno way to die unless wiped out by godsdiseasefamine ood no natural lifespan live as long as they can but can be injuredkilled explained short life span of the Babylonians CLT3378 Notes 910917 Gilgamesh The Epic of Gilgamesh Longest cuneiform Akkadian composition Exploits of Gilgamesh obscure historical gure Survives on 12 cuneiform tablets Contains ood mythUtnapishtim as part of Tablet 11 Old Babylonian versionquotSurpassing all other kingsquot Compiled c20001600 BCE by Babylonian scribes from earlier Sumerian texts 0 Our version standard versionquotHe who saw the Deepquot Babylonian Sinleqeunnini c1200650 BCE Gilgamesh 0 Actual historical gure Sumerian king Bilgamesc 28002500BCE Sumerian version of name UnugAkkadian Uruk city in which he ruled Gilgamesh Akkadian name 0 Legendarymythical hero 23 divine 13 mortal Parents Ninsun goddess quotLady Wild Cowquot Lugalbanada King of Uruk o Gilgamesh Origins 0 Hero born in Urukwhere his father rules n u n u quotA goring bull a strong net a raging ood wavequot Epithets used to describe Gilgamesh a strong title associated with herocharacter throughout myths o BeletiliMamiNintu quotmidwife of the godsquot in Atrahasis Designed perfect shape of Gilgamesh s body 0 Childhood Gilgamesh a grown man during the epic 0 King of Uruk arrogant beyond control Knows hes rich knows hes powerful rubs it in and takes advantage of royal birth Young men jealous feel inferior to Gilgamesh around their fathersgirlsfathers wish their sons were more like Gilgamesh Exercises quotlord s rightquotthe king because hes quotlordquot he gets to sleep with bride in any new marriage in the kingdom on their wedding night with new bridestechnically a rapist but not called this because of the setting OOOOO o A lot like Gaston from Beauty and the Beast 0 People of Uruk pray to Anu for help 0 Creation of Enkidu o Gods respond Aruru Belitili creates Enkidu Piece of clay castthrown out into the wilderness Wild man arises from clay hairy quotdressed as cattlequot Equal to Gilgamesh Enkidu is made sure to be equivalent to Gilgamesh although not as beautiful 0 Hunter encounters Enkidu in the wild because he is one with the animals Distressed Enkidu destroying traps releasing prey Hunter s father fetch Shamhatbasically a prostitute used to lure Enkidu Try to capturetame Enkidu o Shamhat quotvoluptuous woman prostitutequot not just a lowly prostitute the kind that sleep with royalty Prostitute in Uruk o Shamhat and Enkidu o Shamhat and hunter wait at watering hole for Enkidu Shamhat sleeps with Enkidu 6 days 7 nights 0 Animals reject Enkidu too wise clean and civilized Sleeping with Shamhat made him realize that he is an actual human and should act more civilized wildness dissipates from his nature 0 Shamhat leads Enkidu to Uruk Mesopotamians viewed sleeping with a prostitute is a sign of being civiliazed o Gilgamesh dreams that his equal has arrived This is how the gods supposedly communicated with people 0 Gilgamesh about to bed a virgin bride Enkidu blocks access to house when he sees what is going on does not see it as right Wrestle in the street nobody wins because they are equals Realize that neither will win embrace hold hands become friends Gilgamesh realizes he has met his match and respects Enkidu Humbaba o Gilgamesh proposes quest to Enkidu Hambaba Giant named Hambaba guardian of Pine Forest nobody can defeat him O Put there by Ellil Ninsun becomes worried that Gilgamesh has bitten off more than he can chew Seeks help from Shamash sun god god ofjustice Adopts Enkidu as her son since he is the compliment to Gilgamesh 0 Journey to Pine Forest 0 Three days total Crosses 7 mountains Encounter Humbaba Humbaba taunts Gilgamesh and Eanu Humbaba does not understand why they have shown Up Enkidu a quotsmall fryquot Will leave Gilgamesh quotfor the birdsquot Humbaba similar to Smoky the Bear protects the forest Humbaba vs Gilgamesh and Enkidu O O O O O O Gilgamesh gets scared because of Humbaba s threats prays to Shamash Shamash sends 13 winds to bind Humbaba Humbaba pleads for mercy Enkidu refuses Humbaba curses Gilgamesh and Enkidu quotneither shall outlive his friendquot Both will dies at the same time Gilgamesh decapitates Humbaba while Enkidu holds him down Cedars cut down and raft built wood and Humbaba s head loaded on raft the pair sails home Temptation of Ishtar O O Gilgamesh returns to Uruk freshens up puts on new robe and crown Ishtar wants to sleep with Gilgamesh since he is now an alpha males and she wants to tame him Goddess of sex love fertility and war Similar to Aphrodite Associated with Underworld Promises Gilgamesh riches and powerGilgamesh has refused her Gilgamesh still rejects Ishtar o Cites her unfortunate past lovers dying misfortune etc Bull of Heaven o Ishtar complains to her father Anugrandfather of Marduk spoiled brat Demands Bull of Heaven Taurus constellationTaurus latin for bull If Anu refuses Ishtar threatens to raise the dead to eat the living Anu gives in gives Ishtar the Bull of Heaven 0 Bull is so massive that when it snortsstomps chasms open and hundreds of men die Enkidu grabs Bull by taiIGigamesh wont o Gilgamesh stabs Bull in the head slaying it Gilgamesh credited with kill although didn t do any work Ishtar climbs city walls of Uruk curses Gilgamesh Gilgamesh slaps Ishtar in the face with Bull s shoulder o Gilgamesh parties all night says he is super cool Still unimpressive for accomplishing things without doing the brunt of the work 0 Death of Enkidu o Humbaba Bull of Heaven both dead line crossed Enkidu had been sent down to counter act Gilgamesh has gotten out of hand gods wish they hadn t created him 0 Enkidu s dream Anu Ellil and Shamash have council Anu quotEnkidu must diequot 0 Enkidu falls ill Curses Shamhatprostitute made him civilized and brought him into the mess 0 Better to leave things as they are in nature Shamash quotMy Shamhatquot says Shmahat did nothing wrong Enkidu removes curse from Shamhat o Enkidu dreams he is going to the Underworld Dead people clothed like birds eat clay and dusthis vision of what his death would be 0 Enkidu sick fro 12 days dies Gilgamesh Grieves o Gilgamesh mourns 6 days 7 night delays Enkidu s burial 0 Myth claims delay was so long that Enkidu s body begins to decompose and smell up the city Calls upon the city of Uruk to grieve O O OO Statue funeral with grave goods for Enkidu Given full honors o Gilgamesh quotShall I die tooquot Recalls curse of Humbaba quotNeither of you will outlive your friendquot Wants immortality o Seeks Utnapishtim ONLY mortal man given immortality by the gods 0 Lives at Mouth of Rivers Edges of earth Underworld type of place Lions on the Quest 0 Gilgamesh sets out on quest for Utnapishtim o Encounters lions in mountain pass at night Mashu o Gilgamesh comes to Mashupace Prays to Sinmoon god Gigamesh never does anything on his own always calling on someone to help him has dream Awakes and slays lions wears skins becomes a wild man in a sense 0 Very much like HeraclesHercues Cedar mountain Lebanon again Edge of the earth Mashuquottwin peaksquot Guarded by Scorpionmen just one and his wife many different stories Entrance similar to underworld Daily Journey of Shamash Each morning Shmash rises out of Mashu travels from east to west in the sky Each night Shamash takes opposite route from west to O 0 east Sets behind another mountain Passes through the underworld Brings light to the deadduring night in mortal world settles legal disputes Brings spirits to the living wordhitch onto Shamash to haunt the living 0 Travels through tunnel in Mashu scorpionmen open gate Uses pruning sawin order to hack through trees to rise over the mountain 0 The Return of ScorpionMen o Scorpion man and his wife Glance from scorpion instant death Gilgamesh terri ed Greet Gilgamesh and say quotMashu impossible to enterquot 0 Similar to time travel impossible Recognize his semidivine nature let him pass 0 Gilgamesh enters tunnel through Mashu Same tunnel Shamash takes to rise opposite direction Total darknessno light bn the rising and setting of Shamash Arrives at garden of the gods with jeweled trees ScorpionMan A closer look 0 Scorpionman depicted on Great Lyregiant standing harp Cemetery at Sumerian city of Urc 2600 BCE Great Lyre discovered in tomb among many other treasures Worlds oldest stringed instrument ever found Bottom panel depicts scorpionman 0 Front of panel shows animals playing lyre and scorpionman holding a tablet Underworldfuneral connection because it was found in tomb Siduri and Golden Vats of Beer 0 Gilgamesh reaches jeweled garden of the gods Comes in front of Shamash like a rebirth Garden located quotby the seaquot not very speci c Siduri lives there 0 Siduri quotAlewifequotbeer seller bartender goddess of fermentation Runs a tavern with golden vats Beer a preferred drink Mesopotamia did not have vineyards like Rome to create wine Siduri s Instructions 0 Gilgamesh approaches tavern Siduri locks door because she is afraid of him Gilgamesh quotlll smash the door down if you don t let me outquot o Siduri tells Gilgamesh how to nd Utnapishtim Lives across the sea at quotMouth of Riversquot Water is lethal only Shamash has crossed sea 0 Anyone who steps into the water will perish First nd Ur shanabi the boatman 0 Almost always a solution to problem in mythology Will help Gilgamesh cross ocean Ur shanabi and Utnapishtim o Ur shanabi ferries Gilgamesh across sea only if he Cut 300 wood poles each 30 meters long Reach island where Utnapishtim the oars will constantly be eaten by the acidic ocean o Gilgamesh asks Utnapishtim about immortality quotYou seem just like mequot Gigamesh is unimpressed Why are you so special to gain immortality and I am not Utnapishtim 0 Stop worrying death is inevitable quotSavage Death just cuts mankind downquot 0 Explains to ancients that death happens to all no matter what Tells ood myth Utnapishtim 0 Name means quotHe who found lifequot 0 King of Shuruppak Same city Atrahasis ruled Utnapishtim s Flood Myth 0 O Utnapishtim narrates Shorter version than Atrahasis Says there s a ood that destroys mankind skips all the details Reason for ood o Anger of Ellil EnkiEa swore oath of secrecy to gods quotReed hut brick wallquot cf Atrahasis EnkiEa warns Utnapishtim was his own personal god Upcoming ood Build boatcircular put living things aboard Tell people Ellil rejects younot all the gods so you must live in apsu with EnkiEa Utnapishtim s Boat 0 6 decks one acre in circumference raft is circular o Bitumenancient asphalt makes boat waterproof Utnapishtim s Flood 0 Flood begins Ishtar weepscf Nintu in Atrahasis quotMy people are being destroyedquot o Other gods afraid O Retreat to the quotheaven of Anuquot upper heaven 3 heavens the gods dwell in upper middle and lower Flood ends after 6 days7 nigths Mt Nimush where the raft has ended up Cf Jupiter s Flood and Atrahasis Aftermath of the Floodthis is the same ood myth as Atrahasis just a different story 0 O Dove swallow and lastly a raven sent out to see if the ood is really done Dove and awallow were sent out and came back because there was no dry land Raven doesn t come back Utnapishtim s Sacri ce Gods gather quotlike iesquot cf Atrahasis Ellil sees boat furious blames EnkiEa EnkUEa Admits that he warned humans Says there were other ways to kill humans Ellil grants Utnapishtim and his wife immortality Must dwell quotat the mouth of the riversquot their requirement in order to be granted this giftnot seen in Atrahasis version 0 Return to Gilgamesh O O Utnapishtim nishes ood story Moral of the story immortality a unique gift Due to the gods making mistakes Sleep test for Gilgamesh in order to prove worthiness of immortality Must not sleep for 6 days7 nights Daily meal put at bedside as proof o If Gilgamesh is awake he will be eating the meal o If he falls asleep the meal will not be eaten Gilgamesh fails test remains partly mortal 0 quotFountain of Youthquot 0 O O Gilgamesh cleans up puts on new robe Realizes his failure understands he has not accomplished anything Utnapishtim s wife Gilgamesh needs a parting gift tradition of Greece and Rome Utnapishtim reveals a secret of the gods Thorny shrub plant called quotan old man grows into a young manquot 0 Located at the bottom of the ocean Rejuvinates youth 0 Will allow you to die young Gilgamesh puts stone on feet sinks into apsu nds plant 0 Plant stolen by snake on journey back to Uruk Gilgamesh was sleeping Gilgamesh nally accomplishes something only to have something bad happen Snakes shed skinaetiology science of explaning things Shed skin because it was becoming young again shedding their old selfskin Return to Uruk and Tablet 12 o Gilgamesh returns to Uruk Leads Urshanabi around city walls Gives Urshanabi kings tour Ring compositionring circular myth will end where it began Uruk s walls to Uruk s walls 0 Tablet 12 Later editionepilogue Attempt at cosure unsure if this tablet is part of myth or something different all together Enkidu s ghost comes out of ssure in the earth Gilgamesh questions him about the Underworld 0 Themes form Gilgamesh 0 Human mind binary opposites in Gilgamesh Gilgamesh s mind switches over the course of the myth 0 Nature vs culture NatureEnkidu vs Culture Gilgamesh Culture and nature can coexist Cf Nature vs nurture How you re raised can very we determine how you turn out Cultregt nature defeat of Humbaba Reversal Enkidu becomes civilized Gilgamesh becomes widmust encounter ions swim to the bottom of the ocean o Is culture negative Lead sto death of Enkidu 0 Author focus on immortality through culture Walls of Uruk walls will allow Gilgamesh to leave a legacy O CLT3378 Notes 92215 Mesopotamian SumerianAkkadian Underworld Mesopotamian Underworld Basics 0 Various names of the underworld Kurnugi quotland of no returnquot KurSumerian quotEarthground landquot 0 Also mountain ErkallaAkkadian quotgreat cityquot Physical place regerdlaess of de nition 0 Entrance to underworld 7 gates Each has its own guard who exacts atoll 0 Article of clothing or adornment given for payment 0 Returning how they came into the worldnaked Residents of the underworld o Ereshkigal quotgreat lady under the earthqueen of the Great Belowquot Queen of underworld has rulesay over everything PalaceEgalgina at great gateGanzir main gate 0 NamtarNamtara Son and viziermessengercounselor of Ereshkigal Able to bridge real world and underworld to share messages Name quotdecider of fatequot Commands 60 diseases in demonic form Able to send demons that cause people to fall ill quotGrimm Reaperquot of Mesopotamia o Nergalaka Erra quotLord of Erkallaquot King of the underworld consort of Erishkigal Has a lesser role than Queen God of plague war ood fertility Four pillar concepts of ancient culture many gods show these spheres of in uence Equated by Greeks with HeraclesHercules or Ares o Spirits of the Underworld 0 Demonsgallus Drag spirits down into the underworld o Spirits gidim At death lose physical being and become a spiritsou gidim Takes on memory and personality of dead person No proper burialex Death by fire no gidim Mesopotamians believed if you are cremated you will not become a gidim Gidim quotto be a sick demonquot or quotto approach blackquot 0 Not an evil being necessarily Wander in underworld eats dust always thirsty Dead live in similar way the living Cohabit live in house within a city 0 Revenants 0 Anything that comes back from the dead Believed its purpose was to terrorize living Mesopotamians obsessively feared o Ghostsgidim haunt living if Not continuous funerary offeringsfooddrink Shows that the dead were still an important part of their lives 0 Enter through ear bring misfortune and disease Magic spellsincantations used to protect self Descent of lshtar to the Underworld 0 Akkadian poemjust like Enuma Elish c 700 BCE approximately 140 lines o lshtarAkkadiannannaSumerian Most important Mesopotamian goddess Main goddess of fertility along with Nintu Three aspects 0 Sex prostitution cf Aphrodite Warcf Aphrodite s ing with AresMars 0 Planet VenusMorningEvening star Daughter of Anuusually sister of Ereshkigal Ishtar Gate 0 Giant gate to the city of Babylon576 BCE Babylonia is centered around Marduk o Built in honor of lshtar Underworld is associated with gates would make sense to dedicate a gate to her 0 Sometimes considered of the 7 Wonders of the world because it is so grand and mostly intact now Descent of lshtar to the Underworld 0 lshtar goes to Underworld why We don t have background info Total darkness no way out Residents eat clay and dust clothed with feathers Threatens gatekeeper with zombie takeoversame threat as with Gilgamesh if he doesn t let her in wo having to pay a toll To enter all 7 gates lshtar removes a garment at each gate ends up naked Because she represents sexBecause dead are naked 0 Maybe this is how she is able to coexist with dead Namtarat command of Ereshkigal sends 60 demonic diseases against lshtar They are unhappy with her threats No sex on surface of earth while lshtar in icted fertility stops for awhile 0 Animals are not mating Humans not having chidren Gods troubled EnkiEa creates quotGoodLooks the Playboyquot actual name from myth serves as the playboy for a diversion lntersex being Castrated boy 0 We only know he is very good looking Tricks Ereshkigalenamors her she swears oath to give him waters of life Water of life given to lshtar instead revives her and brings fertility back to earth reproduction begins again on earthpopulation no longer in decline Ereshkigal releases Ishtar demands Dumuzi God that will take lshtar s place in underworld Dying god fertility god shepherd of Uruk lshtar s lover Name means quotfaithful sonquotone of lshtar s loves fate is not very good for any of her lovers Dumuzilesser god spends half the year in underworld SisterBelili volunteers other half 0 Half year he is in Underworld season in which now growing 0 Half year Dumuzi is above agriculture growth Aetiological god for seasons explains why there are seasonsgrowing seasons Cf Persephone Greek mythology Nergal and Ereshkigal 0 Two versions of poem Both tell how Nergal becomes king of underworld o Amarna version C 14OOBCE approx 90 lines Amarna site in Egypt Sultantepe version 0 O C 7th century BCE approx 350 line Sultantepe in Assyria o Amarna Version 0 O O Gods having a feast Ereshkigal sends Namtar to get share of the food The good call her their sister she is highly thought of She cannot leave the Underworld Namtar approaches gods Nergal doesn t bow Namtar thought of as king Ereshkigal bring him so that I may kill him Ea realizes Ereshkigal s goal hes a type of foreseeing god Ea helps Nergal hide from Namtar Ea encourages Nergal to go to the Underworld Gives him 14 demons Nergal stations demons at 7 gates keep gates open Nergal storms Ereshkigal s chamber Grabs her by hair pulls her off throne intends to kill her Ereshkigal leads for mercy Ereshkigal offers Nergal kingship and marriage Nergal accepts becomes consort of the underworld Sultantepe Version 0 O O Gods having feast Anu has god Kakka relay message to Ereshkigal about the feast Ereshkigal sends Namtar Nergal doesn t bow EnkiEa to Nergal Are you stupid How could you have committed such an atrocity l winked at you man Enki had foresight and knew Nergal was too dumb to bow gave him a cue Build a chairghosts chair to prevent seizure by ghosts go to underworld Enki s building instructionsboat for ood he uses foresight to help not only humans but also gods 0 Nergal admitted through all 7 gates o Nergal arrives bows before Ereshkigal OOOO Nergal sees Ereshkigal bathe gives in to desire Sleeps with her for 6 days sneaks out and returns to heaven Ereshkigal distraught threatens zombie takeover sends Namtar after Nergal quotIm pregnantquot message sent with Namtar to Nergal EnkiEa disguises Nergal from Namtar at rst Nergal storms through underworld kills all 7 gate guards Laughs pulls Ereshkigal off throne by hair Sleep together for six days again CLT3378 92415 Egyption Creation 0 Ancient Egypt Geography 0 Nile River Flows south to northempties into Mediterranean Annual ooding fertility and rich soil deposits Produce exported leads to wealth and further trading Upper Egyptsouth and Lower Egypt north 0 Security of Egypt Invasion difficult o Cant sail INTO via Nile cant invade from south because desert surrounds civilization Sea desert 6 river cataractsshaowrocky stretches Can develop and continue to grow because of this secur y 0 Ancient Egypt Historical Background 0 Early dynastic period c 31002700 BCE Dynasties 12 Egypt Upper and Lower united under rule Pharohs had a doublecrown to represent both 0 Old Kingdom c 27002200 BCE Centralized authority rises and breaks down Dynasties 36 Great Pyramids built Old Kingdom is to Ancient Greece as Ancient Greece istoday 0 First Intermediate Period greater dynasty rulings break down Loca rulers 0 Middle Kingdom c 210017OOBCE Dynasties 1113 0 Second Intermediate Period 0 New Kingdom c 15501000 BCE Dynasties 1820 Tutankhamun c13321323 Ramses the Great 12791213BCE Third Intermediate Period 0 Late Period 672332 BCE Control by foreign powers Alexander the Great 0 Stable Periods 0 Egyptian Creation Heliopolitan Creation Myth 0 0 Not in course reader Earliest Egyptian creation myth Old Kingdom Centered on Heliopolissuncity In the beginning NuNungod name menas abyss Binatural primordial waters of chaos Once life springs up Nu s water exists on edges of universe surrounds quotlife bubblequot 0 As life forms from middle of abyss a life bubble will surround it Mound of earth rises out of water Located in Heliopolis Cf Nile ood as ood waters recede land quotarisesquot Since this was how the ood ended every year it made sense that creation would begin like so Heliopolitan Creation Myth 0 OO Atum quotthe allquot Creative force selfcreated was not created by Nu Appears on mound but had always existed Associated with sun settingevening Patron god of Heliopolis quotsun cityquot in Greek Such like Marduk is to Babylon Atum produces two godscreative force does not need other half to procreate Shu god of air Tefnut goddess of moisture Creation by masturbationhand is inherent female principle OR sneezingShuspittingTefnut Onomatopoeia ShuTefnut produceincest seen throughout Mesopotamian myth have to start somewhere Geb earth god rst male god in this class to represent earthfertility Nut sky goddess GebNut produce Sons Osiris and Sethbrothers Daughters lsis and Nephthys sisters All togethernot including Nu 9 gods Atum Shu Tefnut Geb Nut Osiris lsis Seth Nephthys Ennead meaning 9 0 Memphis Creation Myth 0 0 Creation myth from New Kingdom Centers on Ptah O O Craftsman god Patron god of Memphis centers of royal craft shops 0 Everyone wants to give credence to their city wants their city to be the center of the universe Ptah creates entire worldincuding Ennead Intellectual creationthe way Ptah created vs physical creationmasturbationspittingsneezingetc Creation formed when ideas in quotheartquotmind are pronounced by Ptah s quottonguequotspeech Creates Atum Atum created Ennead Cf Creation by Atum Primeval mound located in Memphis Plutarch s lsis and Osiris O O O No full Egyptian mythological account of Isis and Osiris Best existing account Written by Plutarch46120CE Greek writer during Roman Empire Compiled from personal experiences in Egypt Plutarch calls Egyptian gods by Greek names SethTyphonserpent gure First succession myth Osiris King of Egypt overthrown by brother Seth Osiris succeeded by Horus Osiris marries lsissister Seth marries Nephthyssister all siblingsincest Osiris becomes King of Egypt civilizes Egypt and the known world through persuasion Osiris is the rst pharaoh Seth Trickster god of chaos and violenceout of controlamoral originally of desert and storms Becomes jealous of Osiris since there are two in this generation Creates chest the size of Osiris many other gods try to t and cant tricks Osiris into chest Nails chest shut sends it out to sea on the Nile Chest washes ashore at ByblosPhoenician City lsis searches for chest after nding out becomes close to royal family at Byblos Chest has washed up and a tree has grown around it Disguises herself and gets involved with family becomes a maid gure Raises queens baby burns away child s mortality slowly changing child into a god 0 Cf Demeter in Greek mythology o Isis is discovered and is scornedcondemned child does not become immortal She then reveals herself and nds chest hidden in pillar of the royal house 0 Osiris has been in chest so long he has perished lsis has sex with corpse of Osiris bears son Horus hides chest elsewhere Seth nds it cuts up body of Osiris into 14 pieces scatters them throughout Nile swamps o In Egyptiannot Greek versions No chest in story Seth just cuts up Osiris and scatters him 0 lsis nds all but the phallusmale genetalia 1314 pieces of Osiris creates replica Important symbol for fertility goddess must nd a way for procreation to happen even if she doesn t have all the pieces 0 lsis reanimate Osiris performs rites for his eternal life Osiris is now alive in a sense Osiris is technically dead becomes king of the underworld o Laternot in myth Horus grows up lsis presents Horus as heir to Osiris throne Seth refutes and claims throne as his since he killed Osiris Horus and Seth battle in court Horus eventually awarded Osiris throne by the gods 0 He is the legitimate heir power awarded to son before given to 0 Kings of Egypt become avatars of Horus Horus is the epitome of the pharaoh s ideology Egyptians modeled themselves after Horus succession 0 Ancient Egyptian Rule Pharaoh and Horus 0 King of Ancient Egyptpharaoh Believed to be incarnation quotembodiment in eshquot of god Horus o Horus Early Egyptian god Depicted as falconfalconheaded man Associated with the sunsky war and protection n u o Hor quotfalcon the distant onequot 0 Two representations of Horususually combined Horus depiction depends on age of pharaoh Horus as a chidyoung pharaoh son of Isis and Osiris Horus as an adultadult pharaoh falcon Sunright eye and Moon left eye Hovers over and protects Pharaoh Re Egyptian Sun God 0 ReRa Egyptian word for quotsunquot Sun god often a creator god 0 Overall most important god in Ancient Egypt Importance of sun for daily life Without sun no warmthfoodcivilization o Rarely seen alone often associatedmerged with other gods especially Horus o Often depicted with solar disc surrounded by coiled serpents Solar disc quotEye of Requot Somewhat separate god female counterpart of Repersoni ed by Egyptian goddesses Allows him to carry out actions Violent nature helps Re to subdue his enemies 0 Human creation Humans tears of Re s eye solar disc Associated with creation of seasons months and other living creatures o Often identi ed with patron god of a city Patron god of city can claim creator role through association with Re Ex AtumRa at Heliopolis Stages of the Sun 0 Morning rising Reborn in east 0 Two main gods depict morning Re Horakhty falcon quotHorus of the two horizonsquot Khepri scarab dung beetle ball of dung like orb of sun 0 Midday sun Re 0 Eveningsetting sun Atum ram 0 Composite god ReHorakhtyAtumHorusKhepri The journey of the sun 0 Sun travels by boat By day across the sky By night through the underworld river Cf Men on Nile any great distance in quick time a boat was needed Shamash 0 When in underworld sun attacked ApophisAapep a serpent Re always victorious since sun rises every morning Occasional solar eclipseearthquake Re has temporarily lost battle 0 Western side of Nile River Sun s setting associated with death Where Egyptian tombs were located believe this was the entrance to underworld o Rebirth of sun each day Hope for human rebirth human life will still continue in underworld Cf Rebirth of Osiris o Deliverance of Mankind from Destruction 0 Humans pot rebellion against Re 0 Re sends his Eye to destroy them Eye is female counter part sent to do his bidding Eye of Re morphs into goddess Hathor o Hathor Cow goddess with horns Linked to female sexuality and motherhood Sometimes viewed as mother or wife of falcon god Horus Hathor quothouse of Horusquot o Hathor slew mankind in the desert Wipes out almost all of mankind Re not satis ed still and sends Sekhmet o Hathor merges in to goddess Sekhmet Lionheaded goddess Associated with healing and war Re concerned bc she is associated with war and therefore will have less mercy on humankind Fears she will wipe out every last human 0 Re has second thoughts about destruction Orders massive amounts of red dye Dye mixed with beer makes 7k jars of red beer made 0 Choice drink in western ancient cultures 0 Re has red beer poured out where Sekhmet attempts to kill mankind When Sekhmet looks down she sees nothing but rivers of human blood is tricked o Sekhmet gets drunk off beer forgets her duty 0 Reverse ood myth humans saved CLT 3378 10115 Egyptian Underworld and Afterlife Egyptian Underworld Basics 0 Egyptian underworld duat Sun god Re travels through each night west to east 0 Egyptian view of afterlife Egyptian love of life desire for continuity Desire for afterlife to be like life on earth Paradisal wanted life after death to be like paradise Achieving a good afterlife of high importance 0 Had many rituals etc to ensure this 0 Five Afterlife Necessities o Ka The thing that makes you get up every day and live youere Sustaining spirit of person life force Depicted as a spiritualghostly double of person Needs sustenance in afterlife Actual offerings of food and drink PaintingsModels of food and drink Resides in heart during life ln death resides in tomb of dead person Horus ka for pharaohs Hieroglyph for katwo upraised armslike a eld goal quotHorace namequot of pharaoh This is what makes each person unique Nonphysical characterpersonality of person Depicted as a babird humanheaded bird body of a bird and head of a human 0 Has ability to go to and from underworld Enters body at rst breath exits at last breath Attached to body after death Can leave tomb during the day and y about the world and the underworld 0 Shadow shutsheut lnseparable part of person always present lf demon devours your shadow the person ceases to exist Must protect it against demons 0 Name ren o Akh Essenceindividuality of person Needs to be spoken or read for person to exist 0 Old graves without the name don t allow us to know who the person was Importance of preservation of name in tomb 0 Memories will survive Person could cease to exist due to Damnatio memoriae quotcomdemnation of memory o If a person was not a good king their face would be scraped from statues name wiped from records etc Trans gured soulliving intellect form in which deceased occupied the afterlife Reuni cation of ka and ba in the afterlife Magical spells ensure transformation Deceased in their most effective state necessary for best possible afterlife Contains all aspects listed above Painted in tomb with mummy Collections of Magical Spells for Akh o Pyramid texts collections of spells read to ensure the best afterlife Found in Old Kingdom royal tombs Reserved for kings only kings would have the absolute best afterlife o Coffi n texts Build upon Pyramid texts now regular people can have successful afterlives Found in both royal and nonroyal coffins from Middle Kingdom Shows transformation into akh was possible for non royals 0 Book of the dead Found in New Kingdom tombs on papyrus included with mummy For both royal and nonroyal dead Builds upon Pyramid and Coffin texts Proper name quotThe book of coming forth by dayquot ie like sun as a model 0 Residents of the Underworld 0 Gods of the underworld 0 Assorted demons and monsters o Akh of dead people 0 Damned souls unable to become akh Memory forgotten shadow eaten or face chiseled off statues Fate perhaps eternal torment in lake of re 0 OR Join serpent Apophis and battle Re in underworld souls having become akh ght alongside Re Gods of the Underworld 0 lsis Queen of underworld Crowned with throne hieroglyph symbol of royalty Known for magical powers cf reassembly of Osiris ldeal motherwife gure in mythology Comparisons to DemeterGreek myth o Osiris king of underworld First mummysis and Anubis mummi ed him after he was put back together by lsis Usually depicted in mummy form Usually depicted with bluegreen skin 0 Connections to fertilityrebirth underground where plants grow from 0 Think of it as the cold blue ground green Depicted with crook and ail of kingship Symbols of power and corporal punishment Pharaoh manifestation of Osiris at death 0 Anubis o Thoth Depicted as a jackaldoglikeheaded god son of Nephthys and Osiris God of mummi cation Escorts souls of dead to the underworld Weighs heart in Weighing of the Heart Judgment of the Dead lbiscrane bird likeheadedor baboon god Associated with wisdom and writing Settles divine disputes Scribe of Osiris Keeps track of hearts in Weighing of the Heart
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