Exam 2 notes 9/21-10/2
Exam 2 notes 9/21-10/2 KINE 2330 - 002
Popular in Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries
Popular in Kinesiology
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Celeste Mancinas on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KINE 2330 - 002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Roy Rudewick in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries in Kinesiology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Blood borne pathogens microorganisms that cases disease 0 Present in human blood and bodily fluid 0 Most significant Hepatitis B and C virus HBV and HCV Have higher possibilities of spreading Human immunodeficiency virus HIV HBV Spread though sharp objects open wounds and bodily fluids Swelling soreness loss of normal liver function Infection rate increased dramatically in the last 10 years Con survive for 23 weeks in dried blood Signs Flulike symptoms Fatigue weakness nausea headaches fever jaundice yellowing of the skin Can go undetected 0 Prevention Good personal hygiene Avoid high risk activities Vaccine 3 shots over 6 months HCV OOOOO Acute and chronic form of liver disease 67 of HCV infections result in liver disease Most common blood borne infection Spread by contact with infection blood Common in tattoo parlors Signs Jaundice and dark urine Mild abdominal pain URQ loss appetite nausea fatigue Muscle or joint pain 0 Prevention Follow routine barrier precautions Safely handle needles and sharp objects No vaccine OOOOOO HIV Family of viruses that invade normal healthy cells Destroys immune system Transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids Signs Fatigue weight loss muscle or joint pain Painful or swollen glands night sweats fever High risk of developing AIDS No protection against simplest infections OOOO 0 Prevention Understand the risks of certain behaviors Make educated and safe choices 0 Management No vaccine No cure Research is being done with 39drug cocktails39 mixing up of different drugs that counteract certain symptoms Blood borne pathogens in athletics 0 Americans with disability acts athletes with HIV cannot be discriminated against 0 Those at greatest risk are sports that involve close physical contact and direct contact with blood Examples boxing wrestling rugby mixed martial arts mma Universal Precautions o 1991 OSHA guidelines to protect health care provider and patient minimize risk of exposure and transmission All open skin wounds must be covered prior to practice game Athletes with active bleeding must be removed from participation Uniforms must be cleaned andchanged before returning to play 0 Magic Johnson Lakers player with HIV Personal precautions 0 Personal protective equipment PPE Disposable gloves gown aprons masks shields eye protection 0 Wash hands and skin surfaces that came in contact with blood immediately with soap and water antigermicide Supplies and equipment 0 Proper receptacles with biohazard warning labels 0 Designated container for sharp disposal Leak proof and puncture resistant o Disinfectants bleach antiseptics Contaminated surfaces clean with one part bleach to 10 parts water or with approved disinfectant Soiled laundry 0 Towels and clothes should be separated from other laundry 0 Hot water with detergent that deactivates virus 0 Gloves should be worn while handing laundry Caring for skin wounds 0 Wound trauma to tissue that causes break in the continuity of that tissue 0 Types of wounds Abrasion skin scraped against rough surface exposes capillaries Do bleed sometimes but not much Ex turf burns Lacerations sharp of points object that tears the tissue jagged edge Incision blow has been delivered over sharp bone smooth edge Puncture wounds direct penetration by pointed object Refer immediately to the ER with large objects Do not take the object out if it is large Avulsion wounds skin is torn away from the body Associated with major bleeding Caring for skin wounds 0 Consider to be contaminated 0 Must be cleaned medicated and dressed o Soap and water or sterile saline solution to clean initially 0 Clean from the inside to the outside 0 Do NOT use alcohol lt burns because it kills skin cells So does H202 the foam dried up that wound Wound care 0 Sterile dressing with topical antibiotic ointment should be used 0 Sutures stitches decision should be made within 12 hours Signs of wound infection 0 Pain 0 Heat 0 Redness o Swelling 0 Disordered function 0 Pus accumulation o Fever 0 Tetanus Bacterial infection causes fever and convulsions Tetanus booster every 10 years Emergency care of the injured athlete depends on o The initial evaluation 0 Members of sports medicine team acting reasonably and prudently at all times 0 A prearranged plan that can be implemented on a moment39s notice emergency action plan or EAP Components of the emergency action plan EAP 0 separate plans should be developed for each facility Outline personnel and role Emergency Team Identify necessary equipment Availability of phones and access to 911 Procedure for activating EMS Maps amp directions for access to facility Procedure for documenting a medical emergency Roles within the Emergency Team 0 Immediate care of the athlete o Retrieval of emergency of equipment 0 Activation of EMS 0 Meet amp direct EMS Emergency Equipment 0 Specific to venue Spine board rigid cervical collars facemask removal tools CPR masks vacuum splints crutches AED emergency oxygen with mask Activating EMS 0 Individual calling medical personnel must relay the following Name of caller type of emergency suspected injury present condition current care being provided location of phone being used location of emergency Other Factors to be Considered 0 Keys to gateslocks must be easily accessible 0 Key facility and school administrators must be aware of emergency action plans and be aware of specific roles 0 Individual should be assigned to accompany athlete to hospital Cooperation between Emergency Care Providers 0 Cooperation and professionalism is a must Athletic trainer generally has more training and experience transporting athlete than physician EMT has final say in transportation athletic trainer assumes assistive role 0 To avoid problems all individuals involved in plan should practice to familiarize themselves with all procedures including equipment management Parent Notification 0 When athlete is a minor care giver should try to obtain consent from parent prior to emergency treatment 0 Consent indicates that parent is aware of the situation is aware of what the caregiver wants to do and parental permission is granted to treat specific condition 0 When unobtainable predetermined wishes of parentprovided at start of school year are enacted 0 With no informed consent consent implied on part of athlete to save athlete39s life Principles of OntheField Injury Assessment 0 Determine nature of injury 0 Provides information regarding direction of treatment o Divided into primary and secondary survey Two people knocked out one passes out other broken bone take care of unconscious person Dealing with the Unconscious 0 Note body position and level of conscious Athlete 0 Check and establish airway breathing circulation ABC 0 Assume cervical spine injury until proven otherwise o If prone and not breathing log roll and establish ABC39s o If prone and breathing nothing should be done until consciousness resumes then carefully log roll and continue to monitor ABC39s 0 Life support should be monitored and maintain until emergency personnel arrive 0 Once stabilized a secondary survey should be performed Primary Survey 0 Caregiver must be able to triage injuries 0 Life threatening injuries take precedents Those injuries requiring CPR profuse bleeding and shock 0 Establish unresponsiveness Gently shake and ask athlete quotAre you okayquot If no response EMS should be activated and positioning of body should be noted and adjusted in the event CPR is necessary 0 Equipment Considerations Equipment may compromise lifesaving efforts but removal may compromised situation further Facemask should be removed with appropriate clip cutters Anvil Pruner Trainer39s Angel FM Extractor Use of pocket maskbarrier mandated by OSHA during CPR to avoid exposure to bloodborne pathogens Review of CPR o ABCD39s of CPR A airway opened B breathing restored C circulation restored D defibrillator Generally when A is restored B amp C will follow Secondary Survey 0 Performed once lifethreatening condition ruled out o Gathers specific information about injury 0 Assess vital sign and perform more detailed evaluation of conditions that don39t pose lifethreatening consequences Opening the Airway o Headtilt chin lift method 0 Push down on the forehead and lifting the jaw moves the tongue from the back of the throat o Modified technique can be used when neck injury is suspected o Modified jaw thrust maneuver Establishing Breathing 0 Look listen and feel 0 Take deep breath administer 2 slow breaths raise chest 152quot o If breath doesn39t go in retilt and ventilate o If breath sill does not go in 30 chest compressions and look for object in airway 0 OSHA requires the use of protective barrier when administering CPR Administering CPR 0 Locate margin of ribs and xiphoid process of sternum 0 Two fingers width above xiphoid process place heal of hand on lower portion of sternum 0 Place other hand on top with fingers parallel of interlocked 0 Keep elbows locked with shoulders directly above patient 0 Compress chest 152quot 30 times per 2 breaths 0 After 5 cycles reassess pulse if not present continue cycle Obstructed Airway Management 0 Choking is a possibility in many activities 0 Mouth pieces broken dental work tongue gum blood clots from head and facial trauma and vomit can obstruct the airway 0 When obstructed individual cannot breath speak or cough and may become cyanotic BluePurple skin color 0 The Heimlich maneuver can be used to clear the airway Heimlich Maneuver Airway Obstruction Management o If athlete becomes unconscious open airway and attempt to ventilate o If airway still obstructed 0 Index finger should be inserted along cheek AED Device that evaluates heart rhythms of victims experiencing cardiac arrest 0 Can deliver electrical charge to the heart 0 Fully automated minimal training required 0 Electrodes are placed at the left apex and right base of chest when turned on machine indicates if and when defribilation necessary Control of Hemorrhage o Arterial venous capillary internal or external bleeding Venous dark red with continuous flow Capillary exudes from tissue and is reddish Arterial flows in spurts and is bright red 0 Universal precautions must be taken to reduce risk of blood borne pathogens exposure External Bleeding 0 Direct pressure firm pressure hand and sterile gauze placed directly over site of injury against the bone 0 Elevation 0 Pressure points eleven points on either side of body where direct pressure is applied to slow bleeding Internal Bleeding 0 Can occur beneath skin bruise or contusion intramuscularly or in joint with little danger o Bleeding within body cavity could result in life Shock 0 Generally occurs with severe bleeding fracture or internal injuries 0 Result in decrease in blood available in circulatory system 0 Movement of blood cells 0 Signs and symptoms Moost pale cold clammy skin Weak rapid pulse increasing shallow respiration decreased blood pressure Urinary retention 0 Management Maintain body temperature Keep them calm Limit onlookers and spectators Resassure athlete Do not give anything by mouth water Immediate Treatment 0 Primary goal is to limit swelling and extent of hemorrhage o If controlled initially 0 Control via RICE Rest stresses and strains must be removed following lce initial treatment of acute injuries Used for strains sprains contusions and inflammatory conditions Applied initially for 20 minutes and then repeated every 1 1 12 hrs and continue for at least the first 4872 hrs of injury Treatment must last at least 20 minutes to provide adequate tissue cooling Should not be left on overnight because of Hunting Response Compression decreases space allowed for swelling to accumulate Important adjunct to elevation and cryotherapy and may be most important component Ace wraps foam cut to fit specific areas for focal compression Should be maintained daily Do not leave overnight the wrap will hold the swelling because of lower heart rate Elevation Reduces internal bleeding due to forces of gravity Prevents pooling of blood and aids in drainage Greater elevation Emergency Splinting 0 Should always splint a suspected fracture before moving wo proper immobilization o SAM splint Inexpensive for different body parts can change 0 Rapid form immobilizer Soft splint Styrofoam chips sealed in tight airspaces 0 Lower limb splitting Fractures of foot and ankle require splinting of foot and knee 0 Upper Limb splinting Sling is acceptable Should be leveled straight Moving injured athletes 0 Must be executed with techniques that will not result in additional injury 0 No excuse for bad 0 Placing on spine board EMS should be contacted if this will be required Must maintain head and neck in alignment of long axis of the body 0 Ambulatory Aid Support or assistance provided to injured individual Arms of athlete are draped over shoulders of assistants with their arms encircling hisher back Can walk 0 Manual Conveyance Move injured athlete a greater distance because they cannot walk 0 Stretcher Carrying Best and safest mode of transport With all segments supported athlete is lifted and placed gently on stretcher Careful examination is required if stretcher needed May be necessary if athlete can39t be transported comfortably in seated position Proper Fit and Use of Crutch or Cane o Fitting athlete Athlete should stand with food posture in flat soled shoes Crutches should be placed 6quot from outer margin of shoe and 2quot in front Crutch should fall 1quot below anterior fold of axilla Hand brace should be positioned to place elbow at 30 degrees of flexion Cane measurement should be taken from height of greater trochanter 0 Walking with Cane or Crutch lnjured leg moves with the crutches Step with injured leg and crutches first followed by uninjured leg Crutch walking follows a progression Nonweight bearing NWB to touch down weight bearing TDWB partial PWB and full weight bearing FWB When using cane or crutch support should be held on uninvolved side Ex Right leg is hurt crutch goes on left side opposite side test Ascending stairs Good leg first followed by injured leg and crutches 39 Good to heaven Descending stairs Bad leg and crutch down first followed by good leg Bad to hell Therapy types 0 Cryotherapy therapeutic use of cold to treat injuries ice packs cups baths etc o Thermotherapy use of heat to treat hot packs whirlpool gels and lotions ultrasound o Pharmacologic agents medication designed to prevent swelling lce Factoids 0 Human tissue freezes at 25 degrees F 0 Ice bags reach a temperature of 32 degrees F 0 Ice decreases the amount of waste products and unnecessary destruction of healthy cells 0 Ice decreases the metabolic activity oxygen requirements and allows healthy cells to survive The Physics of Sport Injury 0 Compression inward pushing force knee to the quad o Tensile outward pulling force hamstring strain 0 Shear forces to displace layers parallel to one another knee sprain Inflammatory Response 0 Designed to protect the body from further injury 0 Last 34 days 0 Construction site anal Construction and Injury 0 1st step implosion injury 0 2nd step barricades for debris removal swelling destroys injured tissue amp protects the area 0 3rd step new construction new cell formation that leads to new tissue formation River Theory to Treatment 0 Icing an injury allows for a controlled volume of blood that goes to the area 0 This facilitates healing by removing the damaged cells so that new healthy cell growth may proceed Thermotherapy 0 Should not be applied during the inflammatory phase of injury 0 After 34 days tissue can handle increase of blood flow that thermotherapy bnngs Pharmacologic Agents 0 Steroids o NSAIDS Nonsteroidal AntiInflammatory Drugs Aspirin Ibuprofen naproxen 0 Tylenol doesn39t reduce swelling Exercise Rehabilitation 0 Has evolved over time 0 Tissue regeneration requires 2 3 weeks 0 Properly strengthen and remodel the tissue
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