04:189:101: Introduction to Communication and Informatin Systems and Processing - Study Guide
04:189:101: Introduction to Communication and Informatin Systems and Processing - Study Guide 04:189:101
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Thursday October 16, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 04:189:101 at Drexel University taught by Householder in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication and Informatin Systems and Processing in Communication at Drexel University.
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Date Created: 10/16/14
Groups 2 or more interdepen interaction have an element of d ndividuation a portquot 39 w the group is critical family groups mirror Many Concepts of Fa Traditional family Mother father kids Blended family Step parents step sibs Extend family Other relatives move in uncles gparents friends Singe parent family Functions of family Internal Provide care socialization intellectual dvlpmt recreation amp emotional support External Passing on of cultural valuesnorm amp easing cultural change Parents cant socialize wo building a bond of affection So can interact w society other family groups nt individs who influence one another thru social ay more so in strong groups identifying e elements of most groups Support msgs amp control msgs are the 2 basic msg types parents use to socialize Support msgs Push you to try things while still being supportive of you msgs ab the can dos Control msgs Msgs ab the cant dos don t dress like that you cant go to parties Identifying Family Family themes Reoccurring attitudes beliefs or outlooks on life Family identity Est when themes are clear and the fam is cohesive family personality Power in the familygroup The ability to change behavior in the family Most familiesgroups have clear lines of power Two power structures Person centered You have powerstrength to be influential Position centered All about titles Familygroup decisions are reached via Consensus best Use com to reach shared decision All must be in agreement Almost unreachable w group sizes of 67 Potential for higher degree of diversity Accommodation most common Wieldingyielding of power by the authoritative figure De facto manner when all else fails Due to procrastination non decision making only choice you are left w bc nothing else is left to choose from Parallel parenting Occurs in divorce sitches when parents don t talk ab the decisions made Communication Inside the FamilyGroup amp Outside Internal Communication Centralized networks Perform better on simple tasks the central member is seen as the leader and has high levels of satisfaction Decentralized networks Perform better on complex tasks all members have high levels of satisfaction and leadership is sometime unclear Enmeshed vs Disengaged Enmeshed Tight consistent in terms of family values A group is enmeshed Everyone knows their roles and how they fit in that group Disengaged Lower levels of cohesion wi a group External Communication Open vs Closed vs Random Open Fam is open when they are welcoming and treat you as part of the fam Mi casa es su casa Closed Not welcoming not hospitable not open to outsiders won t exchange info Random Mixed msgs alternating bw being open and closed You never know which ground you stand on w regards to external com What Makes a Good Family Howard Good families Have a chief Have a switchboard operator the person who calls everyone informs Are cohesive Are hospitable Deal directly w probs id w them and com ab them Prize rituals Are openly affectionate Have a sense of place w each other amp world Build connections to posterity aware of their past and history Honor elders Family amp Organizational Structures Family com and organizational com literature are highly correlated Most of the problems in both are ppl problems estimates as high as 80 The more status you have in both the more time spent in oral com Communication Flows Upward From subordinate individ to someone higher up in the organization Downward When your boss comes to you w info Horizontal the grapevine Exists bw ppl of equal power bw friends etc Risks info can be distorted External most visible in crisis Other than crisis periods not aware of it External com either silent chill until for ex a prof is fired Then you need damage control Upward Distortion A com breakdown where subordinates fail to report negative info to superiors Don t wanna be blamed don t wanna be a snitch Organizational Rships Office friendships best work friend not necessarily friends outside of context Formation less matching lt significance of matching hypoth Proximity Shared tasks Similar life events Similar interest Func ons Understanding of organizational issues grievance the ppl we bitch to Taskfunction support ask them to help u out Socialization and info exchange Office Romance 80 have dated a coworker 13 met their spouse at work productivity issues w both romantic and friendship rships How are both discouraged Keep ppl busy promotions strict policy guidelines ab workplace rships UND Sexual Harassment Policy For the purpose of implementation of this policy SH is defined as any attempt to coerce a person into a sexual rship or to subject a person to unwanted sexual attn or to punish a refusal to comply w sexual demands Mentoring amp Networking Mentoring Experienced individ helps train the less experience Advance fasterand higher salary Mentor learns from mentoring symbiotic Networking Informal vs formal Formal Intention of networking The environment Informal Serendipitous expansion of your network Redding s suggestions for supervisors Communication minded Enjoys talking w subordinates Listens and acts Responds to employees suggestions and complaints Asks or persuades They don t tell or demand Sensitive to feelings Don t reprimand in public Passes on information Give advance warning on policy changes explains rationales behind changes Conflict Occurs when interdependent parties cannot agree on ways to meet their needs or goals Types Pseudo Not real conflicts conflicts in perception You think your at odds w someone else but your really not Lack of commsg clarity Over issues that are largely unimportant Simple Real conflicts Difference in goals and desired outcomes b Driven by identity and self appearance Opposition not bc you re a strong supporter of a belief but bc someone opposes you and now you want to challenge them Its defensiveness Conflict myths sign of poor IPR interpersonal rship elements in good rships are lots just a matter of how you deal w it disagreements are normal can be avoided they cant be avoided ppl will always have conflicting goals occur bc of misunderstanding common w pseudo conflicts but not a thing in simple can always be resolved its ok to agree to disagree conflict is always bad often a occurrence allows the possibility of sharing info and there is a potential of arriving at a resolution Steps of Conflict Prior conditions Over time dvlp frustrations due to these conditions Frustration awareness Realize your not happy Active conflict Creates a hostile enviro Resolution How to resolve it Folow up See if things are going to be ok 5 conflict styles aggressivecompetition you want to win avoidancewithdrawing sort of passive want to avoid tension and struggle accommodating want to make others happy compromising middle ground that isn t satisfactory to either person problem solvingcollaboration best strategy to approach conflict tries to make both parties happy 5 Steps to Being Assertive different than being aggressive bc being aggressive has no concern for others 1 Describe the context disclose your feeling you cant argue w a feeling use I Ian describe the impacts of the behavior wait see how they respond paraphrase paraphrase back the responseA be patient and repeat as needed seek an empathetic connection Destructive vs Constructive Conflict Continuum Competitive vs cooperative Parties try to beat each other vs parties work together Self interested vs collective focus Driven by selfish interest as opposed by concern for doing whats best for the group Winlose vs winwin Closed climate vs open climate In open don t have to worry ab being open w info don t have to worry what the other party will do w it Open free info xchange Defensive vs supportive trust Personal attacks vs issue focused Negotiation Process whereby 2 or more parties whose interest areseem opposed use com to reach a joint decision See negotiation as a problem to be solved What are the pieces that will lead this situation to be mutually appreciated Like salary negotiations Problem solving steps Define the problem Analyze the problem Est a criteria for solutions Eval the solutions and select the best Monitor effectiveness of the solutions Conflict Management Skills Emotions Emotional elements can cloud our mind from making being rational Emotions usually lead us to be destructive in conflict Need to keep emotions in check Manage info Are you going to be open or closed There is a natural instinct to be competitve Be empathetic Recognize that your not the only person bring emotions to the context What is the emotional noise of the other in the context Manage goals Realize there are multiple goals identify them and as probs arise deal w them Manage the problems Cultural Distinctions Geography Gender Raceethnicity Religiousspiritual beliefs Sexual orientation Physical abilities Class Age If there is a magazine or convention it s a culture Communication amp Culture Com expresses and sustains culture Cultures consist of material and nonmaterial components Like a chai necklace the torah values etc Cultures are shaped by historical and geographical forces Like 911 or Sandy We learn culture thru com Cultures are dynamic Cultures that fail to adapt that aren t dynamic go away Continuing cultures change Culture amp Communication Highlights Chronemics poly vs monochromic Artifacts amp Appearance H w complexion jewelry piercings etc Independent vs interdependent self construal Are you putting the group first the idea of who you are is driven by your groups interdpndt Like you don t want a mil you want the fam to have a mil Proxemics colder and independent more space In warmer climates ppl have closer proximity more touchy more extended fam living sitches etc Feminine vs masculine Value of cooperation vs competition High vs low context The importance of verbal vs nonverbal msg High context culture Japanese nonverbal msgs trump verbal statements ppl good at reading these nv elements and extracting the real msg from them they do a good job w he relational msgs latent meanings Uncertainty orientation Certain cultures have a higher tolerance than others of uncertainty Younger ppl tend to be more open to uncertainty Non verbal cures tend to dominate Major Intercultural Com barriers Stereotypes amp Prejudices Often times a limiting factor inacurrate our likelihood to engage w these groups becomes less likely predicted outcome value theory Assuming Similarities Something ok in your culture may translate differently in another Different com codes lead to mixed msgs Playing the dozens yo mama back and forth type insulting jokes in young African am communities seen as symbol of intelligence closeness etc other cultures seen as very hostile Ethnocentrism your culture is better Superiority complex Nationalism your country is better Hegemony the consumption of smaller less powerful cultures Manifest destiny trail of tears etc Watt s notion of Spectacular Consumption Media taking urbanpublic values and comodifies them The peopleculture who engaged in the activity originally don t do it anymore Cultural practices being sold to a broader demographic making it no longer palatable to the original culture who started it Budweiser True Wassup Advertisement Dominant Assimilated Integrated Ethnic Marginal Separated Separated Strongly identify w elements of a heritage or ethnicity black panthers in the 70s Not connecting to the mainstream finding ways to get around it and solely focusing on the one aspect of identity Assimilation The Namesake Marginalized Don t feel part of any group not strongly identified w dominant or ethnic culture Low self esteem Not many personal rships Integrated Strongly identify w both dominant and ethnic culture High self esteem Bend it Cyber What are 2 ex of culture being learned thru com Where does the main character fall on the acculturation scale is tolerance of other cultures a good thing when it comes to intercultural com why The Media Equation MediaReal Life The way we interface w technology is governed by the same rules as face to face communication not me syndrome ppl often believe that their attitude and actions are not influenced Cultivation Theory The more you watch the more it is real Chicken or Egg Is it there bc we re watching it or is it there bc it accurately reflects reality Agenda Setting The media tells us what issues are important Magic Bullet or Hypodermic Theory Info from mass media is largely unscrutinized and passes directly to the viewer Minority Groups amp Culture in Media Historically seen as fringe and not economically viable This has changed the target production If considered at all minorities histrionically relegated to stereotypic roles Eventually we see a convergence bw media portrayal and actual Sef fulfilling prophesy Powerful enculturation tool moralbehavioralidentity model Stephens amp Phillips 2003 posit that the classical media stereotypes of African American women jezebel mammy Matriarch and welfare queen have been replaced in pop culture w various hyper sexualized roles freak gold digger diva dyke Darker isn t better Roles like criminals usually go to darker complexion individs Representations of minorities are often incomplete Body parts partial images One minority face in a group of whites Eurocentric Antz 1998 Blacks in media seem to lack community and black friends Limited Intercultural Interaction Interpersonal intercultural interactions tend not to test well Sellout Create normative belief of relational patterns racialized otherness Discussion Do the images reflect reality or create reality How are these images and depictions of the other hegemonic Don t think of minority groups as race and ethnicity only Genderfemales although females are a majority group are often marginalized in the media and beyond People not trained in com have a narrow scope of what communicators do Most limit their perception of what constitutes com to public com speech Speech is a vital part of the com field Many of our models ideas ab interpersonal mediated group dynamic and persuasion have morphed from the study of speech Most modern com classes have little or nothing to do w speech Difference between interpersonal and public communication Public is highly structured Public uses formal language Public use formal delivery Basic Types of Speech Informative To educate close the knowledge gap Persuasion Generating an attitude or changing an attitude of the aud All speech types are essentially persuasive in some element Entertain Comedies eulogies etc Modes of Speech Delivery Impromptu Just kinda off the top of your head unplanned High level of energy no attachment to notes more free natural high levels of adaptability sounds genuine Lack of structure unorganized may forget to say things can seem unprepared Extemporaneous Operates from a highly organized outline but not putting down exactly what they re gonna say Benefits of internal consistency and perks of impromptu style One downside level of lang more formal than impromptu but not as formal as it could be Manuscript Lang style and structure Written out word for word You are reading the manuscript teleprompter does this No adaptability Easy to lose your place Memorized Lang style and structure Written out word for word Most historically great speeches are not good examples of practical professional speech Organization One of the 2 most important areas ppl use to eval speech quality Oral org is more important than written org Organized speakers are thought to be more competent and credible Organization and content trump delivery in critical contexts Parts of a Speech Intro Attn step get attn quote statistic anecdote etc Relation to audience introduce why the gen topic is important to the group that is listening WHIIFM whats in it for me what is the aud going to get out of this Thesis statement where you tell the aud exactly what your presentation is ab 1 clear short declarative and non compound sentence that gets to the point Preview statement numerated oral presentation of what the main parts of the body of the presentation are 25 main points that will support your thesis must be articulated slowly and consistently throughout the presentation same wording Body Balance the 25 main points should all be equally as strong Each point should be supported by multiple pieces of evidence or other support Should be cited or personal anecdotes stories etc Articulate when you ve finished point 1 and are moving onto point 2 Conclusion Mirrors the introduction Thesis restatement Review of the main points Introduction tieback or attn step tie back
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