test 2 study guide
test 2 study guide GEOG 103 001
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GEOG 103 001
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eliza Lynch on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 103 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Larianne Collins (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geography in Geography at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
GEOG103 TEST 2 STUDY GUIDE Landforms Earth Formation amp Geologic Time Earth formed 46 billion years ago Protoplanet the beginnings of planets which got bigger and bigger 1 eon somewhere between 500 million and 1 billion years Earth s Physical Environment provide the constant amp generally passive background against which the human drama is played constantly changing earth is always in motion horizontal amp vertical can happen abruptlycatastrophically geologists study earth s physical structure amp history but geographers study why certain landforms are where they are and how they change landform identifiable variations of Earth s surface geomorphology the study of landforms their special distribution amp the processes that create them endogenic processes things that happen inside the earth exogenic processes things that happen outside the earth erosion etc Earth s Physical Systems need all spheres for life Exterior 1 atmosphere vapor 2 lithosphere stonerocky surface we exist on amp soil up into the upper crust 3 hydrosphere all water inonaround the earth 4 biosphere where the life occursexists on the planet Interior 1 continental crust 2 oceanic crust thinner than the continental crust 3 mantle 4 core average crust depth on Earth 28 mi landforms change because earth s crust is easily able to crack egg Composition of Earth Minerals naturally formed components of elements of earth Rocks comprise one or more minerals create landforms classified by how the rock if formed Rock Classification Sedimentary sediments worn from other rocks sandstone limestone etc lgneous fiery Inception intrusive vs extrusive cooling magma or lava crystalline cooling Metamorphic meta change morphic form changing chemistry mineralogy or texture of other rocks crystalline Rock Cycle diagrams review Earth s Crust mostly igneous amp metamorphic Rocks a lot in the west mostly sedimentary rocks exposed at surface of the world s surface is sedimentary rocks Earth s Surface fixed Earth people thought that oceans and continents were one thing that didn t move Continental Drift Theory Alfred Wegener 1912 supercontinent Pangea 200 mya idea that they shift theory widely rejected until the 1950s Plate Tectonics Theory 12 major plates basically the continental drift theory when it was accepted Why do plates move Convective currents heat currents in mantle circulate heat amp drive tectonic processes Plate Boundaries Divergent plates spread apart new crust formed create ridgesrifts more land is being created Convergent plates converge and grind into one another trenches heavier one is going to dive down amp smaller one begins to scrunch up to form mountains Transform plate grinds horizontally causing earthquakes two cars side swiping no major topographic effect but earthquakes can be devastating to human environment Endogenic Processes inside the earth Diastrophism amp Volcanism 1 Diastrophism deformation of earth s crust 0 Solid portions of earth s crust o 2 categories folding faulting Folding bending compressional pressure Faulting break or fracture displacement of crust Earthquakes sudden movement slip of crust along a fault line measured on the Richter scale which gives us magnitude epicente point on the earth where the earthquake happens Tsunamis large ocean waves caused by undenNater earthquake volcanic eruption or landslide Volcanism o Transports heated material of earth s interior to or toward earth s surface 0 Shield volcano gentle broader slopes lava flows without explosion smooth eruption 0 Composite volcano steep sided cone lava flows with explosion explosive very deadly and intense eruption Volcano Locations Typically on plate boundariesfault line 92215 Exogenic Processes 1 Weathering 2 Mass Wasting mass movement 3 Erosion Weathering breakdown of rocks at the surface into pieces ranging from boulders to pebbles to sand to microscopic silt particles rocks begin to breakdown the moment they are exposed to weather attacked by water oxygen carbon dioxide amp temp fluctuations 1St step in soil formation 2 types of weathering mechanical amp chemical Mechanical physical breakdown of rocks only changes size of rock not composition caused by frost roots salt crystals Chemical chemical alteration of minerals changes composition of rock occurs in warm moist areas oxidation rock rusting carbonation H20 CO2 generally occurs in warmer or moist climates w a lot of humidity ex of bike rusting if you ve left it outside for a while Mass Wastino Mass Movement downslope movement of materiallandscapes due to gravity results from gravity weight moisture amp lack of cohesion in material soil creep most common slump mudflow earthflow solifluction lots of water lack of cohesion in soil landslide rockfall are all landscapes effects of mass wastingmovement Erosion movement of weathered material by water wind or glaciers fast moving agents carry debris slow moving agents deposit debris Erosion agents amp deposition form distinctive landforms running water fluvial landscape most impactful erosional agent nothing erodes more groundwater groundwater landscape glaciers glacial landscapes wind wind landscapes wavescurrents coastal landscape Running Water precipitation gt runoff gt river gt ocean river running water fluvial river landscapes that are created by rivers alluvium sediments deposited by running water Effectiveness depends on 0 amount of precipitation o slopelength 0 nature of soilrock amp vegetation cover Fluvial Landscapes Humid delta the end of a river where it dumps out oxbow lake silting occurs in a delta landscape Fluvial Landscapes Arid lack of vegetation greatly increases erosional force but due to temporary existence of running water erosional power is much less consistent landscapes can be created in dry areas such as mesa butte arroyo alluvial fan Groundwater Landscapes Aquifer rock body that holds groundwater Water table top of saturated zone Karst Topography sinkhole type landscape you can see the soil content is not very strong because sedimentary rock can easily crumblepockets of air are created because the limestone has been eroded away by the groundwater Glacial Landscapes Glacier large body of ice moving slowly down a slow Weight amp pressure of snow compact into ice amp constantly move Fjord main landscape that we see as a result of glaciated areas glaciers melt and it turns into an armextension of the sea Wind Landscapes Winddriven sand soil amp dust sculpts landscape Humid areas vegetation cover confines effect of wind to mainly beach areas Arid areas wind is a powerful agent of erosion amp deposition sand dunes massive or simply beach like loess silk deposition Coastal Landscapes waves the forcing agent for most coastal processes and landform development and change gt wind generates most waves erosional beaches large seastacks depositional beaches beaches where stuff sand is deposited flatwhite sanded basic beaches 92415 Weather short term conditions in the atmosphere temp moisture wind hourly daily weekly meteorology caused by the unequal heating of Earth s surface Climate long term changes in atmospheric conditions temp wind moisture years seasonal average climatology lnsolation amp Reflection land will absorb more radiation than waterclouds albedo degree of reflectivity of a surface Unequal Surface Heating continentally temp conditions more extreme land warms and cools rapidly marine temp conditions more moderate southern winter fewer daylight hours less direct light amp less heat southern summer more daylight hours more direct heat amp light angle of incidence based on the earth s rotation Layers of Atmosphere Troposphere lowest level of our atmosphere where all weather occurs highest pressures temp cools w altitude temp inversion at tropopause ceiling of the troposphere Atmospheric Pressure air pressure avg pressure at sea level 10133 mb not always constant varies w altitude amp temp What is weather Vertical movement of air caused by the unequal heating of the earth Rising air creates low pressure creates clouds precipitation Sinking air creates high pressure disperses clouds amp creates clear air Wind Speed Pressure gradient force 0 Air moves from high to low pressure Wind Direction Coriolis forceeffect earths rotation turns wind right in Northern Hemisphere Earths rotation turns wind left in southern hemisphere Wind Characteristics speed direction temp moisture Wind takes on the characteristics of the terrain over which it blows Wind Temp amp Moisture Warm air can hold more water vapor than cool air Humid air is lighter than dry air Relative humidity amount of water vapor in air compared to airs water vapor capacity at a given temp Dew point temp to which air must be cooled to form condensation Air mass a region of air with uniform temp and moisture characteristics 4 Lifting Mechanisms of weather Convergent lifting air comes together must go up the tropics Convectional lifting air rises from surface heating convectional thunderstorms are the popcorn ones that only last about an hour in SC early afternoon Orographic lifting mountains force air to rise rainshadow effect Frontal lifting warmer less dense air rises when air masses meet ITCZ InterTropical Convergence Zone storm gaining momentum looks like cauliflower when its weakening looks like cotton candy cold front cold air is dominant generally create violent thunderstorms warm front warm air is dominant not causing vast or violent thunderstorms Global Climate Weather vs Climate Weather always changing short term atmospheric conditions Climate very typical seasonal norms long term average weather conditions Climate is the normwhat you d expect but weather is what you get Geography Normal special patterns for types of weather Effect of normal weather patterns on PLACE Climate Controls factors influencing climate LAPDOG Latitude distance from equator Altitude elevation Prevailing wind wind horizontal movement of air Distance to Ocean landwatercooling differences Ocean Currents Great Mountain Barriers Climographs Shows monthly averages for temperature amp precipitation of a particular location Line temperature bars precipitation Koopen Climate Classification know the general climate regions map for test A Tropical climates represented in orange near the equator Rainforest plentiful rainfall yearround savanna dry summerwet winter more and longer dryer periods monsoon dry amp wet seasons more and longer wet periods virtually winterless rarely drop below 60 degrees Fahrenheit B desertdry areas 0 Desert huge daily temp swings little vegetation arid o steppe too dry for trees very short rainy season dry but not AS try as desert typically on borders of deserts o constant moisture deficit not enough precipitation C Mild Midlatitude climates Mesothermal humid subtropical wet in all seasons tropical summers shortmild winters Mediterranean mild winters amp summers slightly drier than humid subtropical Marine west coast warm summers cool winters More than half the human population resideshistorically where most food was produced easiest O O O O D Severe MidLatitude Climates Microthermal o humid continental severe winters warm summers 4 distinct seasons 0 subarctic very severe winters cool summers 0 most variation in temperaturesseasonality Epolar climates o Tundra very low temps permafrost ground is frozen solid 0 glacier very low temps continental or alpine glaciers o basically summer less rarely gets any warmer than 50 degrees Fahrenheit Hhighland climates Microclimates altitudinal zonation the further upout you go the climate is going to chance 0 on avg every 1000 ft difference in elevation the temp is going to cool 36 degrees Fahrenheit Koppen studied what vegetation exists where goes hand in hand wclimate classified based on temp amp precipitation uses letters to broadly define climatic zones know AH vegetation is an indicator of temp amp moisture ACDE all based on temperature H was not in the original classification complex local variations 8 odd one out based on moisture efficiency and temperature but primarily based on its lack of moisture SC s climate Humid subtropical Cfa c mild mid lat fno dry season a hot summer Volcanic Activity Happens on a natural basis Changes the temp of planet cools it down despite what people think Variations in EarthSun Relations earth orbitstiltsearth wobbles 235 degrees earth s tilt41000 year cycle OOO What will happen in the future Hurricanes Tropical cyclones increase intensityfrequency Precipitation increase in high latitudes and decrease in tropics ArticAntarctic ice reduction Sea level rise due to melting ice Increasing temps especially in higher latitude terrestrial 10115 Hazards amp Disasters Hazard any large scale natural or manmade event that is POTENTIALLY harmful Disaster a losscausing event that impacts human systems hazard people disaster actually taking placealready happened Tornado flash flooding earthquakes etc examples of disaster Severe thunderstorm lightening wind freezing rain avalanche blizzard etc examples of hazards Vulnerability Place Vulnerability susceptibility to harm from hazards Exposure severity biophysical characteristics Magnitude how bad is it maximumepicenter ex Richter scale earthquakes lntensity how strongbad did it actually feel here Ex Mercalli scale earthquakes M speed of onset how much warning M duration how long does the event last ReoccurrenceSize frequency how often does it happen ReoccurrenceSize areal extent how widespread was the impact Can effect other aspects of life insurance ratesflood insurance on rent etc Sensitivity human characteristics Factors that influence sensitivity Age Housing tenure owner vs renter renter more vulnerable Raceethnicity majority vs minority majority always less vulnerable than minority Language barrier gender females more vulnerable lncome Employment agriculture services people who are self employed are going to be less vulnerable than those who always have to go into work 0 Medical dependence Medicare insurance special needs 0 Access to car hurricane Katrina RiskLoss Risk likelihood of loss numerical Ex losses property crops death injury Emergency Management Disaster Cycle Preparation Evacuation stockpiling protecting property 0000000 000000 Prepositioning support teams SHORT fuse Response Rescue operations Providing water food medical care etc Mitigation Reducing susceptibility to future disasters Resilience The ability to withstand future disasters and maintain functionality Sustainability Belief that current development actions should minimize future risks A Hazards approach Hurricane Dynamics Hurricane an intense rotating tropical convective weather system with sustained winds over 74 mph Warm ocean water mT air gt energy temps gt 70 degrees F Coriolis effect gt spinning motion Where do they occur Tropicssubtropics Storm surge abnormal water rise generated by a hurricanes winds and low pressure this is the most destructive part of the hurricane Hurricane Impact heavy rainfall flooding tropical cyclone tornados Mid Latitudes Cyclone Noreaster Power outages freezing rain heavy snow Know Hazard v Disaster Exposure Sensitivity vulnerability Losses Mitigation to reduce impacts Recoveryresilience
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